A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position; alternatively, a geographic position may be expressed in a combined three-dimensional Cartesian vector. A common choice of coordinates is latitude, longitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection.
Logo for Pukkelpop 2010.
|Genre||Rock, electronic, pop, hip hop|
|Dates||Mid-to-late August (since 1988)|
|Location(s)||Kiewit-Hasselt, Belgium (since 1991)|
|Years active||1985–1988; 1990–present|
|Founded by||Hujo (Humanistische Jongeren van Leopoldsburg)|
Pukkelpop is an annual music festival that takes place near the city of Hasselt, Belgium, in mid-to-late August. It is held within a large enclosure of fields and woodland—between a dual carriageway called Kempische Steenweg—in the village of Kiewit, approximately 7 km north of Hasselt. It is the second largest music festival in Belgium after Rock Werchter, with an attendance rate of 180,000 over the course of the event in 2009.
A music festival is a community event oriented towards live performances of singing and instrument playing that is often presented with a theme such as musical genre, nationality, or locality of musicians, or holiday.
Hasselt is a Flemish city and municipality, and capital of the province of Limburg in Belgium. The Hasselt municipality includes the original city of Hasselt, plus the old communes of Sint-Lambrechts-Herk, Wimmertingen, Kermt, Spalbeek, Kuringen, Stokrooie, Stevoort and Runkst, as well as the hamlets and parishes of Kiewit, Godsheide and Rapertingen.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe. It is bordered by the Netherlands to the north, Germany to the east, Luxembourg to the southeast, France to the southwest, and the North Sea to the northwest. It covers an area of 30,688 square kilometres (11,849 sq mi) and has a population of more than 11.4 million. The capital and largest city is Brussels; other major cities are Antwerp, Ghent, Charleroi and Liège.
The program is noted for its wide variety of alternative music, spanning styles such as rock, pop, electronic, dance, hip-hop, punk and heavy metal. The event's organizers aim the festival to be a "progressive and contemporary" musical event.Notable acts that have performed at previous editions include Sonic Youth, Ramones, Nirvana, Red Hot Chili Peppers, The Smashing Pumpkins, Foo Fighters, Radiohead, Metallica, PJ Harvey, Green Day, Blink-182, Guns N' Roses, Pixies, Daft Punk, The Prodigy, Nine Inch Nails, Iron Maiden, Björk, The Stone Roses and Eminem. The term "pukkel" is the Dutch word for "pimple".
Sonic Youth was an American rock band based in New York City, formed in 1981. Founding members Thurston Moore, Kim Gordon and Lee Ranaldo remained together for the entire history of the band, while Steve Shelley (drums) followed a series of short-term drummers in 1985, and rounded out the core line-up.
The Ramones were an American punk rock band that formed in the New York City neighborhood of Forest Hills, Queens in 1974. They are often cited as the first true punk rock group. Despite achieving only limited commercial success initially, the band was highly influential in the United States and the United Kingdom.
Nirvana was an American rock band formed in Aberdeen, Washington, in 1987. It was founded by lead singer and guitarist Kurt Cobain and bassist Krist Novoselic. Nirvana went through a succession of drummers, the longest-lasting and best-known being Dave Grohl, who joined in 1990. Though the band dissolved in 1994 after the death of Cobain, their music maintains a popular following and continues to influence modern rock and roll culture.
The festival was founded in 1985 by youth organisation Humanistic Youth of Leopoldsburg (Dutch : Humanistische Jongeren van Leopoldsburg, or "Hujo"). It originated as a single day event, held on July 21—a national holiday in Belgium—in the village of Leopoldsburg, located approximately 25 km north of the event's current home in Kiewit. The inaugural event in 1985 took place at the village football grounds of Complex Excelsior Heppen and featured seven acts, with English songwriter Anne Clark headlining. The first year was attended by 3,000 people.
Leopoldsburg is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Limburg. On January 1, 2006, Leopoldsburg had a total population of 14,403. The total area is 22.49 km² which gives a population density of 640 inhabitants per km². It is situated near the important military base at Beverloo Camp. The municipality consists of the following sub-municipalities: Leopoldsburg proper and Heppen.
