Punjab, India

Last updated

Punjabi: [pənˈdʒɑːb] ), historically known as Panchanada (Sanskrit) or Pentapotamia, is a state in northern India. Forming part of the larger Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent, the state is bordered by the Indian states of Himachal Pradesh to the north and northeast, Haryana to the south and southeast, and Rajasthan to the southwest; by the Indian union territories of Chandigarh to the east and Jammu and Kashmir to the north. It shares an international border with Punjab, a province of Pakistan to the west. [9] The state covers an area of 50,362 square kilometres (19,445 square miles), which is 1.53% of India's total geographical area, [10] making it the 19th-largest Indian state by area out of 28 Indian states (20th largest, if Union Territories are considered). With over 27 million inhabitants, Punjab is the 16th-largest Indian state by population, comprising 23 districts. [2] Punjabi, written in the Gurmukhi script, is the most widely spoken and the official language of the state. [11] The main ethnic group are the Punjabis, with Sikhs (57.7%) and Hindus (38.5%) forming the dominant religious groups. [12] The state capital, Chandigarh, is a union territory and also the capital of the neighbouring state of Haryana. Three tributaries of the Indus River the Sutlej, Beas, and Ravi flow through Punjab. [13]

Contents

The history of Punjab has witnessed the migration and settlement of different tribes of people with different cultures and ideas, forming a civilisational melting pot. The ancient Indus Valley civilisation flourished in the region until its decline around 1900 BCE. [14] Punjab was enriched during the height of the Vedic period, but declined in predominance with the rise of the Mahajanapadas. [15] The region formed the frontier of initial empires during antiquity including Alexander's and the Maurya empires. [16] [17] It was subsequently conquered by the Kushan Empire, Gupta Empire, [18] and then Harsha's Empire. [19] Punjab continued to be settled by nomadic people; including the Huna, Turkic and the Mongols. Punjab came under Muslim rule c.1000 CE, [20] and was part of the Delhi Sultanate and the Mughal Empire. [21] Sikhism, based on the teachings of Sikh Gurus, emerged between the 15th and 17th centuries. Conflicts between the Mughals and the later Sikh Gurus precipitated a militarisation of the Sikhs, resulting in the formation of a confederacy after the weakening of the Mughal Empire, which competed for control with the larger Durrani Empire. [22] This confederacy was united in 1801 by Maharaja Ranjit Singh, forming the Sikh Empire. [23]

The larger Punjab region was annexed by the British East India Company from the Sikh Empire in 1849. [24] At the time of the independence of India from British rule in 1947, the Punjab province was partitioned along religious lines amidst widespread violence, with the Muslim-majority western portion becoming part of Pakistan and the Hindu- and Sikh-majority east remaining in India, causing a large-scale migration between the two. [25] After the Punjabi Suba movement, Indian Punjab was reorganised on the basis of language in 1966, [26] when its Haryanvi- and Hindi-speaking areas were carved out as Haryana, Pahari-speaking regions attached to Himachal Pradesh and the remaining, mostly Punjabi-speaking areas became the current state of Punjab. A separatist insurgency occurred in the state during the 1980s. [27] At present, the economy of Punjab is the 15th-largest state economy in India with 8.02 trillion (equivalent to 8.0 trillionorUS$100 billion in 2023) in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of 264,000 (equivalent to 260,000orUS$3,300 in 2023), ranking 17th among Indian states. [4] Since independence, Punjab is predominantly an agrarian society. It is the ninth-highest ranking among Indian states in human development index. [5] Punjab has bustling tourism, music, culinary, and film industries. [28]

Etymology

History

Ancient period

The Punjab region is noted as the site of one of the earliest urban societies, the Indus Valley Civilization that flourished from about 3000 B.C. and declined rapidly 1,000 years later, following the Indo-Aryan migrations that overran the region in waves between 1500 and 500 B.C. [29] Frequent intertribal wars stimulated the growth of larger groupings ruled by chieftains and kings, who ruled local kingdoms known as Mahajanapadas. [29] The rise of kingdoms and dynasties in Punjab is chronicled in the ancient Hindu epics, particularly the Mahabharata. [29] The epic battles described in the Mahabharata are chronicled as being fought in what is now the state of Haryana and historic Punjab. The Gandharas, Kambojas, Trigartas, Andhra, Pauravas, Bahlikas (Bactrian settlers of the Punjab), Yaudheyas, and others sided with the Kauravas in the great battle fought at Kurukshetra. [30] According to Dr Fauja Singh and Dr. L. M. Joshi: "There is no doubt that the Kambojas, Daradas, Kaikayas, Andhra, Pauravas, Yaudheyas, Malavas, Saindhavas, and Kurus had jointly contributed to the heroic tradition and composite culture of ancient Punjab." [31] The bulk of the Rigveda was composed in the Punjab region between circa 1500 and 1200 BC, [32] while later Vedic scriptures were composed more eastwards, between the Yamuna and Ganges rivers. The historical Vedic religion constituted the religious ideas and practices in Punjab during the Vedic period (1500–500 BCE), centred primarily in the worship of Indra. [33] [34] [35] [lower-roman 1]

Rigveda is the oldest Hindu text that originated in the Punjab region. 1500-1200 BCE Rigveda, manuscript page sample i, Mandala 1, Hymn 1 (Sukta 1), Adhyaya 1, lines 1.1.1 to 1.1.9, Sanskrit, Devanagari.jpg
Rigveda  is the oldest Hindu text that originated in the Punjab region.

The earliest known notable local king of this region was known as King Porus, who fought the famous Battle of the Hydaspes against Alexander the Great. His kingdom spanned between rivers Hydaspes (Jhelum) and Acesines (Chenab); Strabo had held the territory to contain almost 300 cities. [36] He (alongside Abisares) had a hostile relationship with the Kingdom of Taxila which was ruled by his extended family. [36] When the armies of Alexander crossed Indus in its eastward migration, probably in Udabhandapura, he was greeted by the-then ruler of Taxila, Omphis. [36] Omphis had hoped to force both Porus and Abisares into submission leveraging the might of Alexander's forces and diplomatic missions were mounted, but while Abisares accepted the submission, Porus refused. [36] This led Alexander to seek a face-off with Porus. [36] Thus began the Battle of the Hydaspes in 326 BC; the exact site remains unknown. [36] The battle is thought to have resulted in a decisive Greek victory; however, A. B. Bosworth warns against an uncritical reading of Greek sources who were obviously exaggerative. [36]

Alexander later founded two cities— Nicaea at the site of victory and Bucephalous at the battle-ground, in memory of his horse, who died soon after the battle. [36] [lower-alpha 1] Later, tetradrachms would be minted depicting Alexander on horseback, armed with a sarissa and attacking a pair of Indians on an elephant. [36] [37] Porus refused to surrender and wandered about atop an elephant, until he was wounded and his force routed. [36] When asked by Alexander how he wished to be treated, Porus replied "Treat me as a king would treat another king". [38] Despite the apparently one-sided results, Alexander was impressed by Porus and chose to not depose him. [39] [40] [41] Not only was his territory reinstated but also expanded with Alexander's forces annexing the territories of Glausaes, who ruled the area northeast of Porus' kingdom. [39]

After Alexander's death in 323 BCE, Perdiccas became the regent of his empire, and after Perdiccas's murder in 321 BCE, Antipater became the new regent. [42] According to Diodorus, Antipater recognised Porus's authority over the territories along the Indus River. However, Eudemus, who had served as Alexander's satrap in the Punjab region, treacherously killed Porus. [43] The battle is historically significant because it resulted in the syncretism of ancient Greek political and cultural influences to the Indian subcontinent, yielding works such as Greco-Buddhist art, which continued to have an impact for the ensuing centuries. The region was then divided between the Maurya Empire and the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom in 302 B.C.E. Menander I Soter conquered Punjab and made Sagala (present-day Sialkot) the capital of the Indo-Greek Kingdom. [44] [45] Menander is noted for having become a patron and convert to Greco-Buddhism and he is widely regarded as the greatest of the Indo-Greek kings. [46] Greek influence in the region ended around 12 B.C.E. when the Punjab fell under the Sassanids.

Medieval period

Following the muslim conquests in the Indian subcontinent at the beginning of the 8th century, Arab armies of the Umayyad Caliphate penetrated into South Asia introducing Islam into Punjab. [47] [48] In the ninth century, the Hindu Shahi dynasty emerged in the Punjab, ruling much of Punjab and eastern Afghanistan. [29] The Turkic Ghaznavids in the tenth century overthrew the Hindu Shahis and consequently ruled for 157 years, gradually declining as a power until the Ghurid conquest of Lahore by Muhammad of Ghor in 1186, deposing the last Ghaznavid ruler Khusrau Malik. [49] Following the death of Muhammad of Ghor in 1206, the Ghurid state fragmented and was replaced in northern India by the Delhi Sultanate. The Delhi Sultanate ruled the Punjab for the next three hundred years, led by five unrelated dynasties, the Mamluks, Khalajis, Tughlaqs, Sayyids and Lodis. A significant event in the late 15th century Punjab was the formation of Sikhism by Guru Nanak. [lower-roman 2] [50] [51] The history of the Sikh faith is closely associated with the history of Punjab and the socio-political situation in the north-west of the Indian subcontinent in the 17th century. [52] [53] [54] [55]

Maharaja Ranjit Singh listening to Guru Granth Sahib being recited near the Akal Takht and Golden Temple, Amritsar. Painting by August Schoefft (1850) Ranjit Singh at Harmandir Sahib - August Schoefft - Vienna 1850 - Princess Bamba Collection - Lahore Fort.jpg
Maharaja Ranjit Singh listening to Guru Granth Sahib being recited near the Akal Takht and Golden Temple, Amritsar. Painting by August Schoefft (1850)

The hymns composed by Guru Nanak were later collected in the Guru Granth Sahib, the central religious scripture of the Sikhs. [56] The religion developed and evolved in times of religious persecution, gaining converts from both Hinduism and Islam. [57] Mughal rulers of India tortured and executed two of the Sikh gurus—Guru Arjan (1563–1605) and Guru Tegh Bahadur (1621–1675)—after they refused to convert to Islam. [58] [59] [60] [61] [62] The persecution of Sikhs triggered the founding of the Khalsa by Guru Gobind Singh in 1699 as an order to protect the freedom of conscience and religion, [58] [63] with members expressing the qualities of a Sant-Sipāhī ('saint-soldier'). [64] [65] The lifetime of Guru Nanak coincided with the conquest of northern India by Babur and establishment of the Mughal Empire. Jahangir ordered the execution of Guru Arjun Dev, while in Mughal custody, for supporting his son Khusrau Mirza's rival claim to the throne. [66] Guru Arjan Dev's death led to the sixth Guru Guru Hargobind to declare sovereignty in the creation of the Akal Takht and the establishment of a fort to defend Amritsar. Jahangir then jailed Guru Hargobind at Gwalior, but released him after a number of years when he no longer felt threatened. The succeeding son of Jahangir, Shah Jahan, took offence at Guru Hargobind's declaration and after a series of assaults on Amritsar, forced the Sikhs to retreat to the Sivalik Hills. [67] The ninth Guru, Guru Tegh Bahadur, moved the Sikh community to Anandpur and travelled extensively to visit and preach in defiance of Aurangzeb, who attempted to install Ram Rai as new guru.

Modern period

The Mughals came to power in the early sixteenth century and gradually expanded to control all of the Punjab from their capital at Lahore. As Mughal power weakened, Afghan rulers took control of the region. [29] Contested by Marathas and Afghans, the region was the center of the growing influence of the Sikhs, who expanded and established the Sikh Empire in 1799 as the Mughals and Afghans weakened. [68] The Cis-Sutlej states were a group of states in modern Punjab and Haryana states lying between the Sutlej River on the north, the Himalayas on the east, the Yamuna River and Delhi District on the south, and Sirsa District on the west. These states were ruled by the Sikh Misls. [69] The empire existed from 1799, when Ranjit Singh captured Lahore, to 1849, when it was defeated and conquered in the Second Anglo-Sikh War. It was forged on the foundations of the Khalsa from a collection of autonomous Sikh misls . [70] [71] At its peak in the 19th century, the Empire extended from the Khyber Pass in the west to western Tibet in the east, and from Mithankot in the south to Kashmir in the north. It was divided into four provinces: Lahore, in Punjab, which became the Sikh capital; Multan, also in Punjab; Peshawar; and Kashmir from 1799 to 1849. Religiously diverse, with an estimated population of 3.5 million in 1831 (making it the 19th most populous country at the time), [72] it was the last major region of the Indian subcontinent to be annexed by the British Empire. The Sikh Empire spanned a total of over 200,000 sq mi (520,000 km2) at its zenith. [73] [74] [75]

Sikh Empire Map of India 1823.jpg
Sikh Empire

After Ranjit Singh's death in 1839, the empire was severely weakened by internal divisions and political mismanagement. This opportunity was used by the East India Company to launch the First and Second Anglo-Sikh Wars. The country was finally annexed and dissolved at the end of the Second Anglo-Sikh War in 1849 into separate princely states and the province of Punjab. Eventually, a Lieutenant Governorship was established in Lahore as a direct representative of the Crown. [76] :221

Colonial era

British Punjab Province, before 1947 Punjab 1909.jpg
British Punjab Province, before 1947

The Punjab was annexed by the East India Company in 1849. Although nominally part of the Bengal Presidency it was administratively independent. During the Indian Rebellion of 1857, apart from Revolt led by Ahmed Khan Kharal and Murree rebellion of 1857, the Punjab remained relatively peaceful. [77] In 1858, under the terms of the Queen's Proclamation issued by Queen Victoria, the Punjab came under the direct rule of Britain. Colonial rule had a profound impact on all areas of Punjabi life. Economically it transformed the Punjab into the richest farming area of India, socially it sustained the power of large landowners and politically it encouraged cross-communal co-operation among land owning groups. [78] The Punjab also became the major centre of recruitment into the Indian Army. By patronising influential local allies and focusing administrative, economic and constitutional policies on the rural population, the British ensured the loyalty of its large rural population. [78] Administratively, colonial rule instated a system of bureaucracy and measure of the law. The 'paternal' system of the ruling elite was replaced by 'machine rule' with a system of laws, codes, and procedures. For purposes of control, the British established new forms of communication and transportation, including post systems, railways, roads, and telegraphs. The creation of Canal Colonies in western Punjab between 1860 and 1947 brought 14 million acres of land under cultivation, and revolutionised agricultural practices in the region. [78] To the agrarian and commercial class was added a professional middle class that had risen the social ladder through the use of the English education, which opened up new professions in law, government, and medicine. [79] Despite these developments, colonial rule was marked by exploitation of resources. For the purpose of exports, the majority of external trade was controlled by British export banks. The Imperial government exercised control over the finances of Punjab and took the majority of the income for itself. [80]

