|Native to||North Korea, China|
|Region||P'yŏng'an, Chagang, Liaoning|
The Pyong'an dialect (Korean : 평안도 사투리; MR : p'yŏngando sat'uri), alternatively Northwestern Korean (Korean : 서북 방언; Hanja : 西北方言; MR : sŏbuk pangŏn), is the Korean dialect of the Northwestern Korean peninsula and neighboring parts of China. It has influenced the standard Korean of North Korea, but is not the primary influence of North Korea's standard Korean (the Gyeonggi dialect, the Korean language standard of Joseon-era Korea for roughly 500 years, is the foundation of standard Korean in both North and South Korea).
In the Pyongan dialect an eight vowel system is used (이·에·애·으·어·아·우·오). The sound of 어 is much closer to that of 오 compared to other dialects as it is [ɔ], the rounded equivalent to South Korean [ʌ̹][ citation needed ]. 으 is also closer to [i] than to [ɨ], e.g. 그렇다 becomes 기렇다. However, the opposite is true after ㅅ. The palatalization that occurred for other dialects with 시 is absent in the Pyongan dialect, e.g. 싫다 becomes 슳다. There are various features that differentiate the sound of words from southwestern and midland dialects. 위, 왜, 워 and 와 are closer to an original sound of 야, 여, 요 and 유.
The ㄷ (d) consonant, in addition to the first syllable of ㄱ (g) and ㅎ (h) are not palatalized in the Pyongan dialect (e.g. 뎡거댱, 정거장: chyŏnggŏjyang, chŏgŏjang). Sino-Korean words beginning with ㄴ (n) in southern dialects are pronounced as ㄹ (r), as in the cases of 뉴행 (nyuhaeng) and 노동 (nodong).
Stems of the ㄷ, ㅂ, ㅅ irregulars use both forms, such as in the case of 듣다·드드니, 들으니 (tŭtta-tŭdŭni, tŭrŭni) (listening, to hear).
Various words used in the Pyongan dialect differ to that of other Korean dialects, such as 간나 (kanna) (sissy), 클마니 (k'ŭlmani) (father) and 클마니 (grandmother). The etymology of words such as "우틔" (ut'ŭi) (衣) arises from the Manchu language, but has been removed by the North Korean government in order to promote language purity.[ citation needed ]
McCune–Reischauer romanization is one of the two most widely used Korean language romanization systems. A modified version of McCune–Reischauer was the official romanization system in South Korea until 2000, when it was replaced by the Revised Romanization of Korean system. A variant of McCune–Reischauer is still used as the official system in North Korea.
The Revised Romanization of Korean is the official Korean language romanization system in South Korea. It was developed by the National Academy of the Korean Language from 1995 and was released to the public on 7 July 2000 by South Korea's Ministry of Culture and Tourism in Proclamation No. 2000-8.
In phonetics, palatalization or palatization refers to a way of pronouncing a consonant in which part of the tongue is moved close to the hard palate. Consonants pronounced this way are said to be palatalized and are transcribed in the International Phonetic Alphabet by affixing the letter ⟨ʲ⟩ to the base consonant. Palatalization cannot minimally distinguish words in most dialects of English, but it may do so in languages such as Russian, Mandarin and Irish.
A number of Korean dialects are spoken on the Korean Peninsula. The peninsula is extremely mountainous and each dialect's "territory" corresponds closely to the natural boundaries between different geographical regions of Korea. Most of the dialects are named for one of the traditional Eight Provinces of Korea. One is sufficiently distinct from the others to be considered a separate language, the Jeju language.
The history of the Slavic languages stretches over 3000 years, from the point at which the ancestral Proto-Balto-Slavic language broke up into the modern-day Slavic languages which are today natively spoken in Eastern, Central and Southeastern Europe as well as parts of North Asia and Central Asia.
Samogitian is an Eastern Baltic variety spoken mostly in Samogitia. It is sometimes treated as a dialect of Lithuanian, but is considered a separate language by some linguists outside Lithuania. Its recognition as a distinct language is increasing in recent years, and attempts have been made to standardize it.
