Prut

Last updated
Prut
Porata, Pyretus
Prut near Hoverla.jpg
Prut river.jpg
Map of the Prut River
Location
Country Ukraine, Romania, Moldova
Oblasts/
Counties/
Districts
Ukraine: Ivano-Frankivsk O.,
Chernivtsi O.
Romania: Botoșani C., Iași C.,
Vaslui C., Galați C.
Moldova Briceni D., Edineț D.,
Rîșcani D., Glodeni D., Fălești D.,
Ungheni D., Nisporeni D.,
Hîncești D., Leova D., Cantemir D.,
Cahul D.
Cities Kolomyia, Chernivtsi, Ungheni,
Leova, Cahul
Physical characteristics
Source Carpathian Mountains
  locationMt. Hoverla, Ivano-Frankivsk O., Ukraine
Mouth Danube
  location
Giurgiulești, Romania/Moldova
  coordinates
45°28′8″N28°12′28″E / 45.46889°N 28.20778°E / 45.46889; 28.20778 Coordinates: 45°28′8″N28°12′28″E / 45.46889°N 28.20778°E / 45.46889; 28.20778
Length953 km (592 mi)
Basin size27,540 km2 (10,630 sq mi)
Discharge 
  average110 m3/s (3,900 cu ft/s)
Basin features
Progression DanubeBlack Sea
Tributaries 
  right Cheremosh, Jijia
Official namePrut River Headwaters
Designated20 March 2019
Reference no.2395 [1]

The Prut (also spelled in English as Pruth; Romanian pronunciation:  [prut] , Ukrainian : Прут) is a 953 km (592 mi) long river in Eastern Europe. [2] It is a left tributary of the Danube. [3] [4] In part of its course it forms Romania's border with Moldova and Ukraine.

Contents

Characteristics

The Prut originates on the eastern slope of Mount Hoverla, in the Carpathian Mountains in Ukraine (Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast). At first, the river flows to the north. Near Yaremche it turns to the northeast, and near Kolomyia to the south-east. Having reached the border between Moldova and Romania, it turns even more to the south-east, and then to the south. It eventually joins the Danube near Giurgiulești, east of Galați and west of Reni.

Between 1918 and 1939, the river was partly in Poland and partly in Greater Romania (Romanian: România Mare). Prior to World War I, it served as a border between Romania and the Russian Empire. After World War II, the river once again demarcated a border, this time between Romania and the Soviet Union. Nowadays, for a length of 31 km, it forms the border between Romania and Ukraine, and for 711 km, it forms the border between Romania and Moldova. [2] It has a hydrographic basin of 27,540 km2, [5] of which 10,990 km2 are in Romania [4] and 7,790 km2 in Moldova. The largest city along its banks is Chernivtsi, Ukraine.

The Stânca-Costești Dam, operated jointly by Moldova and Romania, is built on the Prut. There is also a Hydro-Electric Station in Sniatyn, (Ukraine). Ships travel from the river's mouth to the port city of Leova (southern Moldova).

The lowermost part of the basin is strongly marshy. The average discharge at its mouth is 110 m3/s (3,900 cu ft/s). [5] The average discharge at the city of Leova is 69.2 m³/s. The slope of the river varies from 100 m / km (near the source) to 0.05 m / km (near the mouth). In the upper reaches (to Delyatyn) it has a mountainous character, with a steep right bank, sometimes the cross-sectional profile of the channel has the form of a ridge. Near the city of Yaremche is the waterfall of Probiy.

About the name

The Prut was known in Antiquity as the Pyretus (Ancient Greek Πυρετός), or Scythian Porata (possibly), [6] Hierasus (Ἱερασός) or Gerasius. [7] Herodotus lists the Prut, under the name of Porata or Pyretus, as being among the five rivers flowing through the Scythian country which swell the Danube. [8] In the second volume of the Ottoman-Bulgarian chronicles of Iman "Jagfar Tarihi" (1680) the Prut River is referred to as Burat. And in the Byzantine treatise of Constantine Porphyrogennetos "On the management of the empire" it is mentioned as the Brut river (Chap. 38) or as Burat (Chapter 42).

