Ptolemy X Alexander I

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Ptolemy X Alexander I [note 1] (Greek : Πτολεμαῖος Ἀλέξανδρος, Ptolemaĩos Aléxandros) was King of Egypt from 110 BC to 109 BC and 107 BC till his death in 88 BC, in co-regency with his mother Cleopatra III until 101 BC, and then possibly with his niece-wife Berenice III. He was a son of Ptolemy VIII Physcon and Cleopatra III.

Greek language Language spoken in Greece, Cyprus and Southern Albania

Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece, Cyprus and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning more than 3000 years of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary, were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin, Cyrillic, Armenian, Coptic, Gothic, and many other writing systems.

Ancient Egypt ancient civilization of Northeastern Africa

Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in the place that is now the country Egypt. Ancient Egyptian civilization followed prehistoric Egypt and coalesced around 3100 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under Menes. The history of ancient Egypt occurred as a series of stable kingdoms, separated by periods of relative instability known as Intermediate Periods: the Old Kingdom of the Early Bronze Age, the Middle Kingdom of the Middle Bronze Age and the New Kingdom of the Late Bronze Age.

Cleopatra III of Egypt queen of Egypt

Cleopatra III was a queen of Egypt. She ruled at first with her mother Cleopatra II and husband Ptolemy VIII from 142 to 131 BC and again from 127 to 116 BC. She then ruled with her sons Ptolemy IX and Ptolemy X from 116 to 101 BC.

Contents

Life

Ptolemy X Alexander I was the younger son of pharaohs Ptolemy VIII Physcon and Cleopatra III. Following the death of Ptolemy VIII in 116 BC, Cleopatra III co-ruled with her elder son Ptolemy IX Lathyros. In 110 BC Cleopatra III deposed Ptolemy IX, making Ptolemy X King, with her as co-regent. However, in 109 BC Ptolemy X was deposed by his brother Ptolemy IX. In 107 BC he became King again with his mother as co-regent. In 101 BC he had his mother killed, and ruled either alone or with his niece/wife, Berenice III, the daughter of Ptolemy IX.

Ptolemy VIII Physcon king of the Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt

Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II, nicknamed Physcon, was a king of the Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt. He was a son of Ptolemy V Epiphanes and Cleopatra I Syra.

Ptolemy IX Soter II, commonly nicknamed Lathyros, reigned twice as king of Ptolemaic Egypt. He took the throne after the death of his father Ptolemy VIII in 116 BC, in joint rule with his mother Cleopatra III.

Berenice III of Egypt queen of Egypt

Berenice III, sometimes called Cleopatra Berenice, ruled as queen regnant of Egypt from 81 to 80 BC. She had previously been queen consort of Egypt, or possibly queen regnant with her uncle/husband Ptolemy X Alexander I, from 101 to 88 BC.

Ptolemy X was exiled around 88 BC when his citizens and army turned against him. He fled to Syria, and upon his return with a new army became infamous for melting down and looting the golden sarcophagus of Alexander the Great, in order to pay the mercenaries which brought him back on the throne, and replacing the former sarcophagus with one made of glass. [1] The citizens of Alexandria were so outraged at this act that they exiled him again almost immediately and attempted to wipe out all record of him. He would later be killed on his way to Cyprus. [2]

Alexander the Great King of Macedonia

Alexander III of Macedon, commonly known as Alexander the Great, was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty. He was born in Pella in 356 BC and succeeded his father Philip II to the throne at the age of 20. He spent most of his ruling years on an unprecedented military campaign through Asia and northeast Africa, and by the age of thirty he had created one of the largest empires of the ancient world, stretching from Greece to northwestern India. He was undefeated in battle and is widely considered one of history's most successful military commanders.

When Ptolemy X died, Ptolemy IX regained the throne. When Ptolemy IX died in 81 BC, Ptolemy X's wife Berenice III took over the throne for six months.

Ancestry

Notes

  1. Numbering the Ptolemies is a modern convention. Older sources may give a number one higher or lower. The most reliable way of determining which Ptolemy is being referred to in any given case is by epithet (e.g. "Philopator").

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Year 116 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. At the time it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Geta and Eburnus. The denomination 116 BC for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

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Cleopatra Thea Egyptian Queen

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Cleopatra Selene was the monarch of Syria as Cleopatra II Selene. She was the daughter of Ptolemy VIII of Egypt by Cleopatra III, in whose political maneuvers Cleopatra Selene, favored by her mother, became a pawn. In 115 BC, Cleopatra III forced her son Ptolemy IX to divorce his sister-wife Cleopatra IV, and chose Cleopatra Selene as the new queen consort of Egypt. Tension between the king and his mother grew and ended with his expulsion from Egypt, leaving Cleopatra Selene behind; she probably then married the new king, her other brother Ptolemy X.

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References

  1. Strabo (17. Section 794)
  2. The House of Ptolemy (Chapter XI p.333, p.334)
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Aidan Dodson, Dyan Hilton, The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt, 2004
Ptolemy X Alexander I
Born: ? Died: ca. 88 BC
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Ptolemy IX
Pharaoh of Egypt
110 BC–109 BC
with Cleopatra III
Succeeded by
Ptolemy IX
Pharaoh of Egypt
107 BC–88 BC
with Cleopatra III and Berenice III