In 1919, Reginald Dyer ordered his troops to fire on a crowd of demonstrators, mostly Sikhs in Amritsar. The Jallianwala massacre fuelled the indian independence movement. [29] Nationalists declared the independence of India from Lahore in 1930 but were quickly suppressed. [29] The struggle for Indian independence witnessed competing and conflicting interests in the Punjab. When the Second World War broke out, nationalism in British India had already divided into religious movements. [29] The landed elites of the Muslim, Hindu and Sikh communities had loyally collaborated with the British since annexation, supported the Unionist Party and were hostile to the Congress party led independence movement. [81] Amongst the peasantry and urban middle classes, the Hindus were the most active National Congress supporters, the Sikhs flocked to the Akali movement while the Muslims eventually supported the Muslim League. [81] Many Sikhs and other minorities supported the Hindus, who promised a secular multicultural and multireligious society. In March 1940, the All-India Muslim League passed the Lahore Resolution, demanding the creation of a separate state from Muslim majority areas in British India. This triggered bitter protests by the Hindus and Sikhs in Punjab, who could not accept living in a Muslim Islamic state. [82]

After the partition of the sub-continent had been decided, special meetings of the Western and Eastern Section of the Legislative Assembly were held on 23 June 1947 to decide whether or not the Province of the Punjab be partitioned. After voting on both sides, partition was decided and the existing Punjab Legislative Assembly was also divided into West Punjab Legislative Assembly and the East Punjab Legislative Assembly. This last Assembly before independence, held its last sitting on 4 July 1947. [83] During this period, the British granted separate independence to India and Pakistan, setting off massive communal violence as Punjabi Muslims fled to Pakistan and Hindu and Sikh Punjabis fled east to India. [29] The Sikhs later demanded a Punjabi-speaking Punjab state with an autonomous Sikh government. [29]

Post-colonial era

During the colonial era, the various districts and princely states that made up Punjab Province were religiously eclectic, each containing significant populations of Punjabi Muslims, Punjabi Hindus, Punjabi Sikhs, Punjabi Christians, along with other ethnic and religious minorities. However, a major consequence of independence and the partition of Punjab Province in 1947 was the sudden shift towards religious homogeneity occurred in all districts across province and region owing to the new international border that cut through the subdivision.

The demographic shift was captured when comparing decadal census data taken in 1941 and 1951 respectively, and was primarily due to wide scale migration but also caused by large-scale religious cleansing riots which were witnessed across the region at the time. According to historical demographer Tim Dyson, in the eastern regions of Punjab that ultimately became Indian Punjab following independence, districts that were 66% Hindu in 1941 became 80% Hindu in 1951; those that were 20% Sikh became 50% Sikh in 1951. Conversely, in the western regions of Punjab that ultimately became Pakistani Punjab, all districts became almost exclusively Muslim by 1951. [84]

Wagah Border is situated between Amritsar and Lahore, became the main border crossing after partition of Punjab and is known for its elaborate ceremony International border at Wagah - evening flag lowering ceremony.jpg
Wagah Border is situated between Amritsar and Lahore, became the main border crossing after partition of Punjab and is known for its elaborate ceremony

Following independence, several small Punjabi princely states, including Patiala, acceded to the Union of India and were united into the PEPSU. In 1956 this was integrated with the state of East Punjab to create a new, enlarged Indian state called simply "Punjab". Punjab Day is celebrated across the state on 1 November every year marking the formation of a Punjabi language speaking state under the Punjab Reorganisation Act (1966). [85] [86]

In 1966, following Hindu and Sikh Punjabi demands, the Indian government divided Punjab into the state of Punjab and the Hindi majority-speaking states of Haryana and Himachal Pradesh. [29]

During the 1960s, Punjab was known for its prosperity within India, largely due to its fertile lands and industrious inhabitants. However, a significant portion of the Sikh community felt a sense of disparity from the central government of India. The roots of such grievances stretched back several decades, with the primary issue revolving around the distribution of water from the trio of rivers – Ravi, Beas, and Sutlej – that flowed across the Punjabi territory. [87]

Although Punjab had these waterways running across its lands, it was lawfully granted only a quarter of the water, precisely 24%, as per the Inter-State Water Disputes Act. The rest, a staggering 76%, was assigned to Rajasthan and Haryana. To many Punjabis, especially the farming community who heavily depended on these waters for irrigation, this allocation seemed inequitable. The water distribution was a significant contributing factor to the growing sense of disgruntlement against the central government. [87]

The seeds of discontent further sprouted with the advent of the Green Revolution during the 1960s. This initiative sought to boost agricultural output by introducing high-yield seed varieties, and enhancing the use of fertilisers and irrigation. In the midst of this transformative phase, Punjab became known as India's "food basket", contributing considerably to the nation's agricultural production. Yet, the financial profits garnered from this agricultural surge weren't fairly distributed. [88]

The majority of the gains were hoarded by landowners, who typically owned large plots and were best positioned to exploit the emerging technologies and farming practices. The working class and economically underprivileged segments of society, who often toiled as labourers on these farms, were left with only minor benefits. This uneven distribution of wealth conflicted sharply with Sikh religious customs, which preached economic justice and fair wealth distribution. [89]

The Green Revolution dealt a severe blow to Punjab's small farmers. The larger landowners, with their access to abundant resources and capital, were well-suited to adopt the agricultural innovations brought by the Revolution. This situation sparked further resentment among small farmers, many of whom were forced to relinquish their lands, unable to compete, thereby intensifying the economic chasm. [87]

Beyond the farming sector, Punjab lacked substantial employment opportunities. An excessive focus on agriculture resulted in the state's industrial sector's neglect, leaving it notably underdeveloped. This skewed concentration on agriculture meant that many economically challenged peasants, without feasible employment alternatives, felt cornered and disgruntled. [88]

Even the affluent landowners, the initial beneficiaries of the Green Revolution, felt the economic pinch due to soaring prices of farming inputs like fertilisers and pesticides, and the dearth of essential resources like electricity and water. [89]

Although the Green Revolution was primarily conceived to amplify productivity, it couldn't sustain this increased output over a prolonged period. The introduction of novel crop varieties led to a decline in genetic diversity, thus introducing a new ecological risk. Furthermore, these new crops demanded more water and were highly dependent on chemical fertilisers, both of which had deleterious environmental consequences. Overuse of water led to groundwater resource depletion, and heavy chemical usage adversely affected soil and water systems, further undermining long-term productivity. [87]

From 1981 to 1995 the state suffered a 14-year-long insurgency. Problems began due to disputes between Punjabi Sikhs and the central government of the Republic of India. Tensions escalated throughout the early 1980s and eventually culminated with Operation Blue Star in 1984; an Indian Army operation aimed at the dissident Sikh community of Punjab. Shortly thereafter, Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi was assassinated by two of her Sikh bodyguards. The decade that followed was noted for widespread inter-communal violence and accusations of genocide on the part of the Sikh community by the Indian government. [90]

Geography

Punjab is in northwestern India and has a total area of 50,362 square kilometres (19,445 sq mi). Punjab is bordered by Pakistan's Punjab province on the west, Jammu and Kashmir on the north, Himachal Pradesh on the northeast and Haryana and Rajasthan on the south. [9] Most of Punjab lies in a fertile, alluvial plain with perennial rivers and an extensive irrigation canal system. [91] A belt of undulating hills extends along the northeastern part of the state at the foot of the Himalayas. Its average elevation is 300 metres (980 ft) above sea level, with a range from 180 metres (590 ft) in the southwest to more than 500 metres (1,600 ft) around the northeast border. The southwest of the state is semi-arid, eventually merging into the Thar Desert. Of the five Punjab rivers, three—Sutlej, Beas and Ravi—flow through the Indian state. The Sutlej and Ravi define parts of the international border with Pakistan.

The soil characteristics are influenced to a limited extent by the topography, vegetation and parent rock. The variation in soil profile characteristics are much more pronounced because of the regional climatic differences. [92] Punjab is divided into three distinct regions on the basis of soil types: southwestern, central, and eastern. Punjab falls under seismic zones II, III, and IV. Zone II is considered a low-damage risk zone; zone III is considered a moderate-damage risk zone; and zone IV is considered a high-damage risk zone. [93]

Climate

Agricultural fields of Punjab during the monsoon Punjab Monsoon.jpg
Agricultural fields of Punjab during the monsoon

The geography and subtropical latitudinal location of Punjab lead to large variations in temperature from month to month. Even though only limited regions experience temperatures below 0 °C (32 °F), ground frost is commonly found in the majority of Punjab during the winter season. The temperature rises gradually with high humidity and overcast skies. However, the rise in temperature is steep when the sky is clear and humidity is low. [94]

The maximum temperatures usually occur in mid-May and June. The temperature remains above 40 °C (104 °F) in the entire region during this period. Ludhiana recorded the highest maximum temperature at 46.1 °C (115.0 °F) with Patiala and Amritsar recording 45.5 °C (113.9 °F). The maximum temperature during the summer in Ludhiana remains above 41 °C (106 °F) for a duration of one and a half months. These areas experience the lowest temperatures in January. The sun rays are oblique during these months and the cold winds control the temperature at daytime. [94]

Punjab experiences its minimum temperature from December to February. The lowest temperature was recorded at Amritsar (0.2 °C (32.4 °F)) and Ludhiana stood second with 0.5 °C (32.9 °F). The minimum temperature of the region remains below 5 °C (41 °F) for almost two months during the winter season. The highest minimum temperature of these regions in June is more than the daytime maximum temperatures experienced in January and February. Ludhiana experiences minimum temperatures above 27 °C (81 °F) for more than two months. The annual average temperature in the entire state is approximately 21 °C (70 °F). Further, the mean monthly temperature range varies between 9 °C (48 °F) in July to approximately 18 °C (64 °F) in November. [94]