Towns

The following towns are situated along the river Prut, from source to mouth: Yaremche, Deliatyn, Lanchyn, Kolomyia, Sniatyn, Chernivtsi, Novoselytsia, Darabani, Lipcani, Ungheni, Leova, Cantemir and Cahul

Tributaries

The following rivers are tributaries to the river Prut (source to mouth): [4]

Left: Turka, Chorniava, Sovytsia, Rokytna, Rynhach, Cherlena, Larga (Briceni), Vilia, Lopatnic, Racovăț, Ciuhur, Camenca, Delia, Nârnova, Lăpușna, Sărata, Larga (Cantemir)

Right: Pistynka, Rybnytsia, Cheremosh, Derelui, Hertsa, Poiana, Cornești, Isnovăț, Rădăuți, Ghireni, Volovăț, Badu, Bașeu, Corogea, Berza Veche, Râioasa, Soloneț, Cerchezoaia, Jijia, Bohotin, Moșna, Pruteț, Gârla Boul Bătrân, Copăceana, Belciug, Elan, Horincea, Oancea, Stoeneșa, Brănești, Chineja

Historical events

Alexandros Ypsilantis crosses the Pruth [in 1822] by Peter von Hess, Benaki Museum, Athens. AlexanderYpsilantisPruth.jpg
Alexandros Ypsilantis crosses the Pruth [in 1822] by Peter von Hess, Benaki Museum, Athens.

In 1538, the Ottoman army of Suleiman the Magnificent crossed Prut during the campaign of Karaboğdan. [9]

During the Russo-Turkish War of 1710–1711, on 19 July 1711 Russian forces initially divided among Peter the Great's army on the west bank and Boris Sheremetev's army on the east bank of the Pruth and allied with Dimitrie Cantemir, the ruler of Moldova, met with the Ottoman army led by Grand Vizier Baltaci Mehmed Pasha. The Turks and Crimean Tatars attacked first against Sheremetev, who then retreated to the other side to join Peter the Great. Afterwards the Russian army set up a defensive camp between Stănilești and the river, which was then completely surrounded by the Ottoman army. Negotiations started on 21 July 1711 and the Treaty of the Prut was signed on 23 July 1711. After this treaty, Dimitrie Cantemir had to go in exile at Moscow. This treaty means the end of local dynasties of kings and inauguration of Greek rulers from the Fanar Qunarter of Istanbul (Phanariotes).

A bit more than a century later, in 1821, the Greek Nationalist leader Alexander Ypsilantis crossed the Prut river at Sculeni, with the intention of touching off a rebellion in the Danubian Principalities. Though the Wallachian uprising ultimately failed - due especially to irreconcilable differences between Ypsilantis and his Wallachian ally Tudor Vladimirescu - it did touch off the Greek War of Independence, leading to the Kingdom of Greece gaining independence ten years later. In the Principalities it led to the end of the aforementioned Greek Phanariote rule, and indirectly to increasing self-government and eventually to the independence of Romania several decades later. In Greek history, Ypsilantis' crossing of the Prut is an important historical event, commemorated in a famous painting displayed at Athens.

Sydir Vorobkevych: Within that Prut Valley (Над Прутом у лузі). [10]

Within that Prut Valley a cabin rests close
In which lives a lassie—a beautiful rose:
Her eyes like the bright stars that lighten the sky;
When you see them, laddie, you'll pause with a sigh.

Within that Prut Valley the moon does not shine,
'Tis only a lover has come to his shrine.
A sweet conversation in murmur now goes
While dreamy old river just quietly flows.

Within that Prut Valley the flowers are plucked
And wreathes for the wedding with myrtle are tucked;
Inside of the cabin play fiddles and bass
While friends sing together: To their Happiness!
Translated by Waldimir Semenyna (13 October 1933, Ukrainian Weekly ).

