|Pwa Saw of Thitmahti |
|Chief queen consort of Pagan|
|Reign||1289 – 1325|
|Predecessor||Pwa Saw as Queen of Burma|
|Died||in or after 1334 |
|Spouse|| Kyawswa |
|Issue|| Theingapati |
Pwa Saw of Thitmahti (Burmese : သစ်မထီး ဖွားစော, [θɪʔmətʰí pʰwá sɔ́] or [θəmətʰí pʰwá sɔ́] ) was the chief queen consort of King Kyawswa, and of King Saw Hnit of the Pagan Dynasty of Burma (Myanmar). The royal chronicles identify Saw Soe as the chief queen of Kyawswa but historians identify her as the chief queen. She was the mother of Crown Prince Theingapati and Kumara Kassapa.
Thitmahti was one of the three historical Pagan period queens known by the epithet of Pwa Saw (lit. "Queen Grandmother", or queen dowager).According to an analysis of the contemporary stone inscriptions by Ba Shin, she was a younger sister of Queen Saw Hla Wun, and she may have succeeded her sister as the chief queen only in 1295/96. But not everyone accepts that Hla Wun was a queen of Kyawswa, two decades her junior, or that Thitmahti was a sister of Hla Wun.
Kyawswa was king of the Pagan dynasty of Burma (Myanmar) from 1289 to 1297. Son of the last sovereign king of Pagan Narathihapate, Kyawswa was one of many "kings" that emerged after the collapse of the Pagan Empire in 1287. Though still styled as King of Pagan, Kyawswa's effective rule amounted to just the area around Pagan city. Felt threatened by the three brothers of Myinsaing, who were nominally his viceroys, Kyawswa decided to become a Mongol vassal, and received such recognition from the Mongols in March 1297. He was ousted by the brothers in December 1297, and killed along with his son Theingapati on 10 May 1299.
Thihathu was a co-founder of the Myinsaing Kingdom, and the founder of the Pinya Kingdom in today's central Burma (Myanmar). Thihathu was the youngest and most ambitious of the three brothers that successfully defended central Burma from Mongol invasions in 1287 and in 1300–01. He and his brothers toppled the regime at Pagan in 1297, and co-ruled central Burma. After his eldest brother Athinkhaya's death in 1310, Thihathu pushed aside the middle brother Yazathingyan, and took over as the sole ruler of central Burma. His decision to designate his adopted son Uzana I heir-apparent caused his eldest biological son, Saw Yun to set up a rival power center in Sagaing in 1315. Although Saw Yun nominally remained loyal to his father, after Thihathu's death in 1325, the two houses of Myinsaing officially became rival kingdoms in central Burma.
Athinkhaya was a co-founder of Myinsaing Kingdom in present-day Central Burma (Myanmar). As a senior commander in the Royal Army of the Pagan Empire, he, along with his two younger brothers Yazathingyan and Thihathu, led Pagan's successful defense of central Burma against the Mongol invasions in 1287. Following the collapse of the Pagan Empire, the brothers became rivals of King Kyawswa of Pagan in central Burma, and overthrew him in December 1297, nine months after Kyawswa became a Mongol vassal. They successfully defended the second Mongol invasion (1300–01), and emerged the sole rulers of central Burma.
Uzana I of Pinya was king of Pinya from 1325 to 1340. Of Pagan royalty, Uzana inherited a disunited kingdom, which fell apart right after his predecessor Thihathu's death. Not only could he not retake the northern Sagaing Kingdom but he also had little control over his southern vassals. Even in his core power base in present-day central Myanmar (Burma), Uzana faced a serious rival in his half-brother Kyawswa. He ultimately lost the power struggle, and abdicated the throne in 1340 to a regent. He lived out his last years as a monk in Mekkhaya.
Thihapate of Sagaing king of Sagaing from 1352 to 1364. He came to power by being married to the powerful Princess Soe Min Kodawgyi. He led Sagaing during the most tumultuous period of the kingdom (1356−64). Despite a brief period of alliance with Pinya (1357−59), Sagaing had to face near-annual raids by the northern Shan state of Mong Mao (Maw) on its own. He lost power in April 1364 when Maw Shan forces sacked Sagaing. He escaped capture but was soon put to death by his stepson Thado Minbya at Kya-Khat-Wa-Ya, south of Sagaing.
Saw Min Hla was the chief queen consort of Ava from 1421 to 1425. Her son Min Hla briefly became king for three months in 1425, following the death of her second husband King Thihathu of Ava. Her first husband was Thihathu's elder brother Crown Prince Minye Kyawswa of the Forty Years' War fame. Her eldest child Minye Kyawhtin was the rebel king of Toungoo (Taungoo) from 1452 to 1459.
