Pyongyang

Last updated

Pyongyang
평양시
平壤市
Pyongyang Directly Governed City
평양직할시
平壤直轄市
  transcription(s)
   Chosŏn'gŭl 평양 직할시
   Hancha 平壤 直轄市
   McCune–Reischauer P'yŏngyang Chikhalsi
   Revised Romanization Pyeongyang Jikhalsi
Panoramic view from Juche Tower.jpg
0643 - Nordkorea 2015 - Pjongjang - Triumphbogen (22781888920).jpg
Tower of Juche Idea, Pyongyang, North Korea (2909246855).jpg
Tomb of King Tongmyong, Pyongyang, North Korea-1.jpg
Arch of Reunification.jpg
0855 - Nordkorea 2015 - Pjongjang - Metro (22356826393).jpg
Chollima statue 04.JPG
Clockwise from top: Pyongyang skyline and the Taedong River; Juche Tower; Arch of Reunification; Chollima Statue; Puhŭng Station in the Pyongyang Metro; Tomb of King Tongmyeong and Arch of Triumph
Nickname(s): 
(류경/柳京)  (Korean)
"Capital of Willows"
[1]
Pyongyang
Location of Pyongyang in North Korea
North Korea physical map.svg
Red pog.svg
Pyongyang
Asia laea relief location map.jpg
Red pog.svg
Pyongyang
Coordinates: 39°1′10″N125°44′17″E / 39.01944°N 125.73806°E / 39.01944; 125.73806 Coordinates: 39°1′10″N125°44′17″E / 39.01944°N 125.73806°E / 39.01944; 125.73806
CountryFlag of North Korea.svg  North Korea
Districts
Government
  Chairman of Pyongyang People's Committee Cha Hui-rim [2]
  Secretary of the Workers' Party of Korea Pyongyang City Committee Kim Yong-hwan [3]
Area
[4]
  Total3,194 km2 (1,233 sq mi)
Population
 (2019 [5] )
  Total3,060,900
  Density960/km2 (2,500/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+09:00 (Pyongyang Time)

Pyongyang ( US: /ˌpjɒŋˈjæŋ/ , UK: /ˌpjʌŋˈjɑːŋ/ , [6] Korean:  [pʲʰʌ̹ŋ.ja̠ŋ] ) is the capital and largest city of North Korea, where it is known as the "Capital of the Revolution". [7] Pyongyang is located on the Taedong River about 109 km (68 mi) upstream from its mouth on the Yellow Sea. According to the 2008 population census, it has a population of 3,255,288. [8] Pyongyang is a directly administered city (직할시;直轄市;chikhalsi) with equal status to North Korean provinces.

Contents

Pyongyang is one of the oldest cities in Korea. [9] It was the capital of two ancient Korean kingdoms, Gojoseon and Goguryeo, and served as the secondary capital of Goryeo. Much of the city was destroyed during the First Sino-Japanese War, but it was revived under Japanese rule and became an industrial center. Following the establishment of North Korea in 1948, Pyongyang became its de facto capital. The city was again devastated during the Korean War, but was quickly rebuilt after the war with Soviet assistance.

Pyongyang is the political, industrial and transport center of North Korea. It is home to North Korea's major government institutions, as well as the ruling Workers' Party of Korea.

Names

Foreign media reports in 2010 stated that Kangnam-gun, Chunghwa-gun, Sangwŏn-gun, and Sŭngho-guyŏk had been transferred to the administration of neighboring North Hwanghae province. [60] However, Kangnam-gun was returned to Pyongyang in 2011. [61]

Banghyun Dong, a missile base, was administrated by Kusong, North Pyongan Province. It had been transferred to the administration of P'yŏngyang on February 10, 2018. [62]

Cityscape

Pyongyangpanoramic.jpg
Panorama of Pyongyang, as seen from the Juche Tower in April 2012
Ryugyong Hotel and part of the Monument to the Victorious Fatherland Liberation War Victorious Fatherland Liberation War Museum and Ryugyong Hotel (11342673725).jpg
Ryugyong Hotel and part of the Monument to the Victorious Fatherland Liberation War
Apartment buildings with green areas Pyongyang-Highrise-Buildings-2014.jpg
Apartment buildings with green areas

