Pushang, also known by its Arabicized form of Bushanj, Bushang, Pushanj, and Fūshanj, was the name of a town in Khorasan, close to Herat in present-day Afghanistan.
According to medieval Iranian scholars, Pushang was the oldest town in Khorasan, and was founded by the Iranian mythological figure Pashang. However, according to modern scholars, it was only said to be founded by Pashang because of his name similarity with the town.Some other sources state that the second Sasanian king Shapur I (r. 240–270), was the founder of the town.
In 588, a Nestorian bishopric at Pushang is mentioned. In the 650s, the town was captured by the invading Arabs. After the Abbasid Revolution in 750, Pushang was under the governorship by Mus'ab ibn Ruzaiq, an Iranian companion of the Abbasid general Abu Muslim.Mus'ab's grandson Tahir ibn Husayn would later play an important role in the affairs of the Abbasid Caliphate and establish the Tahirid dynasty, which would rule Pushang and the rest of Khorasan until 873, when the Saffarid ruler Ya'qub ibn al-Layth al-Saffar wrested Khorasan from him. During the decline of the Saffarid dynasty in the early 10th-century, the town was captured by the Samanids. According to the 10th-century traveler Ibn Hawqal, the town was half the size of Herat. He also states that the town was well-built, being surrounded by three gates. In 998, the town was captured by the Ghaznavid ruler Mahmud. After the battle of Dandanaqan in 1040, the city was seized by the Seljuq Turks.
In 1152, Pushang was briefly occupied by the Ghurid ruler Ala al-Din Husayn, who was defeated and captured by the Seljuq ruler Ahmad Sanjar. In 1163, Pushang was once again occupied by the Ghurids, this the Seljuqs being unable to re-capture it. During the Mongol invasion (1206–1337), Pushang was destroyed, but after some time managed to recover.In 1245, the town was captured by the Kurt ruler Shams-uddin Muhammad Kurt I. During the 14th-century, the town was famous for its water melons and grapes.
In 1381, the Turko-Mongol ruler Timur had the town destroyed after having made the last Kurt ruler, Ghiyas-uddin Pir 'Ali his vassal.However, the town was later restored and is mentioned many times by the Iranian historian Hafiz-i Abru. During the early modern period, Pushang was destroyed due to land disputes between the Safavids, Uzbeks and the Afghans. However, the town was once again revived and is today known by the name of Ghurian.
The Muslim conquests of Afghanistan began during the Muslim conquest of Persia as the Arab Muslims migrated eastwards to Khorasan, Sistan and Transoxiana. 15 years after the Battle of Nahāvand, they controlled all Sasanian domains except southern and eastern Afghanistan. Fuller Islamization wasn't achieved until the period between 10th and 12th centuries under Ghaznavid and Ghurid dynasty's rule who patronized Muslim religious institutions.
Herāt is the third-largest city of Afghanistan. In 2020, it had an estimated population of 574,276, and serves as the capital of Herat Province, situated in the fertile valley of the Hari River in the western part of the country. It is linked with Kandahar, Kabul and Mazar-i-Sharif via Highway 1 or the ring road. It is further linked to the city of Mashhad in neighboring Iran through the border town of Islam Qala, and to Mary in Turkmenistan to the north through the border town of Torghundi.
Ṭāhir ibn Ḥusayn, also known as Dhul-Yamīnayn, and al-Aʿwar, was an Iranian general and governor during the Abbasid caliphate. Specifically, he served under al-Ma'mun during the Fourth Fitna and led the armies that would defeat al-Amin, making al-Ma'mun the caliph. He was then rewarded as governor of Khorasan, which marked the beginning of the Tahirid dynasty.
The Tahirid dynasty was a dynasty, of Persian dehqan origin, that effectively ruled the Khorasan from 821 to 873 while other members of the dynasty served as military and security commanders for the city of Baghdad from 820 until 891. The dynasty was founded by Tahir ibn Husayn, a leading general in the service of the Abbasid caliph al-Ma'mun. Their capital in Khorasan was initially located at Merv but was later moved to Nishapur. The Tahirids have been described as the first independent Iranian dynasty after the fall of the Sassanian Empire. However, according Hugh Kennedy: "The Tahirids are sometimes considered as the first independent Iranian dynasty, but such a view is misleading. The arrangement was effectively a partnership between the Abbasids and the Tahirids." Instead, the Tahirids were loyal to the Abbasid caliphs and enjoyed considerable autonomy rather than being independent from the central authority. The tax revenue from Khorasan that was sent to the caliphal treasury was perhaps larger than those collected previously.
The Saffarid dynasty was a Persian dynasty from Sistan that ruled over parts of Greater Iran, with its capital at Zaranj, from 861 to 1003. One of the first indigenous Persian dynasties to emerge after the Islamic conquest, the Saffarid dynasty was part of the Iranian Intermezzo. The dynasty's founder was Ya'qub bin Laith as-Saffar, who was born in 840 in a small town called Karnin (Qarnin), which was located east of Zaranj and west of Bost, in what is now Afghanistan. A native of Sistan and a local ayyār, Ya'qub worked as a coppersmith (ṣaffār) before becoming a warlord. He seized control of the Sistan region and began conquering most of Iran and Afghanistan, as well as parts of Pakistan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan.
