Public, educational, and government access

Last updated

PEG (public, educational, and government access television)
Country
EstablishedBetween 1969 and 1971

Public, educational, and government access television [1] (also PEG-TV, PEG channel, PEGA, local-access television) refers to three different cable television narrowcasting and specialty channels. Public-access television was created in the United States between 1969 and 1971 by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) and has since been mandated under the Cable Communications Act of 1984, which is codified under 47 USC § 531. [2] PEG channels consist of:

  1. Public-access television  Generally quite free of editorial control, a form of non-commercial mass media where ordinary people can create television programming content which is transmitted through cable TV [3] The channels are reserved free or at a minimal cost. The local origination television content revolves primarily around community interest, developed by individuals and nonprofit organizations.
  2. Educational-access television Is distance education, a curated form of educational television, it is a synchronous learning educational technology unique to cable television systems and transmit instructional television, [4] on Time Warner Cable channel 21, programming within city limits. Educational-access channels are generally reserved for educational purposes and are not for government-access or public-access television. Many schools have adapted educational access channels to enhance school curriculum. Some schools have done this better than others. Although the use of television in schools can be traced to those schools serving the bedroom communities of Manhattan in the 1960s, where executives and technicians of early television lived, the creation of PEG channels expanded the value of television as a school or community resource. Students produced and aired community stories in part to serve community stakeholders and in part to engage in active learning. These schools developed school-based community television as a storytelling laboratory. [5]
  3. Government-access television  Cable channel capacity for the local government bodies and other legislative entities to access the cable systems to televise public affairs and other civic meetings. Government channels are generally reserved for government purposes and not for education-access or public-access television.
  4. Leased access  Cable television channels that are similar to commercial television where a fee is paid-for-services of reserved channel time.
  5. Municipal-access television or "Community Access television" are ambiguous terms that usually refer to a channel space assigned on a Cable TV System intended to provide the content to all or some of the above listed access channels, [6] and may contain other "access" programming such as "religious access" or the TV programming of a local institution, such as a college or a library. These channels are usually created as cost saving measures for the Cable TV company if their franchises or governing authorities allow it.
  6. Hybrid  Often, one channel will take on the role of another channel type on a regular basis. An example of this would be a college with a strong television production curriculum assumes the roles of educational access and public access. Beyond the typical curated educational access programming, a public access television element would be added where public access television producers would make shows using college owned ( or shared) equipment and college students as crew. This can be very beneficial to both entities, as the students earn credits for the work while contributing to the public access channel. However, difficulties can arise when the programming made for public access is of a type that does not reflect the values or tastes of the supporting college, and in such situations, colleges often make the decision to downplay or abandon the public access element of the channel, depending on how much funding is earned by assuming the public access television duties.

The channel numbering, signal quality, and tier location of these channels are usually negotiated with a local authority, but often, these choices are made with the intention of one or more of the parties involved to marginalize one channel and emphasize another, such as placing Government access on channel 3 or 10, Educational access on a channel numerically near a PBS station, and Public Access in the high 90's or higher on a digital-only service tier. Various Cable TV companies have marginalized PEG programming in other ways, such as moving some or all of them to a sub-menu on the cable box, giving subscribers limited bandwidth access (and limited picture quality) to the channel, while also separating the PEG channels from the commercial channel lineup in an effort to fulfill their franchise obligations while discouraging the channels use, and hopefully eliminate the PEG channels that have the least political power. [7] [8]

See also

Related Research Articles

Cable television Television content transmitted via signals on coaxial cable

Cable television is a system of delivering television programming to consumers via radio frequency (RF) signals transmitted through coaxial cables, or in more recent systems, light pulses through fibre-optic cables. This contrasts with broadcast television, in which the television signal is transmitted over-the-air by radio waves and received by a television antenna attached to the television; or satellite television, in which the television signal is transmitted by a communications satellite orbiting the Earth and received by a satellite dish on the roof. FM radio programming, high-speed Internet, telephone services, and similar non-television services may also be provided through these cables. Analog television was standard in the 20th century, but since the 2000s, cable systems have been upgraded to digital cable operation.

Communications in Hong Kong includes a wide-ranging and sophisticated network of radio, television, telephone, Internet, and related online services, reflecting Hong Kong's thriving commerce and international importance.

Communications in Japan Overview of telecommunications in Japan

The nation of Japan currently possesses one of the most advanced communication networks in the world. For example, by 2008 the Japanese government's Internal Affairs and Communications Ministry stated that about 75 million people used mobile phones to access the Internet, said total accounting for about 82% of individual Internet users.

Federal Communications Commission Independent agency of the U.S. Government

The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is an independent agency of the United States government that regulates communications by radio, television, wire, satellite, and cable across the United States. The FCC maintains jurisdiction over the areas of broadband access, fair competition, radio frequency use, media responsibility, public safety, and homeland security.

Public-access television is traditionally a form of non-commercial mass media where the general public can create content television programming which is narrowcast through cable TV specialty channels. Public-access television was created in the United States between 1969 and 1971 by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), under Chairman Dean Burch, based on pioneering work and advocacy of George Stoney, Red Burns, and Sidney Dean.

Cable Communications Policy Act of 1984

The Cable Communications Policy Act of 1984 was an act of Congress passed on October 30, 1984 to promote competition and deregulate the cable television industry. The act established a national policy for the regulation of cable television communications by federal, state, and local authorities. Conservative Senator Barry Goldwater of Arizona wrote and supported the act, which amended the Communications Act of 1934 with the insertion of "Title VI—Cable Communications". After more than three years of debate, six provisions were enacted to represent the intricate compromise between cable operators and municipalities.

