Ptolemaic Empire, circa 300 BC
|Country||Ancient Egypt, Macedonia, Mauretania|
|Founder||Ptolemy I Soter|
|Final ruler|| Ptolemy XV (Egypt), |
Cleopatra VII (Egypt)
|Titles||Pharaoh, King of Macedonia, King of Mauretania|
|Estate(s)||Egypt, Cyrenaica, Cyprus, Canaan|
|Periods and Dynasties of Ancient Egypt|
All years are BC
The Ptolemaic dynasty ( // ; Ancient Greek : Πτολεμαῖοι, Ptolemaioi), sometimes also known as the Lagids ( // ) or Lagidae ( // ; Λαγίδαι, Lagidai, after Lagus, Ptolemy I's father), was a Macedonian Greek royal family, which ruled the Ptolemaic Kingdom in Egypt during the Hellenistic period. Their rule lasted for 275 years, from 305 to 30 BC. They were the last dynasty of ancient Egypt.
Ptolemy, one of the seven somatophylakes (bodyguards) of Macedon who served as Alexander the Great's generals and deputies, was appointed satrap of Egypt after Alexander's death in 323 BC. In 305 BC, he declared himself Ptolemy I, later known as Sōter "Saviour". The Egyptians soon accepted the Ptolemies as the successors to the pharaohs of independent Egypt. Ptolemy's family ruled Egypt until the Roman conquest of 30 BC.
Like the earlier dynasties of ancient Egypt, the Ptolemaic dynasty practiced inbreeding including sibling marriage, but this did not start in earnest until nearly a century into the dynasty's history.All the male rulers of the dynasty took the name Ptolemy, while queens regnant were all called Cleopatra, Arsinoe or Berenice. The most famous member of the line was the last queen, Cleopatra VII, known for her role in the Roman political battles between Julius Caesar and Pompey, and later between Octavian and Mark Antony. Her apparent suicide at the conquest by Rome marked the end of Ptolemaic rule in Egypt.
Dates in brackets represent the regnal dates of the Ptolemaic pharaohs. They frequently ruled jointly with their wives, who were often also their sisters. Several queens exercised regal authority. Of these, one of the last and most famous was Cleopatra ("Cleopatra VII Philopator", 51–30 BC), with her two brothers and her son serving as successive nominal co-rulers. Several systems exist for numbering the later rulers; the one used here is the one most widely employed by modern scholars.
|Lagus of Eordea, Macedon||Arsinoe of Macedon|
| Ptolemy I|
(Kg 303–282 BC)
|Arsinoe II|| Ptolemy II|
(Kg. 285–246 BC)
|Arsinoe I|| Magas|
| Ptolemy III|
(Kg. 246–221 BC)
| Ptolemy IV|
(Kg. 221–203 BC)
| Ptolemy V|
(Kg. 203–181 BC)
| Cleopatra I|
| Ptolemy VI|
(Kg. 181–164 BC,
| Cleopatra II |
(Qn. 131–127 BC)
| Ptolemy VIII|
(Kg. 170–163 BC,
| Ptolemy VII|
| Cleopatra III |
(Qn, 116–101 BC)
|Cleopatra IV|| Ptolemy IX|
(Kg. 116–107 BC,
as Soter II 88–81 BC)
| Ptolemy X|
(Kg. 107–88 BC)
| Ptolemy XII|
(Kg. 80–58 BC,
| Berenice III |
(Qn. 81–80 BC)
| Ptolemy XI|
(Kg. 80 BC,
for 19 days)
| Cleopatra V |
(Qn. 58–55 BC)
| Cleopatra VI |
(Qn. 58 BC)
| Berenice IV |
(Qn. 58–55 BC)
| Ptolemy XIII|
(Kg. 51–47 BC)
| Cleopatra VII|
(Qn. 51–30 BC)
| Ptolemy XIV |
(Kg. 47–44 BC)
| Arsinoe IV |
(Qn. 48–47 BC)
| Ptolemy XV|
(Kg. 44–30 BC)
| Ptolemy |
| Ptolemy of |
|Detailed Ptolemaic family tree|
In continuation of the tradition established by previous Egyptian dynasties, the Ptolemies engaged in inbreeding including sibling marriage, with many of the pharaohs being married to their siblings and often co-ruling with them. Ptolemy I and other early rulers of the dynasty were not married to their relatives, the childless marriage of siblings Ptolemy II and Arsinoe IIbeing an exception. The first child-producing incestuous marriage in the Ptolemaic dynasty was that of Ptolemy IV and Arsinoe III, who were succeeded as co-pharaohs by their son Ptolemy V, born 210 BC. The most famous Ptolemaic pharaoh, Cleopatra VII, was at different times married to and reigning with two of her brothers (Ptolemy XIII until 47 BC and then Ptolemy XIV until 44 BC), and their parents were likely siblings or possibly cousins as well.