Soe Min Kodawgyi was the chief queen consort of Sagaing from 1352 to 1364. The eldest daughter of the founder of Sagaing Saw Yun was a powerful figure who twice led diplomatic missions to forge a closer alliance with Pinya in the 1350s. She was the mother of Thado Minbya, the founder of the Kingdom of Ava (Inwa).
Min Shin Saw was an early 14th-century governor of Thayet in the Pinya Kingdom. He was a son of King Kyawswa of Pagan and the father of King Swa Saw Ke of Ava, Queen Saw Omma of Pinya.
Saw Soe was a principal queen consort of King Kyawswa of the Pagan Dynasty of Burma (Myanmar). The royal chronicles identify her as the chief queen of Kyawswa but historians identify Saw Thitmahti as the chief queen.
Atula Thiri Maha Yaza Dewi of Ava was the chief queen consort of King Narapati I of Ava from 1442 to 1468. She was the mother of King Thihathura of Ava and King Thado Minsaw of Prome, and a maternal aunt of King Leik Munhtaw of Hanthawaddy. King Alaungpaya, the founder of Konbaung Dynasty, was a tenth generation descendant of the queen.
Shin Myat Hla was the chief queen consort of King Mohnyin Thado of Ava from 1426 to 1439. She was also a junior queen of King Minkhaung I of Ava for five months in 1409–10. She was the mother of kings Minye Kyawswa I and Narapati I of Ava. She was also an eight-times great grandmother of King Alaungpaya of Konbaung Dynasty.
Shin Saw Gyi was a chief queen consort of King Swa Saw Ke of Ava. She was also a principal queen of kings Kyawswa II of Pinya and Narathu of Pinya. She was a granddaughter of King Saw Yun, the founder of Sagaing Kingdom, and a sister of King Thado Minbya, the founder of Ava Kingdom. She was originally a queen consort of Swa, and was given the title of Queen of the Northern Palace and Pinya in fief. She became the chief queen after Queen Khame Mi died, and became the Queen of the Southern Palace.
Khame Mi was the first chief queen consort of King Swa Saw Ke of Ava. She is regarded as the mother of King Tarabya, the successor of Swa, by the standard Burmese chronicles despite inscriptional evidence to the contrary.
Ti Lawka Sanda Thonlula was the chief queen consort of King Uzana of Pagan. Chronicles say that she was succeeded as chief queen by Saw Hla Wun but inscriptional evidence indicates that it was Yadanabon who succeeded.
Saw Min Waing was one of the two consorts of Prince Naratheinga Uzana of Pagan. Naratheinga is regarded by some historians such as G.H. Luce and Than Tun as a king that ruled Pagan although none of the Burmese chronicles mentions him as king. Some historians such as Htin Aung and Michael Aung-Thwin do not recognize Naratheinga as king.
Pwa Saw was a chief queen consort of King Narathihapate of the Pagan Dynasty of Burma (Myanmar). She is remembered as witty, wise, and beautiful, and as someone who exercised political influence for four decades during one of the most difficult periods in the country's history. Historians are divided as to whether the chronicle narratives contain more myth than fact.
Yadanabon was the first chief queen consort of King Narathihapate of Pagan Dynasty of Burma (Myanmar). She was a granddaughter of King Kyaswa and Queen Saw Mon Hla, and a niece of Queen Thonlula. Note that the royal chronicles do not mention her as a queen at all; instead, they mention her sister Saw Hla Wun, who later became famous as Pwa Saw, as the only chief queen. But inscriptional evidence shows that Yadanabon was the first chief queen, and that Hla Wun became the chief queen only in 1262, following Yadanabon's death.
Theingapati was heir-apparent of the Pagan Dynasty of Burma (Myanmar) from 1289 to 1297. The crown prince is known for his mission to Beijing in which he sought and received the Mongol Empire's recognition of his father, Kyawswa, as King of Pagan in March 1297. The prince was arrested after his father was overthrown in December 1297 by the three brothers of Myinsaing. The brothers branded the father-son duo as traitors and executed them in May 1299.
Kumara Kassapa or Kumara Kathapa was the Mongol-installed King of Pagan, who reigned for ten weeks in 1301. The second son of King Kyawswa of Pagan sought Mongol intervention after his father was overthrown by the Myinsaing brothers in 1297. Declared the rightful king of Burma by Emperor Temür Khan in 1300, Kumara Kassapa returned to Pagan (Bagan) with a Mongol invasion force in 1301, only to retreat after the Mongol general staff accepted a bribe.
Pwa Saw of ThitmahtiBorn:c. 1250s Died: in/after 1334
Saw Hla Wun
| Chief queen consort of Pagan |
1289 – 1325