A songwriter is a professional that writes lyrics or composes musical compositions for songs. A songwriter can also be called a composer, although the latter term tends to be used mainly for individuals from the classical music genre and film scoring, but is also associated with writing and composing the original musical composition or musical bed. A songwriter that writes the lyrics/words are referred to as lyricist. The pressure from the music industry to produce popular hits means that songwriting is often an activity for which the tasks are distributed between a number of people. For example, a songwriter who excels at writing lyrics might be paired with a songwriter with the task of creating original melodies. Pop songs may be written by group members from the band or by staff writers – songwriters directly employed by music publishers. Some songwriters serve as their own music publishers, while others have outside publishers.
In 1988, the festival moved to the village of Hechtel-Eksel where it was held at Sanicole Airfield. The festival was also moved to late August. In 1989, the festival was cancelled after the two headliners, The Pogues and The Sugarcubes, cancelled their appearances a few weeks before the event. The festival returned in 1990, again taking place in Hechtel-Eksel, and reached a peak of 10,000 attendees. Nick Cave and the Bad Seeds headlined.
Hechtel-Eksel is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Limburg. On January 1, 2018, it had a total population of 12,290. The total area is 76.70 km² which gives a population density of 150 inhabitants per km².
The Pogues were a British Celtic punk band fronted by Shane MacGowan and founded in Kings Cross, London in 1982, as "Pogue Mahone" – the anglicisation of the Irish Gaelic póg mo thóin, meaning "kiss my arse". The band reached international prominence in the 1980s and early 1990s, recording several hit albums and singles. MacGowan left the band in 1991 due to drinking problems, but the band continued – first with Joe Strummer and then with Spider Stacy on vocals – before breaking up in 1996. The Pogues re-formed in late 2001, and played regularly across the UK and Ireland and on the US East Coast, until dissolving again in 2014. The group did not record any new material during this second incarnation.
The Sugarcubes were an Icelandic alternative rock band from Reykjavík formed in 1986 and disbanded in 1992. For most of their career, the band consisted of Björk, Einar Örn Benediktsson, Þór Eldon (guitar), Bragi Ólafsson (bass), Margrét "Magga" Örnólfsdóttir (keyboards) and Sigtryggur Baldursson (drums). Lead singer Björk would later become an internationally successful solo musician and the best selling Icelandic musician of all time.
In 1991, the festival moved to its current home in Kiewit. In its first year, the event took place on the grounds of the children's petting farm (Dutch: Kinderboerderij) located in the village. Ramones headlined on a bill which included Nirvana, who performed at the festival a month prior to the release of the group's breakthrough album Nevermind . In 1992, the festival site was moved to the fields by the Kempische Steenweg motorway, where it has been held ever since.
Nevermind is the second studio album by American rock band Nirvana, released on September 24, 1991 by DGC Records. Produced by Butch Vig, it was the band's first release on the label, as well as the first to feature drummer Dave Grohl.
In 1993, a new indoor stage called The Marquee was added, supplementing the outdoor Main Stage and almost doubling the amount of performers over the previous year. A second indoor stage, the Dance Hall, was added in 1994. In 1995, for the festival's tenth anniversary, the event became a two-day event for the first time, with Neil Young and The Smashing Pumpkins as the headlining acts. The festival also reached a peak in attendees at 60,000.
In 1996, two new stages were added: the outdoor Skate Stage, and a smaller-sized marquee called Club. Another marquee, named the Boiler Room, was added in 1997, bringing the total number of stages to six. From 1998 to 2001, the Skate Stage was renamed to the Hip-hop Stage for one of the two festival days, exclusively focused on rap and hip-hop artists such as Jurassic 5 and The Pharcyde. In 1999, the dance event Creamfields was amalgamated into Pukkelpop on the first day of the event; as a result most of the existing stages exclusively showcased dance music under different names. 1999 also saw the debut of the Experimental Stage, renamed to ChateauXCrapule the following year, and shortened to Chateau from the 2004 edition.
In 2000, an exchange programme was announced with Oppikoppi, an annual music festival held in South Africa near the city of Pretoria. In the same year, Eminem was forced to cancel his confirmed headline slot at the festival as he was barred from leaving the United States.
In 2001, the festival became a three-day event for the first time, reaching an attendance peak of 115,000, a 76% increase over the previous year. In 2004, an eighth stage was added, called Wablief? (Dutch word for "What?"). In 2005, the festival celebrated its 20th anniversary, featuring headliners Pixies, The Prodigy and Nick Cave and the Bad Seeds. The event also reached another attendance peak, totaling 137,000 festival-goers.
The festival returned in 2010 for its 25th anniversary, with Iron Maiden, Placebo, Queens of the Stone Age and Snow Patrol among the headlining acts. The 2010 edition was notable as the first ever Pukkelpop to have sold out its entire allotment of tickets, approximately five weeks prior to the commencement of the festival.