Contemporaries describe a number of the Ptolemaic dynasty members as extremely obese,whilst sculptures and coins reveal prominent eyes and swollen necks. Familial Graves' disease could explain the swollen necks and eye prominence (exophthalmos), although this is unlikely to occur in the presence of morbid obesity. This is all likely due to inbreeding within the Ptolemaic dynasty. In view of the familial nature of these findings, members of this dynasty likely suffered from a multi-organ fibrotic condition such as Erdheim–Chester disease or a familial multifocal fibrosclerosis where thyroiditis, obesity and ocular proptosis may have all occurred concurrently.
Arsinoë II was a Ptolemaic queen and co-regent of the Ptolemaic Kingdom of ancient Egypt.
Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator was one of the last members of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Egypt. He was the son of Ptolemy XII and the brother of and co-ruler with Cleopatra VII. Cleopatra's exit from Egypt caused a civil war to break out between the pharaohs. Ptolemy later ruled jointly with his other sister, Arsinoe IV.
Ptolemy I Soter was a companion and historian of Alexander the Great of the Kingdom of Macedon in northern Greece who became ruler of Egypt, part of Alexander's former empire. Ptolemy was pharaoh of Ptolemaic Egypt from 305/304 BC to his death. He was the founder of the Ptolemaic dynasty which ruled Egypt until the death of Cleopatra in 30 BC, turning the country into a Hellenistic kingdom and Alexandria into a centre of Greek culture.
Ptolemy IV Philopator, son of Ptolemy III and Berenice II, was the fourth Pharaoh of Ptolemaic Egypt from 221 to 204 BC.
Berenice I was Queen of Egypt by marriage to Ptolemy I Soter. She became the second queen, after Eurydice, of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Egypt.
Berenice II Euergetis was ruling queen of Cyrenaica from around 250 BC and queen and co-regent of Ptolemaic Egypt from 246 BC to 222 BC as the wife of Ptolemy III Euergetes.
Cleopatra II was a queen of Ptolemaic Egypt who ruled from 175 to 116 BC with two successive brother-husbands and her daughter—often in rivalry with her brother Ptolemy VIII.
Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos Philopator Philadelphos was a king of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Ancient Egypt. He was commonly known as Auletes, referring to the king's love of playing the flute in Dionysian festivals. As a member of the Ptolemaic dynasty, he was a descendant of its founder, Ptolemy I.
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Cleopatra VI Tryphaena was an Egyptian Ptolemaic queen. She may be identical with Cleopatra V.
Berenice IV Epiphaneia was a Greek Princess and Queen of the Ptolemaic dynasty.
Cleopatra V was a Ptolemaic Queen of Egypt. She is the only surely attested wife of Ptolemy XII. Her only known child is Berenice IV, but she was also probably the mother of Cleopatra VII.
Qift is a small town in the Qena Governorate of Egypt about 43 km (27 mi) north of Luxor, situated under 26° north lat., on the east bank of the Nile. In ancient times its proximity to the Red Sea made it an important trading emporium between India, Punt, Felix Arabia and the North.It was important for nearby gold and quartzite mines in the Eastern Desert, and as a starting point for expeditions to Punt.
The Ptolemaic Kingdom was an ancient Hellenistic state based in Egypt. It was founded in 305 BC by Ptolemy I Soter, a companion of Alexander the Great, and lasted until the death of Cleopatra in 30 BC. Ruling for nearly three centuries, the Ptolemies were the longest and final dynasty in ancient Egyptian history.
Theoxena was a Greek Macedonian noblewoman. Through her mother's second marriage, she was a member of the Ptolemaic dynasty and through marriage was a queen of Sicily.
Philotera was a Greek Macedonian noblewoman and a Greek Egyptian princess of the Ptolemaic dynasty.
Philadelphus is the scientific name of mock-oranges, a genus of shrubs.
Lysimachus of Telmessos, also known as Lysimachus II was a Greek Prince from Asia Minor who served as a Ptolemaic Client King under the Ptolemaic dynasty of Ancient Egypt.
Epigonos of Telmessos, also known as Epigonos was a Greek Prince from Asia Minor.
The early life of Cleopatra VII of Ptolemaic Egypt began with her birth in early 69 BC to reigning pharaoh Ptolemy XII Auletes and an unknown mother, and lasted until her accession to the throne by March 51 BC. During her early childhood, Cleopatra was brought up in the palace of Alexandria in Egypt and received a primarily-Hellenistic Greek education from her tutor, Philostratos. By adulthood she was well-versed in many languages, including Egyptian, Ethiopian, Trogodyte, Hebrew, Arabic, Syrian, Median, Parthian, Latin, and her native Koine Greek.
They were members of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Macedonians, who ruled Egypt after the death of its conqueror, Alexander the Great.
while Ptolemaic Egypt was a monarchy with a Greek ruling class.
Cleopatra VII was born to Ptolemy XII Auletes (80–57 BCE, ruled 55–51 BCE) and Cleopatra, both parents being Macedonian Greeks.
Ptolemaic kings were still crowned at Memphis and the city was popularly regarded as the Egyptian rival to Alexandria, founded by the Macedonians.
During the Ptolemaic period, when Egypt was governed by rulers of Greek descent...
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Rulers of the Ancient Near East