After being destroyed during the Korean War, Pyongyang was entirely rebuilt according to Kim Il-sung's vision, which was to create a capital that would boost morale in the post-war years. [63] The result was a city with wide, tree-lined boulevards and public buildings with terraced landscaping, mosaics and decorated ceilings. [64] Its Russian-style architecture makes it reminiscent of a Siberian city during winter snowfall, although edifices of traditional Korean design somewhat soften this perception. In summer, it is notable for its rivers, willow trees, flowers and parkland. [64]

The streets are laid out in a north–south, east–west grid, giving the city an orderly appearance. [64] North Korean designers applied the Swedish experience of self-sufficient urban neighbourhoods throughout the entire country, and Pyongyang is no exception. Its inhabitants are mostly divided into administrative units of 5,000 to 6,000 people (dong). These units all have similar sets of amenities including a food store, a barber shop, a tailor, a public bathhouse, a post office, a clinic, a library and others. Many residents occupy high-rise apartment buildings. [65] One of Kim Il-sung's priorities while designing Pyongyang was to limit the population. Authorities maintain a restrictive regime of movement into the city, making it atypical of East Asia as it is silent, uncrowded and spacious. [66]

Structures in Pyongyang are divided into three major architectural categories: monuments, buildings with traditional Korean motifs and high-rises. [67] Some of North Korea's most recognisable landmarks are monuments, like the Juche Tower, the Arch of Triumph and the Mansu Hill Grand Monument. The first of them is a 170-meter (560 ft) granite spire symbolizing the Juche ideology. It was completed in 1982 and contains 25,550 granite blocks, one for each day of Kim Il-sung's life up to that point. [67] The most prominent building on Pyongyang's skyline is Ryugyong Hotel, [67] the seventh highest building in the world terms of floor count, the tallest unoccupied building in the world, [68] and one of the tallest hotels in the world. It has yet to open. [69] [70]

Pyongyang has a rapidly evolving skyline, dominated by high-rise apartment buildings. A construction boom began with the Changjon Street Apartment Complex, which was completed in 2012. [71] Construction of the complex began after late leader Kim Jong-il described Changjon Street as "pitiful". [72] Other housing complexes are being upgraded as well, but most are still poorly insulated, and lacking elevators and central heating. [73] An urban renewal program continued under Kim Jong-un's leadership, with the old apartments of the 1970s and '80s replaced by taller high rise buildings and leisure parks like the Kaesong Youth Park, as well as renovations of older buildings. [74] In 2018, the city was described as unrecognizable compared to five years before. [75]

Landmarks

The Rungrado 1st of May Stadium by the Taedong River is the second-largest mass-sports/athletic stadium in the world by capacity. Views from Yanggakdo International Hotel 10.JPG
The Rungrado 1st of May Stadium by the Taedong River is the second-largest mass-sports/athletic stadium in the world by capacity.

Notable landmarks in the city include:

Pyongyang TV Tower is a minor landmark. Other visitor attractions include the Korea Central Zoo. The Arch of Reunification has a map of a united Korea supported by two concrete Korean women dressed in traditional dress straddling the Reunification Highway, which stretches from Pyongyang to the Korean Demilitarized Zone (DMZ).

Culture

Cuisine

Pyongyang raengmyon (Korean: pyeongyangraengmyeon
; Hanja: Ping Rang Leng Mian 
), cold buckwheat noodle soup originating in Pyongyang Korean cuisine-Naengmyeon-02.jpg
Pyongyang raengmyŏn (Korean : 평양랭면; Hanja : 平壤冷麵), cold buckwheat noodle soup originating in Pyongyang

Pyongyang served as the provincial capital of South Pyongan Province until 1946, [76] and Pyongyang cuisine shares the general culinary tradition of the Pyongan province. The most famous local food is Pyongyang raengmyŏn , or also called mul raengmyŏn or just simply raengmyŏn. Raengmyŏn literally means "cold noodles", while the affix mul refers to water because the dish is served in a cold broth. Raengmyŏn consists of thin and chewy buckwheat noodles in a cold meat-broth with dongchimi (watery kimchi) and topped with a slice of sweet Korean pear.

