|Native to||North Korea, China|
|Region||P'yŏng'an, Chagang, Liaoning|
The Pyeongan dialect (Korean : 평안도 사투리; MR : p'yŏngando sat'uri), alternatively Northwestern Korean (Korean : 서북 방언; Hanja : 西北方言; MR : sŏbuk pangŏn), is the Korean dialect of the Northwestern Korean peninsula and neighboring parts of China. It has influenced the standard Korean of North Korea, but is not the primary influence of North Korea's standard Korean (the Gyeonggi dialect, the Korean language standard of Joseon-era Korea for roughly 500 years, is the foundation of standard Korean in both North and South Korea).
In the Pyongan dialect an eight vowel system is used (이·에·애·으·어·아·우·오). The sound of 어 is much closer to that of 오 compared to other dialects as it is [ɔ], the rounded equivalent to South Korean [ʌ̹][ citation needed ]. 으 is also closer to [i] than to [ɨ], e.g. 그렇다 becomes 기렇다. However, the opposite is true after ㅅ. The palatalization that occurred for other dialects with 시 is absent in the Pyongan dialect, e.g. 싫다 becomes 슳다. There are various features that differentiate the sound of words from southwestern and midland dialects. 위, 왜, 워 and 와 are closer to an original sound of 야, 여, 요 and 유.
The ㄷ (d) consonant, in addition to the first syllable of ㄱ (g) and ㅎ (h) are not palatalized in the Pyongan dialect (e.g. 뎡거댱, 정거장: chyŏnggŏjyang, chŏgŏjang). Sino-Korean words beginning with ㄴ (n) in southern dialects are pronounced as ㄹ (r), as in the cases of 뉴행 (nyuhaeng) and 노동 (nodong).
Stems of the ㄷ, ㅂ, ㅅ irregulars use both forms, such as in the case of 듣다·드드니, 들으니 (tŭtta-tŭdŭni, tŭrŭni) (listening, to hear).
Various words used in the Pyongan dialect differ to that of other Korean dialects, such as 간나 (kanna) (sissy), 클마니 (k'ŭlmani) (father) and 클마니 (grandmother). The etymology of words such as "우틔" (ut'ŭi) (衣) arises from the Manchu language, but has been removed by the North Korean government in order to promote language purity.[ citation needed ]
The Romance languages, less commonly referred to as Latin languages or Neo-Latin languages, are the various modern languages that evolved from Vulgar Latin between the 3rd and 8th centuries. They are the only extant subgroup of the Italic languages in the Indo-European language family. The six most widely spoken Romance languages by number of native speakers are Spanish, Portuguese, French, Italian, Romanian, and Catalan. Among all the Romance languages, including national and regional languages, Sardinian, Italian and Spanish are the least differentiated from Latin. The most divergent to Latin is French, which was heavily influenced by Germanic languages; however, all Romance languages are closer to each other than to classical Latin.
McCune–Reischauer romanization is one of the two most widely used Korean language romanization systems. A modified version of McCune–Reischauer was the official romanization system in South Korea until 2002, when it was replaced by the Revised Romanization of Korean system introduced two years earlier. A variant of McCune–Reischauer is still used as the official system in North Korea.
In phonetics, palatalization or palatization is a way of pronouncing a consonant in which part of the tongue is moved close to the hard palate. Consonants pronounced this way are said to be palatalized and are transcribed in the International Phonetic Alphabet by affixing the letter ⟨ʲ⟩ to the base consonant. Palatalization cannot minimally distinguish words in most dialects of English, but it may do so in languages such as Russian, Mandarin, and Irish.
A number of Korean dialects are spoken on the Korean Peninsula. The peninsula is extremely mountainous and each dialect's "territory" corresponds closely to the natural boundaries between different geographical regions of Korea. Most of the dialects are named for one of the traditional Eight Provinces of Korea. Two are sufficiently distinct from the others to be considered separate languages, the Jeju and the Yukjin languages.
The history of the Slavic languages stretches over 3000 years, from the point at which the ancestral Proto-Balto-Slavic language broke up into the modern-day Slavic languages which are today natively spoken in Eastern, Central and Southeastern Europe as well as parts of North Asia and Central Asia.
Samogitian is an Eastern Baltic language spoken mostly in Samogitia. It is mostly treated as a dialect of Lithuanian, but it is also considered as a separate language by some linguists inside and outside of Lithuania. Its recognition as a distinct language is increasing in recent years, and attempts have been made to standardize it.