Bridges

See also

Related Research Articles

Geography of Moldova

Located in Eastern Europe, Moldova is bordered on the west and southwest by Romania and on the north, south, and east by Ukraine. Most of its territory lies between the area's two main rivers, the Nistru and the Prut. The Nistru forms a small part of Moldova's border with Ukraine in the northeast and southeast, but it mainly flows through the eastern part of the country, separating Bessarabia and Transnistria. The Prut River forms Moldova's entire western boundary with Romania. The Danube touches the Moldovan border at its southernmost tip, and forms the border for 200 m (656 ft).

In 1995, the main means of transportation in Moldova were railways and a highway system. The major railway junctions are Chișinău, Bender, Ungheni, Ocnița, Bălți, and Basarabeasca. Primary external rail links connect the republic's network with Odessa on the Black Sea and with the Romanian cities of Iași and Galați; they also lead northward into Ukraine. Highways link Moldova's main cities and provide the chief means of transportation within the country, but roads are in poor repair. The country's major airport is in Chișinău.

Bessarabia Historical region in present-day Moldova and Ukraine

Bessarabia is a historical region in Eastern Europe, bounded by the Dniester river on the east and the Prut river on the west. About two thirds of Bessarabia lies within modern-day Moldova, with the Ukrainian Budjak region covering the southern coastal region and part of the Ukrainian Chernivtsi Oblast covering a small area in the north.

Galați County County of Romania

Galați is a county (județ) of Romania, in Moldavia region, with the capital city at Galați.

Vaslui County County of Romania

Vaslui County is a county (județ) of Romania, in the historical region Western Moldavia, with the seat at Vaslui.

Pruth River Campaign

The Russo-Ottoman War of 1710–11, also known as the Pruth River Campaign after the main event of the war, erupted as a consequence of the defeat of Sweden by the Russian Empire in the Battle of Poltava in the summer of 1709 and the escape of the wounded King Charles XII of Sweden and his large retinue to the Ottoman fortress of Bender. Sultan Ahmed III declined incessant Russian demands for Charles's eviction, prompting Tsar Peter I of Russia to attack the Ottoman Empire, which in its turn declared war on Russia on 20 November 1710. Concurrently with these events, the Prince Dimitrie Cantemir of Moldavia and Tsar Peter signed the Treaty of Lutsk, by which Moldavia pledged to support Russia in its war against the Ottomans with troops and by allowing the Russian army to cross its territory and place garrisons in Moldavian fortresses. After having gathered near the Moldavian capital Iași, the combined Russo-Moldavian army started on 11 July the march southwards along the Prut River with the intention of crossing the Danube and invading the Balkan peninsula.

Cahul District District in Republic of Moldova

Cahul is a district in the south of Moldova, with the administrative center at Cahul. As of January 2014 estimates, Cahul District had a population of 124,700.

Cantemir District District in Republic of Moldova

Cantemir is a district in the south of Moldova, with the administrative center at Cantemir. As of January 1, 2011, its population was 62,800.

Trajans Wall

Trajan's Wall is the name used for several linear earthen fortifications (valla) found across Eastern Europe, in Moldova, Romania, and Ukraine. Contrary to the name and popular belief, the ramparts were not built by Romans during Trajan's reign, but during other imperial periods. Furthermore, the association with the Roman Emperor may be a recent scholarly invention, only entering the imagination of the locals with the national awakening of the 19th century. Medieval Moldavian documents referred to the earthworks as Troian, likely in reference to a mythological hero in the Romanian and Slavic folklore. The other major earthen fortification in Romania, Brazda lui Novac, is also named after a mythological hero.

Leova Place in Moldova

Leova is a city in Moldova, located 92 km southwest of the national capital, Chișinău. It is the administrative center of Leova District. The city is situated on the east bank of the river Prut bordering Romania.

Treaty of the Pruth

The Treaty of the Pruth was signed on the banks of the river Pruth between the Ottoman Empire and the Tsardom of Russia on 23 July 1711 ending the Russo-Turkish War of 1710–1711. The treaty was a political victory for Ottoman Empire.