Punjab
State of Punjab
Golden Temple, Amritsar, Punjab UNAG.jpg
Virasat-e-Khalsa-Roxy.jpg
Devi Talab Mandir.jpg
Fateh Burj night.png
Khalsa College-Monumentos de Amritsar-India16.JPG
Panorama of Jallianwala Bagh-IMG 6348 (cropped).jpg
Qila Mubarak In 2015.jpg
Etymology: Land of five rivers
Motto(s): 
Satyameva Jayate
"Truth alone triumphs"
IN-PB.svg
Location of Punjab in India
Coordinates: 30°47′N75°50′E / 30.79°N 75.84°E / 30.79; 75.84
CountryFlag of India.svg  India
Region North India
Before was East Punjab
PEPSU
Formation 26 January 1950
Capital Chandigarh
Largest city Ludhiana
Districts 23
Government
  Body Government of Punjab
   Governor Banwarilal Purohit
   Chief minister Bhagwant Mann (AAP)
State Legislature Unicameral
   Assembly Punjab Legislative Assembly (117 seats)
National Parliament Parliament of India
   Rajya Sabha 7 seats
   Lok Sabha 13 seats
High Court Punjab and Haryana High Court
Area
  Total50,362 km2 (19,445 sq mi)
  Rank 20th
Elevation
[1]
300 m (1,000 ft)
Highest elevation
(Naina Devi Range)
1,000 m (3,000 ft)
Lowest elevation
(South Western side)
105 m (344 ft)
Population
 (2011) [2]
  TotalIncrease Neutral.svg 27,743,338
  Rank 16th
  Density550/km2 (1,400/sq mi)
  Urban
37.48%
  Rural
62.52%
Demonym Punjabis
Language
   Official Punjabi [3]
   Official script Gurmukhi script
GDP
[4]
  Total (2024-25)Increase2.svg 8..02 trillion (US$100 billion)
  Rank 16th
  Per capitaIncrease Neutral.svg 264,000 (US$3,300) (17th)
Time zone UTC+05:30 (IST)
ISO 3166 code IN-PB
Vehicle registration PB
HDI (2019)Increase Neutral.svg 0.724 High [5] (9th)
Literacy (2011)Increase2.svg 75.84% (21st)
Sex ratio (2021)938/1000 [6] (25th)
Website punjab.gov.in
SymbolsofPunjab
Seal of Punjab.svg
Bird Northern goshawk [7]
Flower Gladiolus
Fruit Mandarin orange
Mammal Blackbuck
Indus river dolphin
Tree Sheesham
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)26.8
(80.2)
32.2
(90.0)
36.2
(97.2)
44.1
(111.4)
48.0
(118.4)
47.8
(118.0)
45.6
(114.1)
40.7
(105.3)
40.6
(105.1)
38.3
(100.9)
34.2
(93.6)
28.5
(83.3)
48.0
(118.4)
Mean maximum °C (°F)22.7
(72.9)
26.1
(79.0)
32.4
(90.3)
40.6
(105.1)
44.5
(112.1)
44.6
(112.3)
39.8
(103.6)
37.0
(98.6)
36.4
(97.5)
35.3
(95.5)
30.4
(86.7)
25.2
(77.4)
45.6
(114.1)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F)17.7
(63.9)
21.7
(71.1)
27.0
(80.6)
34.4
(93.9)
39.4
(102.9)
38.9
(102.0)
35.0
(95.0)
34.1
(93.4)
33.9
(93.0)
32.0
(89.6)
27.0
(80.6)
20.9
(69.6)
30.1
(86.2)
Daily mean °C (°F)11.0
(51.8)
14.4
(57.9)
19.0
(66.2)
25.4
(77.7)
30.7
(87.3)
31.8
(89.2)
30.3
(86.5)
29.7
(85.5)
28.2
(82.8)
24.1
(75.4)
18.1
(64.6)
12.6
(54.7)
22.9
(73.2)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F)3.8
(38.8)
6.7
(44.1)
11.2
(52.2)
16.6
(61.9)
21.9
(71.4)
24.7
(76.5)
25.7
(78.3)
25.3
(77.5)
22.7
(72.9)
16.4
(61.5)
9.4
(48.9)
4.6
(40.3)
15.7
(60.3)
Mean minimum °C (°F)−0.3
(31.5)
2.2
(36.0)
6.1
(43.0)
10.9
(51.6)
16.6
(61.9)
19.7
(67.5)
21.8
(71.2)
21.7
(71.1)
18.5
(65.3)
11.8
(53.2)
5.2
(41.4)
0.5
(32.9)
−0.7
(30.7)
Record low °C (°F)−2.9
(26.8)
−2.6
(27.3)
2.0
(35.6)
6.4
(43.5)
9.6
(49.3)
15.6
(60.1)
18.2
(64.8)
18.8
(65.8)
13.0
(55.4)
7.3
(45.1)
−0.6
(30.9)
−3.6
(25.5)
−3.6
(25.5)
Average rainfall mm (inches)27.1
(1.07)
39.8
(1.57)
32.6
(1.28)
21.9
(0.86)
20.8
(0.82)
80.9
(3.19)
181.6
(7.15)
168.9
(6.65)
90.7
(3.57)
12.3
(0.48)
5.8
(0.23)
6.8
(0.27)
689.2
(27.13)
Average rainy days2.13.12.41.92.04.88.17.03.71.00.60.837.4
Average relative humidity (%) (at 17:30 IST)68585032264065706452536353
Average dew point °C (°F)7.0
(44.6)
10.0
(50.0)
13.3
(55.9)
14.0
(57.2)
15.0
(59.0)
19.5
(67.1)
25.0
(77.0)
25.6
(78.1)
23.5
(74.3)
18.3
(64.9)
12.0
(53.6)
8.0
(46.4)
15.9
(60.7)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 181.7192.7219.4265.0294.7269.0215.5227.7240.8253.2220.1182.22,762
Average ultraviolet index 2467897655425
Source 1: India Meteorological Department [95] [96] [97] Time and Date (dewpoints, 2005-2015) [98]
Source 2: NOAA (sun 1971–1990) [99] Tokyo Climate Center (mean temperatures 1991–2020); [100] Weather Atlas [101]
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)29.2
(84.6)
33.3
(91.9)
41.1
(106.0)
46.1
(115.0)
48.3
(118.9)
47.9
(118.2)
47.8
(118.0)
44.4
(111.9)
41.7
(107.1)
40.0
(104.0)
35.8
(96.4)
29.4
(84.9)
48.3
(118.9)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F)17.9
(64.2)
21.8
(71.2)
27.3
(81.1)
34.8
(94.6)
39.0
(102.2)
38.0
(100.4)
34.1
(93.4)
33.4
(92.1)
33.1
(91.6)
31.9
(89.4)
27.1
(80.8)
20.9
(69.6)
29.9
(85.8)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F)6.1
(43.0)
8.7
(47.7)
13.0
(55.4)
18.2
(64.8)
23.5
(74.3)
26.1
(79.0)
26.6
(79.9)
25.9
(78.6)
23.5
(74.3)
17.3
(63.1)
11.2
(52.2)
6.8
(44.2)
17.2
(63.0)
Record low °C (°F)−2.2
(28.0)
−1.1
(30.0)
1.4
(34.5)
7.1
(44.8)
11.7
(53.1)
18.0
(64.4)
17.4
(63.3)
18.0
(64.4)
15.2
(59.4)
8.4
(47.1)
0.3
(32.5)
−1.1
(30.0)
−2.2
(28.0)
Average rainfall mm (inches)28.0
(1.10)
36.2
(1.43)
27.0
(1.06)
17.5
(0.69)
21.2
(0.83)
87.4
(3.44)
217.1
(8.55)
187.2
(7.37)
138.4
(5.45)
18.8
(0.74)
3.9
(0.15)
8.6
(0.34)
791.1
(31.15)
Average rainy days2.12.92.11.71.74.98.68.75.51.00.40.940.6
Average relative humidity (%) (at 17:30 IST)66584827264267736550506253
Average dew point °C (°F)8
(46)
12
(54)
15
(59)
16
(61)
19
(66)
23
(73)
26
(79)
26
(79)
24
(75)
19
(66)
13
(55)
10
(50)
18
(64)
Average ultraviolet index 4578998776547
Source 1: India Meteorological Department [102] [103] Time and Date (dewpoints, 2005-2015) [104]
Source 2: Weather Atlas [105]

Seasons

Punjab experiences three main seasons. They are:

Apart from these three, the state experiences transitional seasons like:

Summer

Punjab starts experiencing mildly hot temperatures in February. The actual summer season commences in mid-April and the heat continues till the end of August. High temperatures between May and August hover between 40 and 47 °C. The area experiences atmospheric pressure variations during the summer months. The atmospheric pressure of the region remains around 987 millibar during February and it reaches 970 millibar in June. [94]

Monsoon

Punjab's rainy season begins in the first week of July as monsoon currents generated in the Bay of Bengal bring rain to the region. The monsoon lasts up to mid-September. [94]

Post-Monsoon transitional season

The monsoon begins to reduce by the second week of September. This brings a gradual change in climate and temperature. The time between October and November is the transitional period between monsoon and winter seasons. Weather during this period is generally temperate and dry. [94]

Winter

Temperature variation is minimal in January. The mean night and day temperatures fall to 5 °C (41 °F) and 12 °C (54 °F), respectively. [94]

Post-Winter transitional season

The effects of winter diminish by the first week of March. The hot summer season commences in mid-April. This period is marked by occasional showers with hail storms and squalls that cause extensive damage to crops. The winds remain dry and warm during the last week of March, commencing the harvest period. [94]

Rainfall

Monsoon season provides most of the rainfall for the region. Punjab receives rainfall from the monsoon current of the Bay of Bengal. This monsoon current enters the state from the southeast in the first week of July. [94]

The winter season remains very cool with temperatures falling below freezing at some places. Winter also brings in some western disturbances. [94] Rainfall in the winter provides relief to the farmers as some of the winter crops in the region of Shivalik Hills are entirely dependent on this rainfall. As per meteorological statistics, the sub-Shivalik area receives more than 100 millimetres (3.9 in) of rainfall in the winter months. [94]

Wildlife

Agriculture in Punjab Agriculture in Punjab India.jpg
Agriculture in Punjab

The fauna of the area is rich, with 396 types of birds, 214 kinds of Lepidoptera, 55 varieties of fish, 20 types of reptiles, and 19 kinds of mammals. The state of Punjab has large wetland areas, bird sanctuaries that house numerous species of birds, and many zoological parks. Wetlands include the national wetland Hari-Ke-Pattan, the wetland of Kanjli, and the wetlands of Kapurthala Sutlej. Wildlife sanctuaries include the Harike in the district of Tarn Taran Sahib, the Zoological Park in Rupnagar, Chhatbir Bansar Garden in Sangrur, Aam Khas Bagh in Sirhind, Amritsar's famous Ram Bagh Palace, Shalimar Garden in Kapurthala, and the famous Baradari Garden in the city of Patiala. [106]

Flora

Punjab has the lowest forest cover as a percentage of land area of any Indian state, with 3.6% of its total area under forest cover as of 2017. [107] During the Green Revolution, large tracts of jungles were cut-down in the state to make room for agriculture and forested areas were also cleared for road infrastructure and residential homes. [107] Various NGOs are working towards afforestation and reforestation of the state by launching educational drives, planting saplings, working towards regulatory changes, and pressuring organisations to follow environmental laws. [107] One NGO, EcoSikh, has planted over 100 forests, composed of native plant species, in the state using the Japanese Miyawaki methodology that are named 'Guru Nanak Sacred Forests'. [108] [109] [110] Native plant species are facing the risk of extirpation from the state but planting mini-forests throughout the land can help prevent this from occurring. [111] Prior to the Green Revolution, Butea monosperma (known as 'dhak' in Punjabi) trees were found in abundance in the state. [112]

Fauna

Inlaid stone art (jaratkari) from the walls of the Golden Temple shrine in Amritsar depicting a predatory cat hunting a blackbuck antelope Inlaid stone art (jaratkari) from the walls of the Golden Temple shrine in Amritsar depicting a predatory cat hunting an antelope.jpg
Inlaid stone art (jaratkari) from the walls of the Golden Temple shrine in Amritsar depicting a predatory cat hunting a blackbuck antelope

A few of the rivers in Punjab have crocodiles, including reintroduced gharials in the Beas River after half a century of their extirpation from the state. [113] [114] [115] Indus river dolphins can be found in the Harike Wetland. [116] The extraction of silk from silkworms is another industry that flourishes in the state. Production of bee honey is done in some parts of Punjab. The southern plains are desert land; hence, camels can be seen. Buffaloes graze around the banks of rivers. The northeastern part is home to animals like horses. Wildlife sanctuaries have many more species of wild animals like the otter, wild boar, wildcat, fruit bat, hog deer, flying fox, squirrel, and mongoose. Naturally formed forests can be seen in the Shivalik ranges in the districts of Ropar, Gurdaspur and Hoshiarpur. Patiala is home to the Bir forest while the wetlands area in Punjab is home to the Mand forest. [117] The local subspecies of blackbuck, A. c. rajputanae, is facing the risk of extirpation from the state. [118] [119] [120]

Botanical gardens exist throughout Punjab. There is a zoological park and a tiger safari park, as well as three parks dedicated to deer. [117]

The state bird is the northern goshawk (baz) (Accipiter gentilis), [121] the state animal is the blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra), the state aquatic animal is Indus river dolphin (Platanista minor), and the state tree is the shisham ( Dalbergia sissoo ). [122]

Demographics

Population Growth
YearPop.±%
18816,607,699    
19017,679,645+16.2%
19116,830,507−11.1%
19217,262,881+6.3%
19318,123,076+11.8%
19419,767,161+20.2%
19519,160,500−6.2%
196111,135,069+21.6%
197113,551,060+21.7%
198116,788,915+23.9%
199120,281,969+20.8%
200124,358,999+20.1%
201127,743,338+13.9%
source:Census of India [lower-alpha 2] [lower-alpha 3] [lower-alpha 4] [lower-alpha 5] [lower-alpha 6] [lower-alpha 7] [132]

Punjab is home to 2.3% of India's population; with a density of 551 persons per km2. According to the provisional results of the 2011 national census, Punjab has a population of 27,743,338, making it the 16th most populated state in India. Of which male and female are 14,639,465 and 13,103,873 respectively. [133] 32% of Punjab's population consists of Dalits. [134] In the state, the rate of population growth is 13.9% (2011), lower than national average. According to the nation family health survey 2019-21, total fertility rate of Punjab was 1.6 children per women. [135] [136]

Out of total population, 37.5% people live in urban regions. The total figure of population living in urban areas is 10,399,146 of which 5,545,989 are males and while remaining 4,853,157 are females. The urban population in the last 10 years has increased by 37.5%.

Percentage of rural and urban population in Punjab [137]
YearRural %Urban %
201162.51%37.49%
200166.08%33.92%
199170.45%29.55%
198172.32%27.68%
197176.27%23.73%
Numbers of rural and urban population in Punjab [137]
YearRural (in millions)Urban (in millions)Total (in millions)
201117.3210.327.70
200116.108.2624.36
199114.295.9920.28
198112.144.6516.79
197110.333.2213.55

The table below gives the population density (persons per square kilometre) of Punjab through the years. [138]

Population density of Punjab by year [138]
YearDensity (persons per square kilometre)
2011551
2001484
1991403
1981333

The table below shows the population density by district in Punjab, according to the 2011 census. [138]

Population density of districts of Punjab - census 2011 [138]
Sr. No.DistrictDensity (persons per square kilometre)
1Ludhiana978
2Amritsar928
3SAS Nagar909
4Jalandhar836
5Gurdaspur647
6Patiala570
7Fatehgarh Sahib509
8Rupnagar505
9Kapurthala499
10SBS Nagar478
11Hoshiarpur469
12Tarn Taran464
13Sangrur457
14Moga444
15Faridkot424
16Bathinda414
17Barnala402
18Ferozepur382
19Mansa350
20Sri Muktsar Sahib348
Punjab551

Gender

There has been a constant decline in the sex ratio of the state. The sex ratio in Punjab was 895 females per 1000 males, which was below the national average of 940. In June 2023, state government under Aam Aadmi party announced that all women on the birth of a second girl child will receive 6000 rupees. [139]

The table below shows the sex ratio of the districts in 2011, in descending order. [140]

Sex ratio by districts (2011)
Sr. No.DistrictSex ratio
1Hoshiarpur961
2Shahid Bhagat Singh Nagar954
3Jalandhar915
4Rupnagar915
5Kapurthala912
6Tarn Taran900
7Muktsar896
8Gurdaspur895
9Moga893
10Firozpur893
11Patiala891
12Faridkot890
13Amritsar889
14Sangrur885
15Mansa883
16Mohali879
17Barnala876
18Ludhiana873
19Fatehgarh Sahib871
20Bathinda868

Literacy

The literacy rate rose to 75.84% as per 2011 population census, which was only slightly higher than the national average of 74.04%. Of that, male literacy stands at 80.4% while female literacy is at 70.7%. In actual numbers, total literates in Punjab stands at 18,707,137 of which males were 10,436,056 and females were 8,271,081.