During the 2010 festival, two musicians died. Michael Been, lead singer and guitarist of The Call, died on August 19 of a heart attack after performing duties as sound engineer for Black Rebel Motorcycle Club.On August 20, Ou Est Le Swimming Pool singer Charles Haddon committed suicide by jumping from a telecommunications mast in the backstage parking area, shortly after the group's performance at the festival. Haddon was reported to be upset about an injury sustained by a fan after stage-diving into the crowd.
The 2011 festival was affected by a severe thunderstorm during the evening of August 18, 2011, the opening day of the event. Torrential rain and strong winds toppled several concert tents, uprooted trees and knocked down festival light towers and video screens. The Chateau tent collapsed shortly after American rock band Smith Westerns began performing their set. Lead singer/guitarist Cullen Omori updated the band's Twitter account directly after the incident: "Stage collapsed max almost got crushed by trees, I hope pukkelpop has insurance bc all our shit is broke". The message was later removed.Five people were killed, and at least 140 were injured. The death toll was originally believed to be five, however this figure was later dropped to four; Belgian media have suggested that a man who died in a local hospital and did not attend the festival was erroneously counted as a reported death. Another victim died five days later in the hospital, which brought the death toll back to five. Following the storm, officials of the event announced that all music performances for the remainder of the night would be cancelled and that the festival would be put on hold "until we understand the situation completely". On August 19, 2011, the organisers decided to cancel the entire event. A statement read:
|“||Pukkelpop is in deep mourning. We truly sympathise with the families and friends of the victims. Words are not enough. We have struggled with the decision to continue the festival. Therefore we have decided to cancel Pukkelpop 2011. What has happened is very exceptional and could not have been predicted. We are deeply moved by all the spontaneous support the festival goers and the organisation have received.||”|
The closest anemometer, in the town of Diepenbeek, recorded gusts above 80 km/h (50 mph), with reports of large hail and the possibility of a tornado. However, research done by specialists after the event, showed that the actual wind speed at the festival site reached 170 km/h (106 mph).
The 2011 festival was to have featured Eminem, Foo Fighters, The Offspring, dEUS and Thirty Seconds to Mars among the headlining acts. The incident came just five days after the Indiana State Fair stage collapse in the United States, which killed seven people, and sparked debate about regulations in outdoor concert events.
Pukkelpop provides free camping facilities to attendees. The camping site lies on one side of Kempische Steenweg—with the main event grounds located directly on the other—and is opened on the day prior to the commencement of the event. Traffic guards are implemented in order to direct traffic and attendees during the festival period. To incentivise use of public transport, an outward return trip within Belgium to Hasselt or Kiewit on the NMBS/SNCB train network or on the De Lijn bus network is included with all ticket types. A free shuttle bus, which runs regularly during the festival period, is also provided to-and-from Hasselt train station and the festival site in Kiewit. There are two ticket types available: day tickets, which provide access to one of the three days of the event, and "combi" tickets, which provide access to all three days of the festival.
Polsslag (Dutch term for "pulse (beat)") was a one-day annual music festival which took place in Hasselt in the spring of 2008 and 2009. The event, billed as Pukkelpop's sister festival, was held indoors at the Grenslandhallen in Hasselt. The festival featured four stages, the names of which are all retained from Pukkelpop: The Marquee, Dance Hall, Club and Boiler Room.
The first Polsslag event took place in 2008, taking place on April 15 and featuring acts such as The Breeders, Millencolin and Boys Noize. In 2009, the festival ran on May 2, with artists such as Dizzee Rascal and Yeah Yeah Yeahs performing.
The Pinkpop Festival or PINKPOP is a large, annual music festival held at Landgraaf, Netherlands. It is usually held on the Pentecost weekend. If Pentecost falls on an early date in May, the festival is held later in June. Starting in 1970, at Burgemeester Damen Sportpark in the town of Geleen, PinkPop is the oldest and longest running annual dedicated pop and rock music festival in the world.
Stage diving is the act of leaping from a concert stage onto the crowd below. It is often the precursor to crowd surfing.
The Coachella Valley Music and Arts Festival is an annual music and arts festival held at the Empire Polo Club in Indio, California, in the Inland Empire's Coachella Valley in the Colorado Desert. It was co-founded by Paul Tollett and Rick Van Santen in 1999, and is organized by Goldenvoice, a subsidiary of AEG Presents. The event features musical artists from many genres of music, including rock, pop, indie, hip hop, and electronic dance music, as well as art installations and sculptures. Across the grounds, several stages continuously host live music.