Giurgiulești Commune and village in Cahul District, Moldova

Giurgiulești is a commune in the Cahul District of Moldova. It is also a border crossing point to Romania, located 10 km (6.2 mi) from Galați.

Lower Danube (Euroregion)

Lower Danube Euroregion is a Euroregion located in Romania, Republic of Moldova and Ukraine. The administrative center is Galați. In 2009 the Association for Cross-Border Cooperation "Lower Danube Euroregion" was created, having its headquarters in Galați. In December 2009, the Presidency of this Euroregion was transferred to Galați County for the next period. Since December 2012, the Euroregion Presidency is assumed by Tulcea County Council.

Upper Trajans Wall

The Upper Trajan's Wall is the modern name given to a fortification located in the central area of modern Moldavia. Some scholars consider it to be of Roman origin, while others think it was built in the third/fourth century by the Germanic Greuthungi to defend their borders against the Huns. It may also have been called Greuthungian Wall in later Roman accounts, but this is uncertain owing to a single polysemic manuscript occurrence in the works of Ammianus Marcellinus.

Calea Ferată din Moldova

Calea Ferată din Moldova is the sole railway operator in the Republic of Moldova, responsible for passenger and cargo transportation, as well as railway infrastructure maintenance within the country. The total length of the network managed by CFM is 1,232 kilometres (766 mi), of which 1,218 kilometres (757 mi) are 1,520 mm, and 14 kilometres (8.7 mi) are 1,435 mm. The entire network is single track and is not electrified. It borders the Romanian railway network, with a 1,520 mm /1,435 mm break-of-gauge in the west, and the Ukrainian one in the east.

Moldova–Romania border

The Moldova–Romania border is the international border between Moldova and Romania, established after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. It is a fluvial boundary, following the course of the Prut and Danube. The boundary is 681.3 kilometres long, including 570 metres (1,870 ft) along the Danube.

Colibași, Cahul Village in Cahul District, Moldova

Colibași is a village within Cahul District, southwest of Moldova. The village is located adjacent to the border of Romania, some 35 km (22 mi) to the north of Galați.

The Port of Giurgiulești is a port on the Danube River and the only port in Moldova. It is also a port on Prut River.

Cahul County (Romania) County in Romania

Cahul County was a county of the Kingdom of Romania, in the historical region of Bessarabia, the successor of Cahul County.

Ialpug

The Ialpug is a river that crosses Moldova and the Odessa Oblast of Ukraine. It rises in the vicinity of the village Tomai, Leova District), flows in the south direction in parallel with the Prut, Cimișlia District, Gagauzia, Taraclia District, then Bolhrad Raion in Ukraine and flow into Lake Yalpuh near the city of Bolhrad.

References

  1. "Prut River Headwaters". Ramsar Sites Information Service. Retrieved 10 September 2019.
  2. 1 2 O. Islam, A. Savin, T. Belous (December 2006). "Prut River Basin Management - Case Study" (PDF). Centre for Environmentally Sustainable Economic Policy. p. 15.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  3. "Planul național de management. Sinteza planurilor de management la nivel de bazine/spații hidrografice, anexa 7.1" (PDF, 5.1 MB). Administrația Națională Apele Române. 2010. pp. 1022–1024.
  4. 1 2 3 Atlasul cadastrului apelor din România. Partea 1 (in Romanian). Bucharest: Ministerul Mediului. 1992. pp. 445–463. OCLC   895459847. River code: XIII.1
  5. 1 2 Danube River Basin District, Part A - Roof Report, IPCDR, p 12
  6. Herodotus, translated by Thomas Gaisford and edited by Peter Edmund Laurent, The Nine Books of the History of Herodotus, Henry Slatter 1846, p. 299
  7. Peter Heather, The Goths, Blackwell Publishing, 1998, p. 100
  8. "Perseus Under Philologic: Hdt. 4.48.1". perseus.uchicago.edu.
  9. "Who is Mimar Sinan?". RayHaber | RaillyNews. July 24, 2020.
  10. "1933" The Ukrainian Weekly 1933-02.pdf (in English)