Arlington Independent Media (AIM), formerly Arlington Community Television, is a non-profit membership organization providing television production training workshops and professional production facilities, as well as the public, educational, and government access (PEG) cable tv channel on Comcast channel 69, and Verizon FIOS channel 38 in Arlington County, Virginia, United States.

KACV-TV, virtual channel 2, branded on-air as Panhandle PBS, is a Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) member television station licensed to Amarillo, Texas, United States. Owned by Amarillo College, it is sister to National Public Radio (NPR) member station KACV-FM (89.9). The two outlets share studios at the Gilvin Broadcast Center on Amarillo College's Washington Street campus ; KACV-TV's transmitter is located west of US 87–287 in unincorporated Potter County. On cable, the station is available on Suddenlink Communications channel 3 in both standard and high definition.

Cable television first became available in the United States in 1948. Data by SNL Kagan shows that as of 2006 about 58.4% of all American homes subscribe to basic cable television services. Most cable viewers in the U.S. reside in the suburbs and tend to be middle class; cable television is less common in low income, urban, and rural areas.

Government-access television

Government-access television (GATV) is a type of specialty television channel created by government entities and broadcast over cable TV systems or, in some cases, over-the-air broadcast television stations. GATV programming generally deals with public affairs, board meetings, explanation of government services, and other public-service related programming such as public service announcements and longer public information films.

A local franchise authority (LFA) is a United States local government organization that, together with the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), regulates cable television service within the local government's area. In some cases the LFA is the state, while in others it might be a city, county, or municipality. The LFA is meant to address cable problems such as service related rates and charges, tier rates, customer service problems, franchise fees, signal quality, and the use of public, educational, and governmental (PEG) channels. When experiencing a problem with your cable television you should first contact the cable company itself, then the local franchise authorities, then the National Citizens Committee for Broadcasting, and finally the chairmen of the House and Senate subcommittees who oversee the FCC. Additional help can be found on the web page of the Federal Communications Commission.

York Community Access Television (YCAT) was a Public-access television cable TV station in York, Pennsylvania.

Chicago Access Network Television is a public, educational, and government access (PEG) cable television service in Chicago, Illinois. The organization is funded by cable companies as part of their cable franchise agreements with the City of Chicago. The companies are also required by law to carry the network's five channels.

The Alliance for Community Media (ACM), is an educational, advocacy and lobbying organization in the United States which represents Public, educational, and government access (PEG) cable TV organizations and Community media centers throughout the country. The ACM was founded in 1976 as the National Federation of Local Cable Programmers (NFLCP), with the stated mission to “protect and increase freedom of expression, diversity of ideas and community communication through electronic media”. The mission statement has evolved over the years to “Promoting civic engagement through community media”. The ACM works to protect the interests of community media centers and those who use PEG facilities and equipment to promote localism and diversity in programming through cable television and the Internet.

Community television is a form of mass media in which a television station is owned, operated or programmed by a community group to provide television programs of local interest known as local programming.

Access Humboldt is a non-profit, community media organization formed in April 2006. It is a provider of Public-access television and FM Radio, operating from Humboldt County, California. It was initially formed to manage local cable franchise benefits on behalf of the County of Humboldt, California and the Cities of Eureka, Arcata, Fortuna, Rio Dell, Ferndale and Blue Lake. The community media center is based at the Eureka High School campus in Eureka, California. Access Humboldt seeks to deliver local voices via community media and is an active advocate in issues of community debate.

Seattle Community Access Network (SCAN) is one of the Public, educational, and government access (PEG) cable television channels in Seattle, Washington. The station provides camera equipment, television studios and training that allow residents of King County to create and cablecast their own television shows for a small fee. The station is carried on Comcast and Broadstripe cable systems in King County and the greater Puget Sound region except for six cities covered by Puget Sound Access.

In the United States cable television industry, a cable television franchise fee is an annual fee charged by a local government to a private cable television company as compensation for using public property it owns as right-of-way for its cable. In the US, cable television services are provided by private for-profit companies, cable television providers, which sign a franchise agreement with cities and counties to provide cable television to its residents. The franchise fee is set during initial negotiation of the franchise agreement, usually by a process in which the government requests bids from cable providers to serve their community. It can be renegotiated when the franchise agreement comes up for renewal, usually at intervals of 10 to 12 years. Although it is paid to a government, it is not a tax.

i3 Broadband is an American pay television and telecommunications provider set in Rhode Island. It is the third-largest cable television and Internet service provider in the state. Its wired communications network is available to the approximately 50,000 residents of Bristol County, Rhode Island. i3 Broadband's main office is at 57 Everett Street in Warren, Rhode Island, U.S.

NewTV is Newton, Massachusetts’ community media center, paid for by taxes on local cable bills.

References

  1. "Public, Educational, and Governmental Access Channels ("PEG Channels")". Federal Communications Commission. 9 December 2015. Retrieved 3 July 2018.
  2. "Cable Communications Policy Act of 1984". mtsu.edu. Retrieved 3 July 2018.
  3. "Cable TV and the value of public access". Santa Maria Times. Retrieved 3 July 2018.
  4. Hendry, Dave. "The Technology Source Archives - Instructional Television's Changing Role in the Classroom". technologysource.org. Retrieved 3 July 2018.
  5. Kotarski, John. "School-Based Community Television". The Berkeley Electronic Press. Retrieved 7 November 2011.
  6. "Learn about cable TV systems: headend and modulator | FTTH & Triple Play Broadband equipment". FTTH & Triple Play Broadband equipment. 3 December 2015. Retrieved 3 July 2018.
  7. MARINO, SUZANNE. "Local access channel moved from 2 to 97 but the info remains vital".
  8. "Time Warner Cable moving PEG channels to digital-only format - FierceCable". www.fiercecable.com.. In the United States, the state of California has taken over the franchising of cable television, but left the regulation of PEG to the local government.