The median number of years of schooling completed in the state was 6.5 for females and 7.8 for males, as of 2011. [141]

The table given below shows the literacy rate by district for year 2011 in descending order. [142] [143]

Literacy rate by districts - 2011 census [142] [143]
Sr. No.DistrictPercentage
1Hoshiarpur84.59%
2Mohali83.80%
3Jalandhar82.48%
4Ludhiana82.20%
5Rupnagar82.19%
6Gurdaspur79.95%
7Shahid Bhagat Singh Nagar79.78%
8Fatehgarh Sahib79.35%
9Kapurthala79.07%
10Amritsar76.27%
11Patiala75.28%
12Moga70.68%
13Faridkot69.55%
14Firozpur68.92%
15Bathinda68.28%
16Sangrur67.99%
17Barnala67.82%
18Tarn Taran67.81%
19Muktsar65.81%
20Mansa61.83%

Language

Languages of Punjab, India
(First Language) (2011) [144]

   Punjabi (89.8%)
   Hindi (7.9%)
  Others (2.3%)

Punjabi is the native and sole official language of Punjab and as of the 2011 census, is spoken as first language by 24.9 million people, or roughly 90% of the state's population. [3] Hindi is spoken by 2.18 million, or 7.9% of the population, Bagri has 234,000 speakers (or 0.8%), while the remaining 413,000 (or 1.5%) spoke other languages. [144]

Caste

Castes of Punjab (2011)

   Scheduled Castes (Dalits) (31.9%)
   Upper castes (UC) (30%)
   Other Backward Classes (OBC or BC) (31.3%)
  religious minorities (3.8%)
   Rai Sikhs (3%)

The 2011 Census of India found Scheduled Castes to account for 31.9% of the state's population. [145] The Other Backward Classes have 31.3% population in Punjab. [146] The exact population of Forward castes is not known as their data from Socio Economic and Caste Census 2011 is not made public as of 2019. [147]

According to the 2011 census, 73.33% of scheduled caste people reside in rural areas and 26.67% in urban areas of Punjab. Punjab accounts for 4.3% of the SC population of the country, despite having only 2.3% of the total population. The population growth rate of SC population between 2001 and 2011 was 26.06%, compared to 13.89% for the state as a whole. Literacy rate among SCs was 64.81%, compared to 75.84% of the state as a whole. [148]

As per National Family Health Survey (NFHS-4, 2015–16), the infant mortality rate was 40 per 1000 live births before the age of one year for scheduled castes, compared to 29 per 1000 births for the state as a whole. The infant mortality rate for Other Backward Castes (OBC) was 21 per 1000 live births and 22 per 1000 for those who are not from SC and OBC classes. Although the prevalence of anaemia (low levels of haemoglobin in the blood) has been found quite high among all population groups in Punjab, it was still higher among the SC population than other groups. For the women between the ages of 15 and 49 years, the prevalence of anaemia among SC women was 56.9%, compared to 53.5% for the state as a whole. Among the children between the ages of 6 and 59 months, the rate of anaemia for SC children was 60%, compared to 56.9% for the state as a whole. [148]

Below is the list of districts according to the percentage of their SC population, according to 2011 census. [148] [149] [150] [151]

Scheduled Caste population by district (2011) [149]
Sr. No.DistrictPercentage
1Shahid Bhagat Singh Nagar42.51%
2Muktsar42.31%
3Fazilka42.27%
4Firozpur42.07%
5Jalandhar38.95%
6Faridkot38.92%
7Moga36.50%
8Hoshiarpur35.14%
9Kapurthala33.94%
10Tarn Taran33.71%
11Mansa33.63%
12Bathinda32.44%
13Barnala32.24%
14Fatehgarh Sahib32.07%
15Amritsar30.95%
16Pathankot30.60%
17Sangrur27.89%
18Ludhiana26.39%
19Rupnagar25.42%
20Patiala24.55%
21Gurdaspur23.03%
22SAS Nagar21.74%

Religion

Punjab has the largest population of Sikhs in India and is the only state where Sikhs form a majority, numbering around 16 million forming 57.7% of the state population. [12] Hinduism is the second largest religion in the Indian state of Punjab numbering around 10.68 million and forming 38.5% of the state's population and a majority in Doaba region. Islam is followed by 535,489 accounting 1.9% of the population and are mainly concentrated in Malerkotla and Qadian. Other smaller segments of religions existing in Punjab are Christianity practised by 1.3%, Jainism practised by 0.2%, Buddhism practised by 0.1% and others 0.3%. Sikhs form a majority in 17 districts out of the total 23 districts while Hindus form the majority in 5 districts, namely, Pathankot, Jalandhar, Hoshiarpur, Fazilka and Shaheed Bhagat Singh Nagar districts. [152]

Religion in Punjab, India (1881–2011)
Religious
group
1881 [123] [124] [125] [lower-alpha 2] 1901 [126] :34 [lower-alpha 3] 1911 [127] :27 [128] :27 [lower-alpha 4] 1921 [129] :29 [lower-alpha 5] 1931 [130] :277 [lower-alpha 6] 1941 [131] [lower-alpha 7] 2001 [153] 2011 [154]
Pop. %Pop.%Pop.%Pop.%Pop.%Pop.%Pop.%Pop.%
Hinduism Om.svg [lower-alpha 8] 2,839,9953,278,6202,383,9542,462,2152,351,4172,597,0388,997,94210,678,138
Islam Star and Crescent.svg 2,440,8882,898,1142,515,7742,686,5983,072,6193,748,410382,045535,489
Sikhism Khanda.svg 1,311,1391,479,0721,883,5722,043,5202,610,8103,291,34114,592,38716,004,754
Jainism Jain Prateek Chihna.svg 10,46312,30611,95111,03012,26212,48039,27645,040
Christianity Christian cross.svg 5,16011,41535,12559,36375,809103,477292,800348,230
Zoroastrianism Faravahar.svg 2210813113814590
Buddhism Dharma Wheel (2).svg 1301710441,48733,237
Judaism Star of David.svg 600425
Others [lower-alpha 9] 31100014,2968,59498,450
Total Population6,607,6997,679,6456,830,5077,262,8818,123,0769,767,16124,358,99927,743,338

Religion in Punjab, India (2011) [12]

   Sikhism (57.7%)
   Hinduism (38.5%)
   Islam (1.9%)
   Christianity (1.3%)
  Others (0.6%)

The table below shows the literacy rate by religion in Punjab, according to 2001 census. [155]

Literacy rate by religion in Punjab - Census 2001 [155]
Sr. No.ReligionPercentage
1Jains95.9%
2Hindus74.6%
3Buddhists72.7%
4Sikhs67.3%
5Christians54.6%
6Muslims51.2%
All religious groups69.7%

The Sikh shrine, Golden Temple (Harmandir Sahib), is in the city of Amritsar, which houses the Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee, the topmost Sikh religious body. The Sri Akal Takht Sahib, which is within the Golden Temple complex, is the highest temporal seat of Sikhs. Of the five Takhts (Temporal Seats of religious authority) of Sikhism, three are in Punjab. These are Sri Akal Takht Sahib, Damdama Sahib and Anandpur Sahib. At least one Sikh Gurdwara can be found in almost every village in the state, as well as in the towns and cities (in various architectural styles and sizes).

Hindu Mandirs can be found all over Punjab with the Shri Durgiana Mandir in Amritsar, and the Shri Devi Talab Mandir in Jalandhar visited by many pilgrims every year. Due to the open nature of their religion, a segment of Punjabis who are Punjabi Hindus continue heterogeneous religious practices in spiritual kinship with Sikhism. This not only includes veneration of the Sikh Gurus in private practice but also visit to Sikh Gurdwaras in addition to Hindu Mandirs. [156]

Government and politics

Punjab Legislative Assembly building Assembly 09.jpg
Punjab Legislative Assembly building

Punjab is governed through a parliamentary system of representative democracy. Each of the states of India possesses a parliamentary system of government, with a ceremonial state Governor, appointed by the President of India on the advice of the central government. The head of government is an indirectly elected Chief Minister who is vested with most of the executive powers. The term length of the government is five years. The state legislature, the Vidhan Sabha, is the unicameral Punjab Legislative Assembly, with 117 members elected from single-seat constituencies. [157]

The capital of Punjab is Chandigarh, which also serves as the capital of Haryana and is thus administered separately as a union territory of India. The judicial branch of the state government is provided by the Punjab and Haryana High Court in Chandigarh. [158]

The three major political parties in the state are the Aam Aadmi Party, a centrist to left wing party, the Shiromani Akali Dal, a Sikh right-wing Punjabiyat party and the Indian National Congress, a centrist catch all party. [159] President's rule has been imposed in Punjab eight times so far, since 1950, for different reasons. In terms of the absolute number of days, Punjab was under the President's rule for 3,510 days, which is approximately 10 years. Much of this was in the 80s during the height of militancy in Punjab. Punjab was under the President's rule for five continuous years from 1987 to 1992.

Punjab state law and order is maintained by Punjab Police. Punjab police is headed by its DGP, Dinkar Gupta, [160] and has 70,000 employees. It manages state affairs through 22 district heads known as SSP.

Administrative set-up

Districts of Punjab along with their headquarters Punjab district map.png
Districts of Punjab along with their headquarters
Administrative divisions of Punjab Administrative division of Punjab.png
Administrative divisions of Punjab

Punjab has 23 districts, which are geographically classified into Majha, Malwa, Doaba and Puadh regions, as under: –

These districts are officially divided among 5 administrative divisions: Faridkot, Ferozepur, Jalandhar, Patiala and Ropar(created on 31 December 2010, which was a part of Patiala Division earlier). [161]

Administrative Divisions and Corresponding Districts of Punjab
S. No.Name of the DivisionNo. of districtsName of the Districts
1Faridkot3 Bathinda, Faridkot, Mansa
2Ferozepur4 Fazilka, Ferozepur, Moga, Sri Muktsar Sahib
3Jalandhar7 Amritsar, Gurdaspur, Hoshiarpur, Jalandhar, Kapurthala, Pathankot, Tarn Taran
4Patiala6 Barnala, Fatehgarh Sahib, Ludhiana, Malerkotla, Patiala, Sangrur
5Ropar3 Rupnagar, SAS Nagar, SBS Nagar

Each district is under the administrative control of a District Collector. The districts are subdivided into 93 tehsils, which have fiscal and administrative powers over settlements within their borders, including maintenance of local land records comes under the administrative control of a Tehsildar. Each Tehsil consists of blocks which are total 150 in number. These blocks consist of Revenue Villages. There are total number of revenue villages in the state is 12,278. There are 23 Zila Parishads, 136 Municipal Committees and 22 Improvement Trusts looking after 143 towns and 14 cities of Punjab.

The capital city of the state is Chandigarh and largest city of the state is Ludhiana. Out of total population of Punjab, 37.48% people live in urban regions. The absolute urban population living in urban areas is 10,399,146 of which 5,545,989 are males and while remaining 4,853,157 are females. The urban population in the last 10 years has increased by 37.48%. The major cities are Ludhiana, Amritsar, Jalandhar, Mohali, Patiala and Bathinda.

Economy

Hall Gate of Amritsar Arrival in Amritsar.jpg
Hall Gate of Amritsar

Punjab's GDP is 5.42 trillion (US$68 billion). [4] Punjab is one of the most fertile regions in India. The region is ideal for wheat-growing. Rice, sugar cane, fruits and vegetables are also grown. Indian Punjab is called the "Granary of India" or "India's bread-basket". [162] It produces 10.26% of India's cotton, 19.5% of India's wheat, and 11% of India's rice. The Firozpur and Fazilka Districts are the largest producers of wheat and rice in the state. In worldwide terms, Indian Punjab produces 2% of the world's cotton, 2% of its wheat and 1% of its rice. [162]

Punjab ranked first in GDP per capita among Indian states in 1981 and fourth in 2001, but has experienced slower growth than the rest of India, having the second-slowest GDP per capita growth rate of all Indian states and UTs between 2000 and 2010, behind only Manipur. [163] [164] [165] [166] [167] [168] [169]

Agriculture

Punjab's economy has been primarily agriculture-based since the Green Revolution due to the presence of abundant water sources and fertile soils; [170] most of the state lies in a fertile alluvial plain with many rivers and an extensive irrigation canal system. [91] The largest cultivated crop is wheat. Other important crops are rice, cotton, sugarcane, pearl millet, maize, barley and fruit. Rice and wheat are doublecropped in Punjab with rice stalks being burned off over millions of acres prior to the planting of wheat. This widespread practice is polluting and wasteful. [171] Despite covering only 1.53% [10] of its geographical area, Punjab makes up for about 15–20% [172] [173] [174] [175] of India's wheat production, around 12% [176] [177] [178] [179] of its rice production, and around 5% [172] [180] [181] [182] of its milk production, being known as India's breadbasket. [183] [184] About 80% [185] -95% [186] of Punjab's agricultural land is owned by its Jat Sikh community despite it only forming 21% [187] of the state's population. [188] [189] [190]

In Punjab the consumption of fertiliser per hectare is 223.46 kg as compared to 90 kg nationally. The state has been awarded the National Productivity Award for agriculture extension services for ten years, from 1991 to 1992 to 1998–99 and from 2001 to 2003–04. In recent years a drop in productivity has been observed, mainly due to falling fertility of the soil. This is believed to be due to excessive use of fertilisers and pesticides over the years. Another worry is the rapidly falling water table on which almost 90% of the agriculture depends; alarming drops have been witnessed in recent years. By some estimates, groundwater is falling by a meter or more per year. [191] [192]

According to the India State Hunger Index, Punjab has the lowest level of hunger in India. [193]

Industries

Other major industries include financial services, the manufacturing of scientific instruments, agricultural goods, electrical goods, machine tools, textiles, sewing machines, sports goods, starch, fertilisers, bicycles, garments, and the processing of pine oil and sugar. [184] Minerals and energy resources also contribute to Punjab's economy to a much lesser extent. Punjab has the largest number of steel rolling mill plants in India, which are in "Steel Town"—Mandi Gobindgarh in the Fatehgarh Sahib district.

Remittances

Punjab also has a large diaspora that is mostly settled in the United Kingdom, the United States, and Canada, numbers about 3 million, and sends back billions of USD in remittances to the state, playing a major role in its economy. [194]

Transport

Air

Sri Guru Ram Dass Jee International Airport in Amritsar Sri Guru Ram Dass Jee International Airport, Amritsar.jpg
Sri Guru Ram Dass Jee International Airport in Amritsar

Sri Guru Ram Dass Jee International Airport in Amritsar, is the Primary Hub Airport and Gateway to Punjab, as the airport serves direct connectivity to key cities around the world, including London, Singapore, Moscow, Dubai, Birmingham among others.

Punjab has six civil airports including two international airports: Amritsar International Airport and Chandigarh International Airport at Mohali; and four domestic airports: Bathinda Airport, Pathankot Airport, Adampur Airport (Jalandhar) and Sahnewal Airport (Ludhiana). Apart from these 6 airports, there are 2 airfields at Beas (Amritsar) and Patiala which do not serve any commercial flight operations, as of now.