Norwegian dialects are commonly divided into four main groups, 'Northern Norwegian', 'Central Norwegian' (trøndersk), 'Western Norwegian' (vestlandsk), and 'Eastern Norwegian'. Sometimes 'Midland Norwegian' and/or 'South Norwegian' are considered fifth or sixth groups.
The Gyeonggi dialect or Seoul dialect of the Korean language is the prestige dialect of the language and the basis of the standardized form used in South Korea. It is spoken throughout the Korean Peninsula and in the Korean diaspora, but it is mainly concentrated in the Seoul National Capital Area, the most densely populated part of South Korea, which includes the cities of Seoul and Incheon, as well as the whole Gyeonggi Province. It is also spoken in the city of Kaesong and the counties of Kaepung and Changpung in North Korea.
The Gyeongsang dialects, or Southeastern Korean, are dialects of the Korean language of the Yeongnam region, which includes both Gyeongsang provinces, North and South. There are approximately 13,000,000 speakers. Unlike Standard Korean, most of the variants of the Gyeongsang dialects are tonal, which is similar to Middle Korean.
In linguistics, assibilation is a sound change resulting in a sibilant consonant. It is a form of spirantization and is commonly the final phase of palatalization.
The Korean language has changed between North and South Korea due to the length of time that the two states have been separated. Underlying dialect differences have been extended, in part by government policies and in part by the isolation of North Korea from the outside world. There are some differences in orthography and pronunciation, and substantial differences in newer vocabulary. Where the South tends to use loanwords from English, the North tends to use loanwords from Russian or construct compound words.
This article is a description of the morphology, syntax, and semantics of Korean. For phonetics and phonology, see Korean phonology. See also Korean honorifics, which play a large role in the grammar.
This article is a technical description of the phonetics and phonology of Korean. Unless otherwise noted, statements in this article refer to South Korean standard language based on the Seoul dialect.
The Korean alphabet is the native script of Korea, created in the mid fifteenth century by King Sejong, as both a complement and an alternative to the logographic Sino-Korean Hanja. Initially denounced by the educated class as eonmun, it only became the primary Korean script following independence from Japan in the mid-20th century.
Verbs in the Korean language come in last place in a clause. Verbs are the most complex part of speech, and a properly conjugated verb may stand on its own as a complete sentence. This article uses the Yale romanization in bold to show morphology.
The Wallachian dialect is one of the several dialects of the Romanian language (Daco-Romanian). Its geographic distribution covers approximately the historical region of Wallachia, occupying the southern part of Romania, roughly between the Danube and the Southern Carpathians. Standard Romanian, in particular its phonology, is largely based on Wallachian.
ㅎ is one of the Korean hangeul. The Unicode for ㅎ is U+314E.(히읗) It has two pronunciating forms [h] and [t̚]. It sounds as [h] in initial or onset position (하), intervowel position and in a coda following a consonant (받침) before an onset vowel in the next syllable (않아). It assimilates via aspiration as explained below in codas before plosive consonants; if ㅎ it is a full coda it would sound [t̚]. (앟)
The Korean alphabet, known as Hangul (Hangeul) in South Korea and Chosŏn'gŭl in North Korea, is a writing system for the Korean language created by King Sejong the Great in 1443. The letters for the five basic consonants reflect the shape of the speech organs used to pronounce them, and they are systematically modified to indicate phonetic features; similarly, the vowel letters are systematically modified for related sounds, making Hangul a featural writing system.
Palatalization is a historical-linguistic sound change that results in a palatalized articulation of a consonant or, in certain cases, a front vowel. Palatalization involves change in the place or manner of articulation of consonants, or the fronting or raising of vowels. In some cases, palatalization involves assimilation or lenition.
Hwanghae dialect is a dialect of Korean spoken in North Hwanghae Province, South Hwanghae Province in North Korea, as well as the islands of Baengnyeongdo, Yeonpyeongdo and Daecheongdo in Ongjin County in South Korea. It may also be spoken among former Korean War refugees in cities such as Incheon and Kimpo.