Pyongyang raengmyŏn was originally eaten in homes built with ondol (traditional underfloor heating) during the cold winter, so it is also called "Pyongyang deoldeori" (shivering in Pyongyang). Pyongyang locals sometimes enjoyed it as a haejangguk , which is any type of food eaten as a hangover-cure, usually a warm soup. [77]

Another representative Pyongyang dish, Taedonggang sungeoguk , translates as "flathead grey mullet soup from the Taedong River". The soup features flathead grey mullet (abundant in the Taedong River) along with black peppercorns and salt. [78] Traditionally, it has been served to guests visiting Pyongyang. Therefore, there is a common saying, "How good was the trout soup?", which is used to greet people returning from Pyongyang. Another local specialty, Pyongyang onban (literally "warm rice of Pyongyang") comprises freshly cooked rice topped with sliced mushrooms, chicken, and a couple of bindaetteok (pancakes made from ground mung beans and vegetables). [77]

Social life

In 2018, there were many high quality restaurants in Pyongyang with Korean and international food, and imported alcoholic beverages. [75] Famous restaurants include Okryu-gwan and Ch'ongryugwan. [79] Some street foods exist in Pyongyang, where vendors operate food stalls. [80] Foreign foods like hamburgers, fries, pizza, and coffee are easily found. [75] There is an active nightlife with late-night restaurants and karaoke. [75]

The city has water parks, amusement parks, skating rinks, health clubs, a shooting range, and a dolphinarium. [74]

Sports

Pyongyang has a number of sports clubs, including the April 25 Sports Club and the Pyongyang City Sports Club. [81]

Economy

Central Pyongyang with the newly built Changjon Apartment Complex. The Okryu Bridge and Ryugyong Hotel are in the background Laika ac Pyongyang (7975203722).jpg
Central Pyongyang with the newly built Changjon Apartment Complex. The Okryu Bridge and Ryugyong Hotel are in the background

Pyongyang is North Korea's industrial center. [9] Thanks to the abundance of natural resources like coal, iron and limestone, as well as good land and water transport systems, it was the first industrial city to emerge in North Korea after the Korean War. Light and heavy industries are both present and have developed in parallel. Heavy manufactures include cement, industrial ceramics, munitions and weapons, but mechanical engineering remains the core industry. Light industries in Pyongyang and its vicinity include textiles, footwear and food, among others. Special emphasis is put on the production and supply of fresh produce and subsidiary crops in farms on the city's outskirts. Other crops include rice, sweetcorn and soybeans. Pyongyang aims to achieve self-sufficiency in meat production. High-density facilities raise pigs, chicken and other livestock. [9]

Until the late 2010s Pyongyang still experienced frequent shortages of electricity. [82] To solve this problem, two power stations – Huichon Power Stations 1 and 2 – were built in Chagang Province and supply the city through direct transmission lines. A second phase of the power expansion project was launched in January 2013, consisting of a series of small dams along the Chongchon River. The first two power stations have a maximum generating capacity of 300 megawatts (MW), while the 10 dams to be built under second phase are expected to generate about 120 MW. [82] In addition, the city has several existing or planned thermal power stations. These include Pyongyang TPS with a capacity of 500 MW, East Pyongyang TPS with a capacity of 50 MW, and Kangdong TPS which is under construction. [83]

Retail

Pyongyang Department Store No. 1 Laika ac Pyongyang Department Store No. 1 (11975506264).jpg
Pyongyang Department Store No. 1

Pyongyang is home to several large department stores including the Pothonggang Department Store, Pyongyang Department Store No. 1, Pyongyang Department Store No. 2, Kwangbok Department Store, Ragwon Department Store, Pyongyang Station Department Store, and the Pyongyang Children's Department Store. [84]

The city also has Hwanggumbol Shop, a chain of state-owned convenience stores supplying goods at prices cheaper than those in the jangmadang markets. Hwanggumbol Shops are specifically designed to control North Korea's expanding markets by attracting consumers and guaranteeing the circulation of money in government-operated stores. [85]

Transportation

Tatra KT8D5K tram Tatra tram in Pyongyang.jpg
Tatra KT8D5K tram

Pyongyang is also the main transport hub of the country: it has a network of roads, railways and air routes which link it to both foreign and domestic destinations. It is the starting point of inter-regional highways reaching Nampo, Wonsan and Kaesong. [9] Pyongyang railway station serves the main railway lines, including the Pyongui Line and the Pyongbu Line. Regular international rail services to Beijing, the Chinese border city of Dandong and Moscow are also available.