Railways

View of Ludhiana Railway Station LDH PF4.JPG
View of Ludhiana Railway Station

The Indian Railways' Northern Railway line runs through the state connecting most of the major towns and cities. The Shatabdi Express, India's fastest series of train connects Amritsar to New Delhi covering total distance of 449 km. Amritsar Junction Railway Station is the busiest junction of the state. Bathinda Junction holds the record of maximum railway lines from a railway junction in Asia. Punjab's major railway stations are Amritsar Junction (ASR), Ludhiana Junction (LDH), Jalandhar Cantonment (JRC), Firozpur Cantonment (FZR), Jalandhar City Junction (JUC), Pathankot Junction (PTK) and Patiala railway station (PTA). The railway stations of Amritsar is included in the Indian Railways list of 50 world-class railway stations. [195]

Hyperloop

Punjab Government have signed a MoU (Memorandum of Understanding) with Virgin Hyperloop One to explore the feasibility of running a Hyperloop between Amritsar and Chandigarh which could decrease the travel time between 2 cities from five hours by road to less than 30 minutes. It will have stops in Ludhiana and Jalandhar. [196]

Roads

Amritsar Inter State Bus Stand ISBT Amritsar.jpg
Amritsar Inter State Bus Stand

All the cities and towns of Punjab are connected by four-lane national highways. The Grand Trunk Road, also known as "NH1", connects Kolkata to Peshawar, passing through Amritsar and Jalandhar. National highways passing through the state are ranked the best in the country[ by whom? ] with widespread road networks that serve isolated towns as well as the border region. Amritsar and Ludhiana are among several Indian cities that have the highest accident rates in India. [197]

The following expressways will pass through Punjab:

The following national highways connect major towns, cities and villages:

Urban Rapid Transit System

There are also a bus rapid transit system Amritsar BRTS in the holy city of Amritsar, popularly known as 'Amritsar MetroBus' [198]

Education

Schools

Primary and Secondary education is mainly affiliated to Punjab School Education Board. Punjab is served by several institutions of higher education, including 23 universities that provide undergraduate and postgraduate courses in all the major arts, humanities, science, engineering, law, medicine, veterinary science, and business. Reading and writing Punjabi language is compulsory till matriculation for every student [199] failing which the schools attract fine or cancellation of licence. [200]

The table below shows the district level teacher to pupil ratio from class 1 to 5 in Punjab, as of 2017. [201] [202] [203] [204]

District-wise Teacher-Pupil Ratio of Class 1 to 5 in 2017 (As on 30 September) [201]
Sr. No.DistrictRatio
1Hoshiarpur15
2Rupnagar16
3Fatehgarh Sahib16
4SAS Nagar17
5SBS Nagar18
6Gurdaspur18
7Pathankot19
8Kapurthala20
9Faridkot20
10Sri Muktsar Sahib20
11Jalandhar21
12Sangrur21
13Patiala22
14Ludhiana24
15Bathinda24
16Barnala26
17Fazilka27
18Amritsar30
19Ferozpur30
20Mansa30
21Moga31
22Taran taran46

The table below shows the average population per school in each district of Punjab as of 2011 census and the total number of schools as of 2017. This includes government schools, affiliated schools, recognised and aided schools. [205] Note:- Pathankot and Fazilka were part of Gurdaspur and Ferozepur respectively, before 2011, so separate data for them regarding the average population per school is not available.

District-wise average price per school as of 2011 census and total number of schools as of 2017 [205]
Sr. No.DistrictAverage population per school (2011)Total number of schools (2017)
1SBS Nagar2,251272
2Kapurthala2,433335
3Fatehgarh Sahib2,480242
4Gurdaspur2,582637
Pathankot----193
5Hoshiarpur2,584614
6Moga2,613381
7Faridkot2,616236
8Rupnagar2,706253
9Sangrur2,908569
10Sri Muktsar Sahib2,918309
11Mansa2,937262
12Ferozpur3,023419
Fazilka----252
13Patiala3,251583
14Barnala3,403175
15Jalandhar3,476631
16Bathinda3,533393
17Amritsar3,722669
18Ludhiana3,770928
19SAS Nagar3,812261
20Taran taran4,373372

Colleges and universities

Punjab Agricultural University is a leading institution globally for the study of agriculture and played a significant role in Punjab's Green Revolution in the 1960s–70s. Alumni of the Panjab University, Chandigarh include Manmohan Singh, the former Prime Minister of India, and Har Gobind Khorana, a biochemistry nobel laureate. One of the oldest institutions of medical education is the Christian Medical College, Ludhiana, which has existed since 1894. [206] There is an existing gap in education between men and women, particularly in rural areas of Punjab. Of a total of 1 million 300 thousand students enrolled in grades five to eight, only 44% are women. [207]

Punjab has 23 universities, of which ten are private, 9 are state, one is central and three are deemed universities. Punjab has 104,000 (104,000) engineering seats. [208]

Punjab is also increasingly becoming known for education of yoga and naturopathy, with its student slowly adopting these as their career. The Board of Naturopathy and Yoga Science (BNYS) is located in the state. [209] Regional College Dinanagar is the first college to be opened in Dinanagar Town. [210]

Health

According to the National Family Health Survey (NFHS) data from 2015–16, the rate stunting (low height for age) for children between the ages of 0–59 months was 26%, which was lower than the national average of 38%. As of 2015-16, 56.6% children between the ages of 0–57 months were said to be having some degree of anaemia in Punjab. [211] According to the national family health survey of 2020-21, anaemia rate increased to 71.1%. [212]

According to the National Family Health Survey 2020-21, the percentage of people in Punjab above the age of 15 who consume alcohol was 22.8% for men and 0.3% for women. The rate of tobacco usage in the same age group was 12.9% for men and 0.4% for women. According to the same report, the percentage of males in the age group of 15-49 who were obese or overweight was 32.2% in 2020-21, which an increase from the 27.8% in 2015-16. For women in the same age group, the number in 2020-21 was 40.8% which was an increase from 31.3% in 2015-16. Moreover, according to the same report, 63.1% of the men and 72.8% of the women have high risk waist-to-hip ratio, as of 2020-21. [212]

The table below shows the district wise number of registered doctors and other registered medical personnel in Punjab, in year 2018. [213] [214] Note:- The ranks of the districts in this table are in the descending order of the number of registered doctors.

District wise number of registered doctors and other medical personnel in Punjab, in year 2018 [213] [214] [215]
Sr. No.DistrictDoctorsNursesMidwives
1Ludhiana4,98910,9048,121
2Amritsar4,1416,5314,018
3Patiala3,9353,2791,963
4Jalandhar3,2685,1194,081
5Hoshiarpur1,6403,9442,806
6Sangrur1,2862,5673,374
7Gurdaspur1,0586,1186,472
8Ferozpur1,0364,4593,096
9Bathinda8982,1042,774
10Rupnagar8642,4092,159
11Kapurthala7372,165766
12SAS Nagar5452,7901,788
13Faridkot4992,9973,037
14Mansa3252,6163,424
15Moga3123,1722,084
16Sri Muktsar Sahib2832,648839
17SBS Nagar2622,516383
18Barnala2002,037825
19Fatehgarh Sahib1982,064306
20Fazilka162460987
21Pathankot14550120
22Tarn Taran843,3782,370
Outside State Territory6302,855989
Punjab29,77277,18256,782

The table below shows the population served per doctor, per nurse and per midwife by districts of Punjab, in the year 2018. [216] [217] [218] [219] Note:- The ranks of the districts in the table are in the ascending order of the population served per doctor.

Population served per doctor, per nurse and per midwife in districts of Punjab, in year 2018 [216] [217] [218] [219]
Sr. No.DistrictDoctorNurseMidwife
1Faridkot499224225
2Patiala5511611,172
3Amritsar661424689
4Jalandhar7294655,943
5Ludhiana780357506
6Rupnagar844302340
7Bathinda898744585
8Hoshiarpur1,017423654
9Gurdaspur1,058284280
10Ferozpur1,083251377
11Kapurthala1,1713981,226
12Sangrur1,404703558
13Mansa2,0733192,376
14SAS Nagar2,264442739
15SBS Nagar2,4082502,183
16Barnala3,212320714
17Fatehgarh Sahib3,2863152,745
18Moga3,456339318
19Sri Muktsar Sahib3,5613801,375
20Pathankot4,94314,3367,389
21Fazilka7,0892,4961,258
22Tarn Taran15,210378568
Punjab5221,234950

The table given below shows the population served per doctor in Punjab, by years. [217]

Population served per doctor in Punjab, by years [217]
YearPopulationYearPopulation
201852220001,490
20121,17019991,485
20101,25019981,483
20081,22519971,472
20071,31619961,499
20061,26319951,487
20051,38819941,501
20041,46819931,608
20031,48919921,481
20021,32419911,514
20011,47219901,589

The table below shows the district wise population served per bed. [220]

Population served per bed in districts of Punjab, in year 2018 [220]
Sr. No.DistrictPopulation
1Faridkot800
2Amritsar822
3Patiala941
4Hoshiarpur1,051
5SBS Nagar1,101
6Rupnagar1,103
7Kapurthala1,141
8Fatehgarh Sahib1,218
9Barnala1,262
10Tarn Taran1,402
11Jalandhar1,411
12Sri Muktsar Sahib1,427
13Gurdaspur1,437
14Mansa1,523
15Sangrur1,612
16Pathankot1,694
17Ferozpur1,700
18Moga1,700
19SAS Nagar1,704
20Fazilka1,709
21Bathinda1,927
22Ludhiana2,397
Punjab1,338

Media

Daily Ajit , Jagbani and Punjabi Tribune are the largest-selling Punjabi newspapers while The Tribune is most selling English newspaper. A vast number of weekly, biweekly and monthly magazines are under publication in Punjabi. Other main newspapers are Daily Punjab Times, Rozana Spokesman, Nawan Zamana , etc.

Doordarshan is the broadcaster of the Government of India and its channel DD Punjabi is dedicated to Punjabi. Prominent private Punjabi channels include news channels like BBC Punjabi , [221] ABP Sanjha , [222] Global Punjab TV , [223] News18 Punjab-Haryana-Himachal, [224] Zee Punjab Haryana Himachal , PTC News and entertainment channels like Zee Punjabi , GET Punjabi , ETC Punjabi , Chardikla Time TV, PTC Punjabi , Colours Punjabi , JUS Punjabi , MH1 and 9x Tashan . [225]

Punjab has witnessed a growth in FM radio channels, mainly in the cities of Jalandhar, Patiala and Amritsar, which has become hugely popular. There are government radio channels like All India Radio, Jalandhar , All India Radio, Bathinda and FM Gold Ludhiana . [226] Private radio channels include Radio Mirchi , BIG FM 92.7 , 94.3 My FM, Radio Mantra and many more.

Culture

Punjabi jutti Punjabi jutti at Dilli Haat.jpg
Punjabi jutti

The culture of Punjab has many elements including music such as bhangra, an extensive religious and non-religious dance tradition, a long history of poetry in the Punjabi language, a significant Punjabi film industry that dates back to before Partition, a vast range of cuisine, which has become widely popular abroad, and a number of seasonal and harvest festivals such as Lohri, [227] Basant, Vaisakhi and Teeyan, [228] [229] [230] all of which are celebrated in addition to the religious festivals of India.

A kissa is a Punjabi language oral story-telling tradition that has a mixture of origins ranging from the Arabian peninsula to Iran and Afghanistan. [231]

Punjabi wedding traditions and ceremonies are a strong reflection of Punjabi culture. Marriage ceremonies are known for their rich rituals, songs, dances, food and dresses, which have evolved over many centuries. [232] [233]

Bhangra

Bhangra Punjabi Dance - Opening Ceremony - Wiki Conference India - CGC - Mohali 2016-08-05 6392.JPG
Bhangra

Bhangra (Punjabi : ਭੰਗੜਾ (Gurmukhi); pronounced [pə̀ŋɡᵊ.ɽäː] ) and Giddha are forms of dance and music that originated in the Punjab region. [234]

Bhangra dance began as a folk dance conducted by Punjabi farmers to celebrate the coming of the harvest season. The specific moves of Bhangra reflect the manner in which villagers farmed their land. This hybrid dance became Bhangra. The folk dance has been popularised in the western world by Punjabis in England, Canada and the US where competitions are held. [235] It is seen in the West as an expression of South Asian culture as a whole. [236] Today, Bhangra dance survives in different forms and styles all over the globe – including pop music, film soundtracks, collegiate competitions and cultural shows.

Punjabi folklore

The folk heritage of the Punjab reflects its thousands of years of history. While Majhi is considered to be the standard dialect of Punjabi language, there are a number of Punjabi dialects through which the people communicate. These include Malwai, Doabi and Puadhi. The songs, ballads, epics and romances are generally written and sung in these dialects.

There are a number of folk tales that are popular in Punjab. These are the folk tales of Mirza Sahiban, Heer Ranjha, Sohni Mahiwal, Sassi Punnun, Jagga Jatt, Dulla Bhatti, Puran Bhagat, Jeona Maud etc. The mystic folk songs and religious songs include the Shalooks of Sikh gurus, Baba Farid and others. [237]

The most famous of the romantic love songs are Mayhiah, Dhola and Boliyan. [238] Punjabi romantic dances include Dhamaal, Bhangra, Giddha, Dhola, and Sammi and some other local folk dances. [239]

Literature

Most early Punjabi literary works are in verse form, with prose not becoming more common until later periods. Throughout its history, Punjabi literature has sought to inform and inspire, educate and entertain. The Punjabi language is written in several different scripts, of which the Shahmukhi, the Gurmukhī scripts are the most commonly used. [240]

Music

Punjabi Folk Music is the traditional music on the traditional musical instruments of Punjab region. [241] [242] [243]

Bhangra music of Punjab is famous throughout the world. [28]

Punjabi music has a diverse style of music, ranging from folk and Sufi to classical, notably the Punjab gharana and Patiala gharana. [244] [245]

Film industry

Punjab is home to the Punjabi film industry, often colloquially referred to as 'Pollywood'. [246] It is known for being the fastest growing film industry in India. It is based mainly around Mohali city. According to MP Manish Tewari, the government is planning to build a film city in Mohali. [247]

The first Punjabi film was made in 1936. Since the 2000s Punjabi cinema has seen a revival with more releases every year with bigger budgets, homegrown stars, and Bollywood actors of Punjabi descent taking part.[ citation needed ]

Crafts

Punjabi women using a traditional method of spinning Punjabi culture.jpg
Punjabi women using a traditional method of spinning

The city of Amritsar is home to the craft of brass and copper metalwork done by the Thatheras of Jandiala Guru, which is enlisted on the UNESCO's List of Intangible Cultural Heritage. [248] Years of neglect had caused this craft to die out, and the listing prompted the Government of Punjab to undertake a craft revival effort under Project Virasat. [249] [250]

Cuisine

Vegetarian Punjabi Thaali Veg Punjabi Thaali.jpg
Vegetarian Punjabi Thaali

One of the main features of Punjabi cuisine is its diverse range of dishes. [251] [252] Home cooked and restaurant cuisine sometimes vary in taste. Restaurant style uses large amounts of ghee. Some food items are eaten on a daily basis while some delicacies are cooked only on special occasions. [253]

There are many regional dishes that are famous in some regions only. Many dishes are exclusive to Punjab, including Sarson Da Saag, Tandoori chicken, Shami kebab, makki di roti, etc. [254]

Festivals and traditions

Punjabis celebrate a number of festivals, which have taken a semi-secular meaning and are regarded as cultural festivals by people of all religions. Some of the festivals are Bandi Chhor Divas (Diwali), [255] [256] Mela Maghi, [257] Hola Mohalla, [258] [259] Rakhri, Vaisakhi, Lohri, Gurpurb, Guru Ravidass Jayanti, Teeyan and Basant Kite Festival.