Rock Werchter is an annual music festival held in the village of Werchter, near Leuven, since 1976 and is a large sized annual rock music festival. The 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2012 and 2014 festivals received the Arthur award for best festival in the world at the International Live Music Conference (ILMC). It can host 88,000 guests daily, of which 67,500 combine all four days, to add up to a total maximum of 149,500 different attendees.
Oxegen was a music festival in Ireland, first held from 2004–2011 as a rock and pop festival and again in 2013 with dance and chart acts only. The event was regularly cited as Ireland's biggest music festival, and, by 2009, it was being cited as the greenest festival, being a 100% carbon neutral event in Ireland. It was previously called Witnness, which ran from 2000 and was sponsored by Guinness. The event is promoted by MCD and is sponsored by Heineken. Oxegen was originally a three-day festival, but from 2008 onwards, it was expanded to four days.
T in the Park festival was a major Scottish music festival that was held annually from 1994-2016. It is named after its main sponsor, the brewing company Tennents. The event was originally held at Strathclyde Park, Lanarkshire but was held at the disused Balado airfield, Kinross-shire from 1997 to 2014. In 2015 the festival moved to Strathallan Castle, Strathallan, Perthshire. Originally a two-day event, the festival became a three-day event in 2007. Promoted by DF Concerts, the event attracts up to 255,000 people, along with 70,000 campers.
Fuji Rock Festival is an annual rock festival held in Naeba Ski Resort, in Niigata Prefecture, Japan. The three-day event, organized by Smash Japan, features more than 200 Japanese and international musicians, making it the largest outdoor music event in Japan. In 2005, more than 100,000 people attended the festival.
The Hurricane Festival, also just Hurricane, is a music festival that has taken place at the Eichenring, a speedway race track, in Scheeßel Germany since 1997. With more than 70,000 attendees (2016) it is one of the largest music festivals in Germany. Southside Festival, often referred to as Hurricane's "sister" festival, takes place on the same three days and has largely the same line-up. Alongside Southside Festival, Hurricane festival is organised by FKP Konzertproduktionen, MCT Agentur and KoKo Konstanz and takes place every June. Like many other large festivals Hurricane Festival plays a mix of rock, alternative, pop and electro music from established as well as emerging artists. Arrival begins at midday on the Thursday.
Truck Festival is an annual independent music festival in Oxfordshire, England. It was started in 1998 by the Bennett family, who decided that mainstream festivals such as Glastonbury had become too commercial and predictable. It is held in July at Hill Farm in Steventon, which lies between Abingdon, Didcot and Wantage. The festival also gave birth to the Truck Records label in 1999.
Graspop Metal Meeting is a Belgian heavy metal festival held in Dessel each year since 1996. Despite the small size of the festival grounds the festival draws a large number of international spectators, with a total of 152,000 visitors in the course of the 2015 edition.
Heineken Jammin' Festival is a large live rock festival in Milan, Italy featuring international and Italian rock acts.
Joe Lean & the Jing Jang Jong were an English indie rock band based in London. Although the band attracted considerable press attention following the 2007 release of their debut single "Lucio Starts Fires" they failed to capitalise on this, and disbanded in 2010. The band are perhaps best known for failing to ever release their critically acclaimed debut album.
The Sonisphere Festival is a touring rock music festival which takes place across Europe between June and August. The festival is owned by John Jackson and Kilimanjaro Live. It is jointly promoted by K2 and Kilimanjaro Live. It has hosted heavy metal bands such as Iron Maiden, Metallica, Mötley Crüe, Slayer, Judas Priest and Megadeth.
Pukkelpop 2008 was a music festival that took place on the plains beside the Kempische Steenweg in Kiewit, Belgium, located near the city of Hasselt, on the 14th, 15th, and 16 August.
Omar Souleyman is a Syrian singer and farmer from the village of Tell Tamer near the city of Ra's al-'Ayn in the northeastern region of Syria. He started his career as a part-time wedding singer in his native al-Hasakah Governorate, and while himself a Sunni Arab, he emphasises the influence its culturally diverse milieu has had on his style: "My music is from the community I come from – the Kurdish, the Ashuri, the Arabic, they're all in this community. Even Turkish because it's so near, it's just across the border. And even Iraqi."
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