A rail journey to Beijing takes about 25 hours and 25 minutes (K27 from Beijing/K28 from Pyongyang, on Mondays, Wednesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays); a journey to Dandong takes about 6 hours (daily); a journey to Moscow takes six days. The city also connects to the Eurasian Land Bridge via the Trans-Siberian Railway. A high-speed rail link to Wonsan is planned. [86]

Tupolev Tu-204 of Air Koryo at Sunan International Airport AIR KORYO P632 TUPOLEV TU204-100 AT PYONGYANG SUNAN AIRPORT DPR KOREA OCT 2012 (8192629125).jpg
Tupolev Tu-204 of Air Koryo at Sunan International Airport

The Metro, tram and trolleybus systems are used mainly by commuters as a primary means of urban transportation. [9] Cycle lanes were introduced on main thoroughfares in July 2015. [87] There are relatively few cars in the city. Cars are a symbol of status in the country due to their scarcity as a result of restrictions on import because of international sanctions and domestic regulations. [88] Some roads are also reported to be in poor condition. [89] However, by 2018, Pyongyang had begun to experience traffic jams. [75]

State-owned Air Koryo has scheduled international flights from Pyongyang Sunan International Airport to Beijing (PEK), Shenyang (SHE), Vladivostok (VVO), Shanghai (PVG) and Dandong. [90] The only domestic destinations are Hamhung, Wonsan, Chongjin, Hyesan and Samjiyon. Since 31 March 2008, Air China launched a regular service between Beijing and Pyongyang, [91] although Air China's flights are often canceled due to lack of passengers. [92]

Education and science

Kim Il-sung University, North Korea's oldest university, was established in 1946. [9] It has 21 faculties, 4 research institutes, and 10 other university units. [93] [94] [95] These include the primary medical education and health personnel training unit, the medical college; a physics faculty which covers a range of studies including theoretical physics, optical science, geophysics and astrophysics; [96] an atomic energy institute and the largest law firm in the country (Ryongnamsan Law Office). [97] Kim Il-sung University also has its own publishing house, sports club (Ryongnamsan Sports Club), [98] revolutionary museum, nature museum, libraries, a gym, indoor swimming pool and educator apartment houses. Its four main buildings were completed in 1965 (Building 1), 1972 (Building 2), and 2017 (Buildings 3 and 4). [99] [100] [101]

Kim Il-Sung University in session Kim Il-sung University computer room.jpg
Kim Il-Sung University in session

Other higher education establishments include Kim Chaek University of Technology, Pyongyang University of Music and Dance and Pyongyang University of Foreign Studies. Pyongyang University of Science and Technology (PUST) is the country's first private university where most of the lecturers are American and courses are carried out in English. [102] [103] A science and technology hall is under construction on Ssuk Islet. Its stated purpose is to contribute to the "informatization of educational resources" by centralizing teaching materials, compulsory literature and experimental data for state-level use in a digital format. [104]

Sosong-guyok hosts a 20 MeV cyclotron called MGC-20. The initial project was approved by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in 1983 and funded by the IAEA, the United States and the North Korean government. The cyclotron was ordered from the Soviet Union in 1985 and constructed between 1987 and 1990. It is used for student training, production of medical isotopes for nuclear medicine as well as studies in biology, chemistry and physics. [105]

Health care

Medical centers include the Red Cross Hospital, the First People's Hospital which is located near Moran Hill and was the first hospital to be built in North Korea after the liberation of Korea in 1945, [106] the Second People's Hospital, Ponghwa Recuperative Center (also known as Bonghwa Clinic or Presidential Clinic) located in Sokam-dong, Potonggang-guyok, 1.5 km (1 mi) northwest of Kim Il-sung Square, [107] Pyongyang Medical School Hospital, Namsan Treatment Center which is adjacent [108] Pyongyang's Maternity Hospital, Taesongsan General Hospital, [109] Kim Man-yoo Hospital, Staff Treatment Center and Okryu Children's Hospital. A new hospital named Pyongyang General Hospital began construction in Pyongyang in 2020. [110]

Twin towns

Pyongyang is twinned with: [111]

See also

Notes

  1. These include: Heijō-fu, [13] Heizyō, [14] Heizyō Hu, [15] Hpyeng-yang, [16] P-hjöng-jang, [17] Phyeng-yang, [18] Phyong-yang, [19] Pienyang, [20] Pingyang, [21] Pyengyang, [22] and Pieng-tang. [23]
  2. Nanglang-state is different from Lelang Commandery.

Related Research Articles

Kim Jong-il Leader of North Korea from 1994 to 2011

Kim Jong-il was a North Korean politician who was the second supreme leader of North Korea from 1994 to 2011. He led North Korea from the 1994 death of his father Kim Il-sung, the first Supreme Leader, until his own death in 2011, when he was succeeded by his son, Kim Jong-un.