Sports

Kabbadi (Circle Style) Kabaddi.....JPG
Kabbadi (Circle Style)
PCA Stadium under lights at Mohali LightsMohali.png
PCA Stadium under lights at Mohali

Kabbadi (Circle Style), a team contact sport originated in rural Punjab is recognised as the state game. [260] [261] Field hockey is also a popular sport in the state. [262] Kila Raipur Sports Festival, popularly known as the Rural Olympics, is held annually in Kila Raipur (near Ludhiana). Competition is held for major Punjabi rural sports, include cart-race, rope pulling. Punjab government organises World Kabaddi League, [263] [264]

Punjab Games and annual Kabaddi World Cup for Circle Style Kabbadi in which teams from countries like Argentina, Canada, Denmark, England, India, Iran, Kenya, Pakistan, Scotland, Sierra Leone, Spain and United States participated. A major C.B.S.E event C.B.S.E Cluster Athlectics also held in Punjab at Sant Baba Bhag Singh University. [265]

The Punjab state basketball team won the National Basketball Championship on many occasions, most recently in 2019 and 2020. [266] [267]

Tourism

Harmandir Sahib in Amritsar is a major pilgrimage site in Punjab and is also widely visited for its unique architecture Harminder sahib5.jpg
Harmandir Sahib in Amritsar is a major pilgrimage site in Punjab and is also widely visited for its unique architecture
Moti Bagh Palace in Patiala MotiBaghPalace.jpg
Moti Bagh Palace in Patiala

Tourism in Indian Punjab centres around the historic palaces, battle sites, and the great Sikh architecture of the state and the surrounding region. [268] Examples include various sites of the Indus Valley civilisation, the ancient fort of Bathinda, the architectural monuments of Kapurthala, Patiala, and Chandigarh, the modern capital designed by Le Corbusier. [269]

The Golden Temple in Amritsar is one of the major tourist destinations of Punjab and indeed India, attracting more visitors than the Taj Mahal. Lonely Planet Bluelist 2008 has voted the Harmandir Sahib as one of the world's best spiritual sites. [270] Moreover, there is a rapidly expanding array of international hotels in the holy city at Heritage Walk Amritsar that can be booked for overnight stays. Devi Talab Mandir is a Hindu temple located in Jalandhar. This temple is devoted to Goddess Durga [271] and is believed to be at least 200 years old. Another main tourist destination is religious and historic city of Sri Anandpur Sahib where large number of tourists come to see the Virasat-e-Khalsa (Khalsa Heritage Memorial Complex) and also take part in Hola Mohalla festival. Kila Raipur Sports Festival is also popular tourist attraction in Kila Raipur near Ludhiana. [272] [273] [274] Shahpur kandi fort, Ranjit Sagar lake and Sikh Temple in Sri Muktsar Sahib are also popular attractions in Punjab. Punjab also has the world's first museum based on the Indian Partition of 1947, in Amritsar, called the Partition Museum. [275]

See also

Notes

  1. Michaels (2004, p. 38): "The legacy of the Vedic religion in Hinduism is generally overestimated. The influence of the mythology is indeed great, but the religious terminology changed considerably: all the key terms of Hinduism either do not exist in Vedic or have a completely different meaning. The religion of the Veda does not know the ethicised migration of the soul with retribution for acts (karma), the cyclical destruction of the world, or the idea of salvation during one's lifetime (jivanmukti; moksa; nirvana); the idea of the world as illusion (maya) must have gone against the grain of ancient India, and an omnipotent creator god emerges only in the late hymns of the Rigveda. Nor did the Vedic religion know a caste system, the burning of widows, the ban on remarriage, images of gods and temples, Puja worship, Yoga, pilgrimages, vegetarianism, the holiness of cows, the doctrine of stages of life (asrama), or knew them only at their inception. Thus, it is justified to see a turning point between the Vedic religion and Hindu religions."
    Jamison, Stephanie; Witzel, Michael (1992). "Vedic Hinduism" (PDF). Harvard University. p. 3.: "... to call this period Vedic Hinduism is a contradictio in terminis since Vedic religion is very different from what we generally call Hindu religion – at least as much as Old Hebrew religion is from medieval and modern Christian religion. However, Vedic religion is treatable as a predecessor of Hinduism."
    See also Halbfass 1991, pp. 1–2
  2. "Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikh originated in India."Moreno, Luis; Colino, César (2010). Diversity and Unity in Federal Countries. McGill Queen University Press. p. 207. ISBN   978-0-7735-9087-8. Archived from the original on 27 September 2023. Retrieved 11 August 2022.

Footnotes

  1. Craterus supervised the construction. These cities are yet to be identified.
  2. 1 2 1881 figure taken from census data by combining the total population of all districts (Jalandhar, Ludhiana, Firozpur, Amritsar, Hoshiarpur, and Gurdaspur (minus Shakargarh Tehsil)), and princely states (Kapurthala, Malerkotla, Faridkot, Patiala, and Nabha) which are in the region that comprises the contemporary state of Punjab, India. See 1881 census data here: [123] [124] [125]
  3. 1 2 1901 figure taken from census data by combining the total population of all districts (Jalandhar, Ludhiana, Firozpur, Amritsar, Hoshiarpur, and Gurdaspur (minus Shakargarh Tehsil)), and princely states (Kapurthala, Malerkotla, Faridkot, Patiala, and Nabha) which are in the region that comprises the contemporary state of Punjab, India. See 1901 census data here: [126] :34
  4. 1 2 1911 figure taken from census data by combining the total population of all districts (Jalandhar, Ludhiana, Firozpur, Amritsar, Hoshiarpur, and Gurdaspur (minus Shakargarh Tehsil)), and princely states (Kapurthala, Malerkotla, Faridkot, Patiala, and Nabha) which are in the region that comprises the contemporary state of Punjab, India. See 1911 census data here: [127] :27 [128] :27
  5. 1 2 1921 figure taken from census data by combining the total population of all districts (Jalandhar, Ludhiana, Firozpur, Amritsar, Hoshiarpur, and Gurdaspur (minus Shakargarh Tehsil)), and princely states (Kapurthala, Malerkotla, Faridkot, Patiala, and Nabha) which are in the region that comprises the contemporary state of Punjab, India. See 1921 census data here: [129] :29
  6. 1 2 1931 figure taken from census data by combining the total population of all districts (Jalandhar, Ludhiana, Firozpur, Amritsar, Hoshiarpur, and Gurdaspur (minus Shakargarh Tehsil)), and princely states (Kapurthala, Malerkotla, Faridkot, Patiala, and Nabha) which are in the region that comprises the contemporary state of Punjab, India. See 1931 census data here: [130] :277
  7. 1 2 1941 figure taken from census data by combining the total population of all districts (Jalandhar, Ludhiana, Firozpur, Amritsar, Hoshiarpur, and Gurdaspur (minus Shakargarh Tehsil)), and princely states (Kapurthala, Malerkotla, Faridkot, Patiala, and Nabha) which are in the region that comprises the contemporary state of Punjab, India. See 1941 census data here: [131]
  8. 1931-1941 census: Including Ad-Dharmis
  9. 1901-1941 censuses: Tribals, others, or not stated.

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Punjab</span> Geographical region in South Asia

Punjab is a geopolitical, cultural, and historical region in South Asia. It is specifically located in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of modern-day eastern-Pakistan and northwestern-India. Punjab's major cities are Lahore, Faisalabad, Rawalpindi, Gujranwala, Multan, Ludhiana, Amritsar, Sialkot, Chandigarh, Shimla, Jalandhar, Patiala, Gurugram, and Bahawalpur.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Patiala</span> City in Punjab, India

Patiala is a city in southeastern Punjab, northwestern India. It is the fourth largest city in the state and is the administrative capital of Patiala district. Patiala is located around the Qila Mubarak constructed by the Sidhu Jat Sikh chieftain Ala Singh, who founded the royal dynasty of Patiala State in 1763, and after whom the city is named.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ludhiana</span> Metropolis in Punjab, India

Ludhiana is the most populous and the largest city in the Indian state of Punjab. The city has an estimated population of 1,618,879 as of the 2011 census and distributed over 310 km2 (120 sq mi), making Ludhiana the most densely populated urban centre in the state. It is a major industrial center of Northern India, referred to as "India's Manchester" by the BBC. It is also known as the commercial capital of Punjab.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Jalandhar</span> Metropolis in Punjab, India

Jalandhar is a city in the state of Punjab in India. With a considerable population, it ranks as the third most-populous city in the state and is the largest city in the Doaba region. Jalandhar lies alongside the historical Grand Trunk Road and is a well-connected junction for both rail and road networks.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Gurdaspur district</span> District in Punjab, India

Gurdaspur district is a district in the Majha region of the state of Punjab, India. Gurdaspur is the district headquarters. It internationally borders Narowal District of Pakistani Punjab, and the districts of Amritsar, Pathankot, Kapurthala and Hoshiarpur. Two main rivers Beas and Ravi passes through the district. The Mughal emperor Akbar is said to have been enthroned in a garden near Kalanaur, a historically important town in the district. The district is at the foothills of the Himalayas.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Batala</span> City in Punjab, India

Batala is the eighth largest city in the state of Punjab, India in terms of population after Ludhiana, Amritsar, Jalandhar, Patiala, Bathinda, Mohali and Hoshiarpur. Batala ranks as the second-oldest city after Bathinda. It is a municipal corporation in Gurdaspur district in the Majha region of the state of Punjab. It is located about 32 km from Gurdaspur, the headquarters of the district. It is also a Police district. Batala holds the status of the most populated town of the district with 31% of the district's total population. It is the biggest industrial town in the district.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Punjab Province (British India)</span> Province of British India

British Punjab was a province of British India. Most of the Punjab region was annexed by the British East India Company on 29 March 1849, and declared a province of British rule; it was one of the last areas of the Indian subcontinent to fall under British control. In 1858, the Punjab, along with the rest of British Raj, came under the direct rule of the British Crown. It had a land area of 358,355 square kilometers.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">East Punjab</span> Former province of India from 1947 to 1950

East Punjab was a province of India from 1947 until 1950. It consisted parts of the Punjab province that remained in India following the partition of the province between the new dominions of Pakistan and the Indian Union by the Radcliffe Commission in 1947. The mostly Muslim western parts of the old Punjab became Pakistan's West Punjab, later renamed as Punjab Province, while the mostly Hindu and Sikh eastern parts remained with India.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ludhiana district</span> District of Punjab in India

Ludhiana district is one of the 23 districts in the Indian state of Punjab. It is Punjab's largest district by both area and population. Ludhiana, the largest city in Punjab, is the district headquarters.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Majha</span> Region in the central parts of the historical Punjab region

Majha is a region located in the central parts of the historical Punjab region split between India and Pakistan. It extends north from the right banks of the river Beas, and reaches as far north as the river Jhelum. People of the Majha region are given the demonym "Mājhī" or "Majhail". Most inhabitants of the region speak the Majhi dialect, which is the basis of the standard register of the Punjabi language. The most populous city in the area is Lahore on the Pakistani side, and Amritsar on the Indian side of the border.

The economy of Punjab is the 16th largest state economy in India with 8.02 lakh crore (US$100 billion) (FY2024-25) in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of US$3460(264,000) ranking 19th amongst Indian states.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kartarpur, India</span> Town in Punjab, India

Kartarpur is a town, near the city of Jalandhar in Jalandhar district in the Indian state of Punjab and is located in the Doaba region of the state. It was founded by the fifth Guru of the Sikhs, Guru Arjan.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Education in Punjab, India</span>

Punjab has a long history of education.

Punjab is home to 2.3% of India's population; with a density of 551 persons per km2. According to the provisional results of the 2011 national census, Punjab has a population of 27,743,338, making it the 16th most populated state in India. Of which male and female are 14,639,465 and 13,103,873 respectively. 32% of Punjab's population consists of Dalits. In the state, the rate of population growth is 13.9% (2011), lower than national average. Out of total population, 37.5% people live in urban regions. The total figure of population living in urban areas is 10,399,146 of which 5,545,989 are males and while remaining 4,853,157 are females. The urban population in the last 10 years has increased by 37.5%. According to the 2011 Census of India, Punjab, India has a population of around 27.7 million.

Bundala, also spelt as Bandala, is a large village in Jalandhar zillah situated in Tehsil Phillaur within the Indian state of Punjab and is located in the centre of the Doaba region of Punjab.

Religion in the Punjab in ancient history was characterized by Hinduism and later conversions to Jainism, Buddhism, Islam, Sikhism and Christianity; it also includes folk practices common to all Punjabis regardless of the religion they adhere to. Such practices incorporate local mysticism, including ancestral worship and worship of local saints of all faiths.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Islam in Punjab, India</span>

Islam is a minority religion in Punjab, India followed by 535,489 people constituting about 1.93 percent of the state population out of 27.7 million population as of 2011 census report.