Norwegian dialects (dialekter) are commonly divided into four main groups, 'Northern Norwegian', 'Central Norwegian' (trøndersk), 'Western Norwegian' (vestlandsk), and 'Eastern Norwegian'. Sometimes 'Midland Norwegian' and/or 'South Norwegian' are considered fifth or sixth groups.
The Gyeonggi dialect or Seoul dialect of the Korean language is the prestige dialect of the language and the basis of the standardized form used in South Korea. It is spoken throughout the Korean Peninsula and in the Korean diaspora, but it is mainly concentrated in the Seoul National Capital Area, the most densely populated part of South Korea, which includes the cities of Seoul and Incheon, as well as the whole Gyeonggi Province. It is also spoken in the city of Kaesong and the counties of Kaepung and Changpung in North Korea.
The Gyeongsang dialects, or Southeastern Korean, are dialects of the Korean language of the Yeongnam region, which includes both Gyeongsang provinces, North and South. There are approximately 13,000,000 speakers. Unlike Standard Korean, most of the variants of the Gyeongsang dialects are tonal, which is similar to Middle Korean.
In linguistics, assibilation is a sound change resulting in a sibilant consonant. It is a form of spirantization and is commonly the final phase of palatalization.
The Korean language has diverged between North and South Korea due to the length of time that the two states have been separated. Underlying dialectical differences have been extended—in part by government policies, and in part by the isolation of North Korea from the outside world. There are some differences in orthography and pronunciation, and substantial differences in newer vocabulary; whereas the South tends to use loanwords from English, the North tends to use loanwords from Russian or construct compound words.
The Hamgyŏng dialect, or Northeastern Korean, is a dialect of the Korean language used in most of North and South Hamgyŏng and Ryanggang Provinces of northeastern North Korea, all of which were originally united as Hamgyŏng Province. Since the nineteenth century, it has also been spoken by Korean diaspora communities in Northeast China and the former Soviet Union.
This article is a technical description of the phonetics and phonology of Korean. Unless otherwise noted, statements in this article refer to South Korean standard language based on the Seoul dialect.
The Korean alphabet is the native script of Korea, created in the mid fifteenth century by King Sejong, as both a complement and an alternative to the logographic Sino-Korean Hanja. Initially denounced by the educated class as eonmun, it only became the primary Korean script following independence from Japan in the mid-20th century.
Verbs in the Korean language come in last place in a clause. Verbs are the most complex part of speech, and a properly conjugated verb may stand on its own as a complete sentence. This article uses the Yale romanization in bold to show morphology.
The Wallachian dialect is one of the several dialects of the Romanian language (Daco-Romanian). Its geographic distribution covers approximately the historical region of Wallachia, occupying the southern part of Romania, roughly between the Danube and the Southern Carpathians. Standard Romanian, in particular its phonology, is largely based on Wallachian.
The Chungcheong dialects of the Korean language are spoken in the Chungcheong (Hoseo) region of South Korea, including the metropolitan city of Daejeon. It may also include several areas in Gyeonggi Province, most notably Pyeongtaek, that are adjacent to Chungcheong Province. Chungcheong dialect can be divided into two categories: the Northern Chungcheong dialect, notable for its similarity capital Gyeonggi region speech, and the Southern dialect, which is similar to the Jeolla dialect. This dialect is notable for its slow enunciations, vowel changes, and unique jargon. However, as Seoul expands and standard language supremacy spreads, young people in Chungcheong Province, including Daejeon and Sejong, do not use original dialect, or use very little of it. Most young people use standard language and dialect alternately, and in cities located just below the Seoul metropolitan area (Sudogwon), like Cheonan, dialect is on the verge of extinction.
The Korean alphabet, known as Hangul in South Korea and Chosŏn'gŭl in North Korea, is the modern official writing system for the Korean language. The letters for the five basic consonants reflect the shape of the speech organs used to pronounce them, and they are systematically modified to indicate phonetic features; similarly, the vowel letters are systematically modified for related sounds, making Hangul a featural writing system. It has been described as a "syllabic alphabet", as it combines the features of alphabetic and syllabic writing systems, although it is not necessarily an abugida.
Palatalization is a historical-linguistic sound change that results in a palatalized articulation of a consonant or, in certain cases, a front vowel. Palatalization involves change in the place or manner of articulation of consonants, or the fronting or raising of vowels. In some cases, palatalization involves assimilation or lenition.
Hwanghae dialect is a dialect of Korean spoken in North Hwanghae Province, South Hwanghae Province in North Korea, as well as the islands of Baengnyeongdo, Yeonpyeongdo and Daecheongdo in Ongjin County in South Korea. It may also be spoken among former Korean War refugees in cities such as Incheon.