Mu'izz ad-Din Muhammad Ghori, born Shihab ad-Din, also known as Muhammad of Ghor, was the Sultan of the Ghurid Empire along with his brother Ghiyath ad-Din Muhammad from 1173 to 1202 and as the sole ruler from 1202 to 1206. He is credited with laying the foundation of Muslim rule in the Indian subcontinent, which lasted for several centuries. He reigned over a territory spanning over parts of modern-day Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iran, Northern India, Pakistan, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan.
The Kart dynasty, also known as the Kartids, was a Sunni Muslim dynasty of Tajik origin closely related to the Ghurids, that ruled over a large part of Khorasan during the 13th and 14th centuries. Ruling from their capital at Herat and central Khorasan in the Bamyan, they were at first subordinates of Sultan Abul-Fateh Ghiyāṣ-ud-din Muhammad bin Sām, Sultan of the Ghurid Empire, of whom they were related, and then as vassal princes within the Mongol Empire. Upon the fragmentation of the Ilkhanate in 1335, Mu'izz-uddin Husayn ibn Ghiyath-uddin worked to expand his principality. The death of Husayn b. Ghiyath-uddin in 1370 and the invasion of Timur in 1381, ended the Kart dynasty's ambitions.
The Ghurids or Ghorids were a dynasty of Iranian origin from the Ghor region of present-day central Afghanistan, but the exact ethnic origin is uncertain. The dynasty converted to Sunni Islam from Buddhism, after the conquest of Ghor by the Ghaznavid sultan Mahmud of Ghazni in 1011. The dynasty overthrew the Ghaznavid Empire in 1186 when Sultan Mu'izz ad-Din Muhammad of Ghor conquered the last Ghaznavid capital of Lahore.
Amr ibn al-Layth or Amr-i Laith Saffari was the second ruler of the Saffarid dynasty of Iran from 879 to 901. He was the son of a whitesmith and the younger brother of the dynasty's founder, Ya'qub ibn al-Layth al-Saffar.
Abdallah ibn Tahir was a military leader and the Tahirid governor of Khurasan from 828 until his death. He is perhaps the most famous of the Tahirids. His career spanned twenty five years, as he served under three Caliphs. Militarily, he is known for defeating the powerful rebels Nasr ibn Shabath and Ubaydallah ibn al-Sari.
Ghiyath al-Din Muhammad, was sultan of the Ghurid dynasty from 1163 to 1202. During his reign, the Ghurid dynasty became a world power, which stretched from Gorgan to Bengal.
The history of Nishapur begins with the city's founding during the Sasanian dynasty ; the city is located in the eastern province of Khorasan and served as the seat of the governor and commander in chief of the province.
Rāfi‘ ibn Harthama was a mercenary soldier who in the turmoils of the late 9th century became ruler of Khurasan from 882 to 892.
Muhammad ibn Rustam Dushmanziyar, also known by his laqab of Ala al-Dawla Muhammad, was a Daylamite military commander who founded in 1008 the short-lived but important independent Kakuyid dynasty in Jibal. He is also known as Pusar-i Kaku, Ibn Kakuyeh, Ibn Kakuya, and Ibn Kaku, which means maternal uncle in the Deylami language, and is related to the Persian word "kaka". Muhammad died in September 1041 after having carved out a powerful kingdom which included western Persia and Jibal. However, these gains were quickly lost under his successors.
The Milakid family, also known as the Mikalis, was a prominent Iranian aristocratic family of Khorasan from the 9th century to the 11th century. They were descended from the pre-Islamic nobility of Samarkand.
Fakhr al-Din Masud, was the first ruler of the Ghurid branch of Bamiyan, ruling from 1152 to 1163.
Iskandar-i Shaykhi, was an Iranian ispahbad from the Afrasiyab dynasty, who ruled Amul as a Timurid vassal from 1393 to 1403. He was the youngest son of Kiya Afrasiyab, who had initially established his rule in eastern Mazandaran from 1349 to 1359, but was defeated and killed by the local shaykh Mir-i Buzurg, who established his own dynasty—the Mar'ashis—in the region. Together with some supporters and two nephews of his father, Iskandar initially took refuge in Larijan, but later left for Herat, where entered into the service of the Kartid ruler Ghiyath al-Din II.
Ruzaiq was an Iranian nobleman who lived during the 7th and 8th-century. As the great-grandfather of Tahir ibn Husayn, he was the ancestor of the Tahirid dynasty.
Abu Abdallah Muhammad ibn Ibrahim ibn Mus'ab was a Mus'abid military commander and provincial official for the Abbasid Caliphate. He served as the governor of Fars from 846–7 until his death.
Al-Husayn ibn Isma'il ibn Ibrahim ibn Mus'ab was a ninth century army commander in the service of the Abbasid Caliphate. He was particularly active during the period known as the Anarchy at Samarra (861–870).