Apra also known as The Golden City Apra is a census town in Phillaur Tehsil in Jalandhar district of Punjab State, India. The town is known for gold jewelry and paddy crops which are produced in large amounts. It is located 46 kilometres (29 mi) towards East from Jalandhar, 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) from Phillaur and 110 kilometres (68 mi) from Chandigarh. Apra is the largest town as compared to other surrounding villages and has the main marketplace. The town is administrated by Sarpanch an elected representative of the village.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Outline of Punjab, India</span> Overview of and topical guide to Punjab, India

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Punjab:

References

  1. "Know Punjab – Government of Punjab, India". Archived from the original on 13 July 2021. Retrieved 24 March 2023.
  2. 1 2 "Area, population, decennial growth rate and density for 2001 and 2011 at a glance for Punjab and the districts: provisional population totals paper 1 of 2011: Punjab". Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Archived from the original on 7 January 2012. Retrieved 26 January 2012.
  3. 1 2 "Report of the Commissioner for linguistic minorities: 50th report (July 2012 to June 2013)" (PDF). Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities, Ministry of Minority Affairs, Government of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 July 2016. Retrieved 4 December 2016.
  4. 1 2 3 "Handbook of Statistics of Indian States" (PDF). Reserve Bank of India . pp. 37–42. Archived (PDF) from the original on 29 January 2022. Retrieved 11 February 2022.
  5. 1 2 "Sub-national HDI – Area Database". Global Data Lab. Institute for Management Research, Radboud University. Archived from the original on 23 September 2018. Retrieved 25 September 2018.
  6. "Sex ratio of State and Union Territories of India as per National Health survey (2019–2021)". Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, India. Archived from the original on 8 January 2023. Retrieved 8 January 2023.
  7. "State Bird is BAAZ". Archived from the original on 14 July 2014.
  8. Also /ˈpʌnæb/ and other variants
  9. 1 2 "Border Area Development Programmes in Punjab" (PDF). Department of Planning Punjab. Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 September 2016. Retrieved 22 March 2017.
  10. 1 2 "Official site of the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, India". Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 20 July 2013.
  11. "Report of the Commissioner for linguistic minorities: 50th report (July 2012 to June 2013)" (PDF). Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities, Ministry of Minority Affairs, Government of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 July 2016. Retrieved 4 December 2016.
    "Language – India, States and Union Territories" (PDF). Census of India 2011. Office of the Registrar General. pp. 13–14. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 November 2018. Retrieved 19 October 2018.
    "C-16 Population By Mother Tongue – Punjab". censusindia.gov.in. Archived from the original on 3 October 2021. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  12. 1 2 3 "Population by religion community – 2011". The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Archived from the original on 23 September 2015.
  13. Encyclopædia Britannica, ninth ed., vol. 20, Punjab, p.107
  14. Singh, Mohinder (1988). History and Culture of Panjab. Atlantic Publishers. pp. 1, 12.
  15. Chattopadhyaya, Brajadulal (2003). Studying Early India: Archaeology, Texts, and Historical Issues. Permanent Black Publishers. ISBN   81-7824-143-9.
  16. Romm, James S. (2012). The Landmark Arrian: The Campaigns of Alexander. Anchor Books. ISBN   978-1-4000-7967-4.
  17. Thorpe, Showick; Thorpe, Edgar (2009). The Pearson General Studies Manual 2009. Pearson. ISBN   978-81-317-2133-9.
  18. Daniélou, Alain (2003). A Brief History of India . Simon and Schuster. ISBN   978-0-89281-923-2.
  19. Majumdar, R. C. (1977). Ancient India. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN   978-81-208-0436-4.
  20. Mohan, R. T. (2010). Afghanistan Revisited: The Brahmana Hindu Shahis of Afghanistan and the Punjab ( C.840.-1026 CE). MLBD.
  21. Lapidus, I. M. (2014). A History of Islamic Societies. Cambridge University Press. ISBN   978-1-139-99150-6. Archived from the original on 27 September 2023. Retrieved 3 July 2020.
    Jayapalan, N. (2001). History of India. Atlantic Publishers & Distributors (P) Limited. ISBN   978-81-7156-928-1. Archived from the original on 27 September 2023. Retrieved 19 March 2023.
    The Islamic World to 1600: Rise of the Great Islamic Empires (The Mughal Empire) Archived 27 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine
    "Mughal Dynasty". Encyclopaedia Britannica. Britannica. Archived from the original on 24 February 2021. Retrieved 15 February 2018.
    Potdar, Datto Vaman (1938). All India Modern History Congress.
  22. Melton, J. G. (2014). Faiths Across Time: 5,000 Years of Religious History. ABC-CLIO. ISBN   978-1-61069-026-3.[ full citation needed ]
    Jestice, Phyllis (2004). Holy people of the world : a cross-cultural encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. ISBN   978-1-57607-355-1. OCLC   57407318.
    Latif, Syad Muhammad (1964). The History of Punjab from the Remotest Antiquity to the Present Time. Eurasia Publishing House (Pvt.) Ltd. p. 283.
    Bhatia, Sardar Singh (1998). The Encyclopedia of Sikhism, Volume IV. Punjabi University. p. 396.
  23. Grewal, J. S.; Johnson, Gordon (1990). The Sikhs of the Punjab. Cambridge University Press. ISBN   978-0-521-26884-4. Archived from the original on 26 March 2023. Retrieved 19 March 2023.
  24. Cunningham, Joseph (1853). Cunningham's history of the Sikhs . Retrieved 24 July 2015.
  25. Talbot, Ian (2009). "Partition of India: The Human Dimension". Cultural and Social History. 6 (4): 403–410. doi:10.2752/147800409X466254. S2CID   147110854. The number of casualties remains a matter of dispute, with figures being claimed that range from 200,000 to 2 million victims.
    D'Costa, Bina (2011). Nationbuilding, Gender and War Crimes in South Asia. Routledge. p. 53. ISBN   978-0415565660.
    Butalia, Urvashi (2000). The Other Side of Silence: Voices From the Partition of India. Duke University Press. Archived from the original on 25 March 2016. Retrieved 3 July 2020.
    Sikand, Yoginder (2004). Muslims in India Since 1947: Islamic Perspectives on Inter-Faith Relations. Routledge. p. 5. ISBN   978-1134378258.
    "A heritage all but erased". The Friday Times. 25 December 2015. Archived from the original on 24 April 2022. Retrieved 26 June 2017.
  26. Brass, Paul R. (2005). Language, Religion and Politics in North India. iUniverse. p. 326. ISBN   978-0-595-34394-2.
  27. Mahmood, Cynthia Keppley (1996). Fighting for Faith and Nation: Dialogues with Sikh Militants. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 77. ISBN   9780812215922. Archived from the original on 9 April 2023. Retrieved 8 July 2018.
  28. 1 2 "How Punjab became home to India's largest non-film music industry". The Economic Times. 8 July 2018. Archived from the original on 11 August 2021. Retrieved 2 July 2020.
    "Why Punjabi music is so euphonic". Business Standard. 3 May 2020. Archived from the original on 2 July 2020. Retrieved 2 July 2020.
    "Everyone's a rockstar in Mohali, the city at the heart of a Punjabi music boom". Hindustan Times. 8 January 2019. Archived from the original on 2 July 2020. Retrieved 2 July 2020.
    "Indian Films by Language" (PDF). Film Federation of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 July 2021. Retrieved 2 July 2020.
    "Kirron Kher tries to get film city for Chandigarh". Archived from the original on 13 November 2014.
    "Kirron Kher is trying to bring a film city to Chandigarh". Archived from the original on 31 October 2015.
    "The Globalisation of Bhangra Music". Archived from the original on 10 September 2015.
    "The Bhangra Breakdown – June 2014 Edition". June 2014. Archived from the original on 28 January 2016. Retrieved 3 January 2017.
  29. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Minahan, James (2012). Ethnic Groups of South Asia and the Pacific: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 257–259. ISBN   978-1-59884-659-1. Archived from the original on 27 September 2023. Retrieved 28 November 2022.
  30. Buddha Parkash, Evolution of Heroic Tradition in Ancient Panjab, p 36.
  31. Joshi, L. M., and Fauja Singh. History of Panjab, Vol I. p. 4.
  32. Flood, Gavin (13 July 1996). An Introduction to Hinduism. Cambridge University Press. ISBN   978-0-521-43878-0.
  33. Wheeler, James Talboys (1874). The History of India from the Earliest Ages: Hindu Buddhist Brahmanical revival. N. Trübner. p. 330. Archived from the original on 3 October 2022. Retrieved 30 September 2022. The Punjab, to say the least, was less Brahmanical. It was an ancient centre of the worship of Indra, who was always regarded as an enemy by the Bráhmans; and it was also a stronghold of Buddhism.
  34. Hunter, W. W. (5 November 2013). The Indian Empire: Its People, History and Products. Routledge. p. 80. ISBN   978-1-136-38301-4. Archived from the original on 28 November 2022. Retrieved 28 November 2022. In the settlements of the Punjab, Indra thus advanced to the first place among the Vedic divinities.
  35. Virdee, Pippa (February 2018). From the Ashes of 1947. Cambridge University Press. p. 24. ISBN   978-1-108-42811-8. Archived from the original on 26 March 2023. Retrieved 14 March 2023. The Rig Veda and the Upanishads, which belonged to the Vedic religion, were a precursor of Hinduism, both of which were composed in Punjab.
  36. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Bosworth, Albert Brian (1993). "The campaign of the Hydaspes". Conquest and Empire: The Reign of Alexander the Great. Cambridge University Press. pp. 125–130.
  37. Holt, Frank Lee (2003). Alexander the Great and the mystery of the elephant medallions. University of California Press.
  38. Rogers, p.200
  39. 1 2 Bosworth, Albert Brian (1993). "From the Hydaspes to the Southern Ocean". Conquest and Empire: The Reign of Alexander the Great. Cambridge University Press.
  40. Anson, Edward M. (2013). Alexander the Great: Themes and Issues. Bloomsbury. p. 151. ISBN   9781441193797.
  41. Roy 2004, pp. 23–28.
  42. Heckel, Waldemar (2006). Who's Who in the Age of Alexander the Great: Prosopography of Alexander's Empire. Wiley. ISBN   9781405112109.
  43. Irfan Habib; Vivekanand Jha (2004). Mauryan India. A People's History of India. Aligarh Historians Society / Tulika Books. p. 16. ISBN   978-81-85229-92-8.
  44. Hazel, John (2013). Who's Who in the Greek World. Routledge. p. 155. ISBN   9781134802241. Menander king in India, known locally as Milinda, born at a village named Kalasi near Alasanda (Alexandria-in-the-Caucasus), and who was himself the son of a king. After conquering the Punjab, where he made Sagala his capital, he made an expedition across northern India and visited Patna, the capital of the Mauraya empire, though he did not succeed in conquering this land as he appears to have been overtaken by wars on the north-west frontier with Eucratides.
  45. Ahir, D. C. (1971). Buddhism in the Punjab, Haryana, and Himachal Pradesh. Maha Bodhi Society of India. p. 31. OCLC   1288206. Demetrius died in 166 B.C., and Apollodotus, who was a near relation of the King died in 161 B.C. After his death, Menander carved out a kingdom in Punjab. Thus from 161 B.C. onward Menander was the ruler of Punjab till his death in 145 B.C. or 130 B.C.
  46. "Menander | Indo-Greek king". Encyclopedia Britannica . Archived from the original on 21 May 2022. Retrieved 6 September 2021.
  47. Rambo, Lewis R.; Farhadian, Charles E. (6 March 2014). The Oxford Handbook of Religious Conversion. Oxford University Press. pp. 489–491. ISBN   978-0-19-971354-7. Archived from the original on 27 September 2023. Retrieved 11 August 2022. First, Islam was introduced into the southern Punjab in the opening decades of the eighth century. By the sixteenth century, Muslims were the majority in the region and an elaborate network of mosques and mausoleums marked the landscape. Local converts constituted the majority of this Muslim community, and as far for the mechanisms of conversion, the sources of the period emphasize the recitation of the Islamic confession of faith (shahada), the performance of the circumsicion (indri vaddani), and the ingestion of cow-meat (bhas khana).
  48. Chhabra, G. S. (1968). Advanced History of the Punjab: Guru and post-Guru period upto Ranjit Singh. New Academic Publishing Company. p. 37. Archived from the original on 27 September 2023. Retrieved 11 August 2022.
  49. Mehta, Jaswant Lal (1979). Advanced Study in the History of Medieval India. Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd. p. 76. ISBN   978-81-207-0617-0. Archived from the original on 27 September 2023. Retrieved 28 November 2022.
  50. Singh 2006, pp. 12–13.
  51. Grewal 1998, p. 6.
  52. Almasy, Steve. 2018 [2012]. "Who are Sikhs and what do they believe? Archived 26 March 2023 at the Wayback Machine " CNN International . US: Turner Broadcasting System.
  53. Nesbitt, Eleanor M. (2005). Sikhism: a very short introduction. Oxford University Press. pp. 21–23. ISBN   978-0-19-280601-7. Archived from the original on 27 September 2023. Retrieved 11 August 2022.
  54. Singh, Nirbhai (1990). Philosophy of Sikhi: Reality and Its Manifestations . New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers. pp. 1–3.
  55. Takhar, Opinderjit Kaur (2016). Sikh Identity: An Exploration of Groups Among Sikhs. Abingdon-on-Thames, England: Taylor & Francis. p. 147. ISBN   978-1-351-90010-2.
  56. Singh, Khushwant (1991). A History of the Sikhs: Vol. 1. 1469–1839. Oxford University Press. p. 46.
  57. Singh, Pritam (2008). Federalism, Nationalism and Development: India and the Punjab Economy. Abingdon-on-Thames, England: Routledge. ISBN   978-1-134-04945-5. A large number of Hindu and Muslim peasants converted to Sikhism from conviction, fear, economic motives, or a combination of the three (Khushwant Singh 1999: 106; Ganda Singh 1935: 73).
  58. 1 2 Pashaura Singh (2005), Understanding the Martyrdom of Guru Arjan, Journal of Punjab Studies, 12(1), pp. 29–62
  59. Singh, Pashaura; Fenech, Louis E. (2014). The Oxford Handbook of Sikh Studies. Oxford University Press. pp. 236–238. ISBN   978-0-19-969930-8. Archived from the original on 11 August 2023. Retrieved 11 August 2022.
  60. Fenech, Louis E. (2001). "Martyrdom and the Execution of Guru Arjan in Early Sikh Sources". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 121 (1): 20–31. doi:10.2307/606726. JSTOR   606726.
  61. Fenech, Louis E. (1997). "Martyrdom and the Sikh Tradition". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 117 (4): 623–642. doi:10.2307/606445. JSTOR   606445.
  62. McLeod, Hew (1999). "Sikhs and Muslims in the Punjab". South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies. 22 (sup001): 155–165. doi:10.1080/00856408708723379.
  63. Gandhi, Surjit Singh (1 February 2008). History of Sikh Gurus Retold: 1606–1708. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers. pp. 676–677. ISBN   978-81-269-0857-8.
  64. Chanchreek, Jain (2007). Encyclopaedia of Great Festivals. Shree Publishers. p. 142. ISBN   978-81-8329-191-0.
  65. Dugga, Kartar (2001). Maharaja Ranjit Singh: The Last to Lay Arms. Abhinav Publications. p. 33. ISBN   978-81-7017-410-3.
  66. Fenech, Louis E; McLeod, W.H. (11 June 2014). Historical Dictionary of Sikhism (3 ed.). Rowman & Littlefield. p. 162. ISBN   978-1442236011.
  67. Jestice 2004, pp. 345–346.
  68. "Ranjit Singh: A Secular Sikh Sovereign by K.S. Duggal. (Date:1989. ISBN 8170172446)". Exoticindiaart.com. 3 September 2015. Archived from the original on 26 December 2018. Retrieved 9 August 2009.
  69. Gupta, Hari Ram (14 August 2014). "History of Sikhs 1739–1768".
  70. Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Ranjit Singh"  . Encyclopædia Britannica . Vol. 22 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 892.
  71. Grewal, J. S. (1990). The Sikhs of the Punjab, Chapter 6: The Sikh empire (1799–1849). The New Cambridge History of India. Cambridge University Press. ISBN   0-521-63764-3. Archived from the original on 27 September 2023. Retrieved 11 August 2022.
  72. Amarinder Singh's The Last Sunset: The Rise and Fall of the Lahore Durbar
  73. Manning, Stephen (30 September 2020). Bayonet to Barrage Weaponry on the Victorian Battlefield. Pen & Sword Books Limited. ISBN   9781526777249. Archived from the original on 26 March 2023. Retrieved 19 March 2023. The Sikh kingdom expanded from Tibet in the east to Kashmir in the west and from Sind in the south to the Khyber Pass in the north, an area of 200,000 square miles
  74. Barczewski, Stephanie (22 March 2016). Heroic Failure and the British. Yale University Press. p. 89. ISBN   9780300186819. Archived from the original on 26 March 2023. Retrieved 19 March 2023. ..the Sikh state encompassed over 200,000 square miles (518,000 sq km)
  75. Khilani, N. M. (1972). British power in the Punjab, 1839–1858. Asia Publishing House. p. 251. ISBN   9780210271872. Archived from the original on 5 April 2023. Retrieved 19 March 2023. ..into existence a kingdom of the Punjab of over 200,000 square miles
  76. Hibbert, Christopher (1980). The great mutiny: India 1857. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books. ISBN   978-0-14-004752-3.
  77. Arielli, N.; Collins, B. (28 November 2012). Transnational Soldiers: Foreign Military Enlistment in the Modern Era. Springer. ISBN   978-1137296634.
  78. 1 2 3 Talbot, Ian (1988). Punjab and the Raj, 1849–1947. Riverdale Company. ISBN   0913215287.
  79. Grewal 1990, p. 131.
  80. Grewal 1990, pp. 128–129.
  81. 1 2 Pritam Singh, Federalism, Nationalism and Development: India and the Punjab Economy, Routledge, 19 February 2008, p.54
  82. Tan, Tai Yong; Kudaisya, Gyanesh (2005) [First published in 2000]. The Aftermath of Partition in South Asia. Routledge. p. 100. ISBN   978-0-415-28908-5. Archived from the original on 28 January 2016. In March 1930 the All-India Muslim League passed its famous Lahore Resolution, demanding the creation of a separate state from Muslim majority areas in India ... [it] sparked off an enormous furore amongst the Sikhs in the Punjab ... the professed intention of the Muslim League to impose a Muslim state on the Punjab (a Muslim majority province) was anathema to the Sikhs ... Sikhs launched a virulent campaign against the Lahore Resolution.
  83. "Punjab Legislative Assembly 1946". Archived from the original on 7 February 2017. Retrieved 28 November 2022.
  84. Dyson 2018, pp. 188–189.
  85. The Tribune News (2 November 2018). "Punjab Day celebrated". The Tribune. Archived from the original on 4 November 2019. Retrieved 4 November 2019.
  86. Rao, Madhu (1 November 2019). "Formation day: These Indian states were formed on November 1". India TV. Archived from the original on 30 September 2021. Retrieved 4 November 2019.
  87. 1 2 3 4 Jetly, Rajshree (2008). "THE KHALISTAN MOVEMENT IN INDIA: The Interplay of Politics and State Power". International Review of Modern Sociology. 34 (1): 61–75. ISSN   0973-2047. JSTOR   41421658. Archived from the original on 9 April 2023. Retrieved 18 May 2023.
  88. 1 2 Jodhka, Surinder S. (2001). Purewal, Shinder; Puri, H. K.; Judge, P. S.; Shekhon, J. S.; Singh, Gurharpal; Singh, Pritam; Thandi, Shinder Singh (eds.). "Looking Back at the Khalistan Movement: Some Recent Researches on Its Rise and Decline". Economic and Political Weekly. 36 (16): 1311–1318. ISSN   0012-9976. JSTOR   4410511. Archived from the original on 18 May 2023. Retrieved 18 May 2023.
  89. 1 2 Siraj, Dr Uzma; Dashti, Dr Asghar Ali; Ahmad, Dr Mamnoon (19 January 2023). "The Transformation Of Ethno-Nationalist Movements Into Secessionist Movements: A Case Study Of The Khalistan Movement". Journal of Positive School Psychology: 743–752. ISSN   2717-7564. Archived from the original on 18 May 2023. Retrieved 18 May 2023.
  90. "Sikh separatism". Encyclopedia Britannica. Archived from the original on 15 December 2021. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
  91. 1 2 "State Profile – About Punjab". Punjab Government. Archived from the original on 6 November 2011. Retrieved 18 July 2010.
  92. "Status of Environment & Related Issues". ENVIS Centre : Punjab. Archived from the original on 9 March 2021. Retrieved 22 March 2017.
  93. Pragati Infosoft Pvt. Ltd. "Punjab Geography, Geography of Punjab, Punjab Location, Punjab Climate". Punjabonline.in. Archived from the original on 18 October 2007. Retrieved 18 July 2010.
  94. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 "Weather & Climate Of Punjab". Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 27 October 2015.
  95. "Station: Amritsar (Rajasansi) Climatological Table 1981–2010" (PDF). Climatological Normals 1981–2010. India Meteorological Department. January 2015. pp. 45–46. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 20 January 2021.
  96. "Extremes of Temperature & Rainfall for Indian Stations (Up to 2012)" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. December 2016. p. M169. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 20 January 2021.
  97. "Climatological Tables 1991-2020" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. p. 21. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 January 2023. Retrieved 1 January 2023.
  98. "Climate & Weather Averages in Amritsar, Punjab, India". Time and Date. Retrieved 20 July 2022.
  99. "Amritsar Climate Normals 1971–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 11 January 2014.
  100. "Normals Data: Amritsar - India Latitude: 31.63°N Longitude: 74.87°E Height: 229 (m)". Japan Meteorological Agency. Retrieved 6 December 2022.
  101. "Climate and monthly weather forecast Amritsar, India". Weather Atlas. Retrieved 13 June 2022.
  102. "Station: Ludhiana Climatological Table 1981–2010" (PDF). Climatological Normals 1981–2010. India Meteorological Department. January 2015. pp. 449–452. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 20 January 2021.
  103. "Extremes of Temperature & Rainfall for Indian Stations (Up to 2012)" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. December 2016. p. M171. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 20 January 2021.
  104. "Climate & Weather Averages in Ludhiana, Punjab, India". Time and Date. Retrieved 22 July 2022.
  105. "Climate and monthly weather forecast Ludhiana, India". Weather Atlas. Retrieved 14 June 2022.
  106. "Flora And Fauna Of Punjab". Archived from the original on 10 December 2015. Retrieved 27 October 2015.
  107. 1 2 3 "In agri-rich Punjab, a fight to reclaim forest cover". The Times of India. 22 August 2022. ISSN   0971-8257. Archived from the original on 6 May 2023. Retrieved 1 May 2023.
  108. Zutshi, Minna (26 October 2020). "EcoSikh's Guru Nanak Sacred Forests: A reason to cheer for Ludhiana district". The Tribune, India. Archived from the original on 1 May 2023. Retrieved 1 May 2023.
  109. Singh, Gurjot (15 March 2022). "EcoSikh Completes Planting 400 Sacred Forests all across the globe on Sikh Environment Day 2022". SikhNet. Archived from the original on 1 May 2023. Retrieved 1 May 2023.
  110. Banerji, Aparna (1 July 2019). "'Nanak jungles' to increase state's green cover". The Tribune. Archived from the original on 1 May 2023. Retrieved 1 May 2023.
  111. Sharma, Seema (22 March 2019). "Punjab's native tree species disappearing from forest areas: Expert". The Times of India. ISSN   0971-8257. Archived from the original on 1 May 2023. Retrieved 1 May 2023.
  112. Zutshi, Minna (23 May 2018). "Ludhiana's Dhak Forest a treat for nature lovers". The Tribune. Archived from the original on 1 May 2023. Retrieved 1 May 2023.
  113. "24 gharials released into Beas". The Tribune. 6 December 2021. Archived from the original on 1 May 2023. Retrieved 1 May 2023.
  114. Gupta, Vivek (7 December 2020). "Gharials bounce back in Punjab but the real test is breeding". Mongabay-India. Archived from the original on 1 May 2023. Retrieved 1 May 2023.
  115. Vasudeva, Vikas (18 December 2021). "Reintroduced gharials thriving in Beas reserve: experts". The Hindu. ISSN   0971-751X. Archived from the original on 1 May 2023. Retrieved 1 May 2023.
  116. Puri, Gurbax (16 April 2022). "Tarn Taran diary: Harike, an abode for birds, rare Indus dolphins". The Tribune. Archived from the original on 1 May 2023. Retrieved 1 May 2023.
  117. 1 2 "Animals and Birds in Punjab". Archived from the original on 10 December 2015. Retrieved 27 October 2015.
  118. Srinivasulu, C. (2012). South Asian mammals : their diversity, distribution, and status. Bhargavi Srinivasulu. New York, NY: Springer. p. 364. ISBN   978-1-4614-3449-8. OCLC   794056010.
  119. Biodiversity and environment. B. N. Pandey, G. K. Kulkarni, National Symposium on Recent Advances in Animal Research with Special Emphasis on Invertebrates. New Delhi: A P H Pub. Corp. 2006. p. 172. ISBN   81-313-0042-0. OCLC   297209812.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  120. Vasudeva, Vikas (17 February 2019). "Caught down the wire: Punjab's blackbuck fight for existence". The Hindu. ISSN   0971-751X. Archived from the original on 13 March 2023. Retrieved 13 March 2023.
  121. "Lost in flight: State bird of Punjab missing from the state!". Hindustan Times. 14 September 2017. Archived from the original on 14 January 2021. Retrieved 12 January 2021.
  122. "State Profile – About Punjab". Punjab Government. Archived from the original on 6 November 2011. Retrieved 18 July 2010.
  123. 1 2 "Census of India, 1881 Report on the Census of the Panjáb Taken on the 17th of February 1881, vol. I." 1881. JSTOR   saoa.crl.25057656 . Retrieved 7 April 2024.
  124. 1 2 "Census of India, 1881 Report on the Census of the Panjáb Taken on the 17th of February 1881, vol. II". 1881. p. 14. JSTOR   saoa.crl.25057657 . Retrieved 7 April 2024.
  125. 1 2 "Census of India, 1881 Report on the Census of the Panjáb Taken on the 17th of February 1881, vol. III". 1881. p. 14. JSTOR   saoa.crl.25057658 . Retrieved 7 April 2024.
  126. 1 2 "Census of India 1901. [Vol. 17A]. Imperial tables, I-VIII, X-XV, XVII and XVIII for the Punjab, with the native states under the political control of the Punjab Government, and for the North-west Frontier Province". 1901. JSTOR   saoa.crl.25363739 . Retrieved 10 March 2024.
  127. 1 2 "Census of India 1911. Vol. 14, Punjab. Pt. 2, Tables". 1911. JSTOR   saoa.crl.25393788 . Retrieved 3 March 2024.
  128. 1 2 Kaul, Harikishan (1911). "Census Of India 1911 Punjab Vol XIV Part II" . Retrieved 3 March 2024.
  129. 1 2 "Census of India 1921. Vol. 15, Punjab and Delhi. Pt. 2, Tables". 1921. JSTOR   saoa.crl.25430165 . Retrieved 17 February 2024.
  130. 1 2 "Census of India 1931. Vol. 17, Punjab. Pt. 2, Tables". 1931. JSTOR   saoa.crl.25793242 . Retrieved 4 February 2024.
  131. 1 2 India. Census Commissioner 1941, p. 42.
  132. "Census of India Website : Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India". censusindia.gov.in. Archived from the original on 11 February 2020. Retrieved 6 December 2019.
  133. "Punjab Profile" (PDF). censusindia.gov.in. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 October 2021. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  134. "Dalit icon Bant Singh's shift to AAP in Punjab symbolises the Left's electoral irrelevance". Scroll India. 26 January 2017. Archived from the original on 26 March 2019. Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  135. "National Family Health Survey-5" (PDF). rchiips.org. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 July 2023. Retrieved 20 July 2023.
  136. "Total Fertility Rate: Punjab | Economic Indicators | CEIC". www.ceicdata.com. Archived from the original on 20 July 2023. Retrieved 20 July 2023.
  137. 1 2 "Structure and Pattern of Urbanisation in Punjab: A Macro Level Analysis".
  138. 1 2 3 4 Singh, Charanjeet (21 January 2022). "Open Government Data (OGD) Platform India". data.gov.in. Archived from the original on 5 August 2023. Retrieved 6 August 2023.
  139. "Financial assistance of Rs. 6000 will be given to beneficiary women on the birth of the second girl child: Dr. Baljit Kaur". Punjab News Express . 30 June 2023. Archived from the original on 8 July 2023. Retrieved 8 July 2023.
  140. "List of districts of Punjab". www.census2011.co.in.