Culture of North Korea Culture of the Northern state after the Korean division in 1945

The contemporary culture of North Korea is based on traditional Korean culture, but has developed since the division of Korea in 1945. Juche ideology formed by Kim Il-sung (1948–1994) asserts Korea's cultural distinctiveness and creativity as well as the productive powers of the working masses.

Nampo Special city in North Korea

Nampo, also spelled Namp'o, is the second largest city by population and an important seaport in North Korea, which lies on the northern shore of the Taedong River, 15 km east of the river's mouth. Formerly known as Chinnamp'o, it was a provincial-level "Directly Governed City" ("Chikhalsi") from 1980 to 2004, and was designated a "Special City" in 2010. Nampo is approximately 50 km southwest of Pyongyang, at the mouth of the Taedong River. Since North Korean independence, the city has developed a wide range of industry and has seen significant recent redevelopment.

Chongjin Capital city of North Hamgyong Province, North Korea

Chŏngjin is the capital of North Korea's North Hamgyong Province (함경북도) and the country's third largest city. It is sometimes called the City of Iron.

Kim Il-sung University First university built in North Korea

Kim Il-sung University, founded on 1 October 1946, is the first university built in North Korea. It is located on a 15-hectare (37-acre) campus in Pyongyang, the nation's capital. Along with the main academic buildings, the campus contains 10 separate offices, 50 laboratories, libraries, museums, a printing press, an R&D center, dormitories and a hospital. There is a large computer lab, but it has limited internet access. The university is named in honour of Kim Il-sung, the founder and first supreme leader of North Korea.

Pyongsong Municipal City in South Pyŏngan, North Korea

P'yŏngsŏng is a city in North Korea, the capital city of South P'yŏngan province in western North Korea. The city is located about 32 kilometres northeast of P'yŏngyang, and was formally established in December 1969. It has a population of 284,386.

Moranbong Hilly park in Pyongyang, North Korea

Moranbong or Moran Hill forms a park located in central Pyongyang, the capital of North Korea. Its 312-foot (95 m) summit is the location of the Pyongyang TV Tower.

Chung-guyok Guyŏk of Pyongyang in Pyŏngyang-Chikhalsi, North Korea

Chung-guyŏk is one of the 18 guyok which constitute the city of Pyongyang, North Korea. The district is located in the center of the city, between the Pothonggang Canal and Taedong River, and is bordered to the north by Moranbong-guyok, to the northwest by Potonggang-guyok, and to the south by Pyongchon-guyok.

Pyongchon-guyok Guyŏk of Pyongyang in Pyŏngyang-Chikhalsi, North Korea

P'yŏngch'ŏn-guyŏk is one of the 18 guyŏk of P'yŏngyang, North Korea. It is bordered by the Taedong River in the south and the Pothonggang Canal in the north and Potong River in the west, and to the east by Chung-guyŏk, from which it is separated by the yard area of P'yŏngyang railway station.

Moranbong-guyok Guyŏk of Pyongyang in Pyŏngyang-Chikhalsi, North Korea

Moranbong-guyŏk (Korean: 모란봉구역), or the Moranbong District, is one of the 18 guyŏk which constitute the capital city of Pyongyang, North Korea. It is located north of Chung-guyok, the city's central district, and is bordered to the north by Sosong and Taesong-guyoks, to the east by the Taedong River, and the west by the Pothonggang Canal and Potonggang-guyok. It is named after Moran Hill located in the district's west area. It was designated a guyŏk in October 1960 by the Pyongyang City People's Committee.

Kim Il-sung Square City square in Pyongyang, North Korea

Kim Il-sung Square is a large city square in the Central District of Pyongyang, North Korea, and is named after the country's founding leader, Kim Il-sung. The square was constructed in 1954 according to a master plan for reconstructing the capital after the destruction of the Korean War. It was opened in August 1954. The square is located on the foot of the Namsan Hill, west bank of the Taedong River, directly opposite the Juche Tower on the other side of the river. It is the 37th largest square in the world, having an area of about 75,000 square metres which can accommodate a rally of more than 100,000 people. The square has a great cultural significance, as it is a common gathering place for rallies, dances and military parades and is often featured in media concerning North Korea.

The award system of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea was initially created less than one month after the foundation of the Republic. During the years of Japanese occupation of Korea, many of the future leaders fled to the Soviet Union. During World War II many if not close to all party leaders and Korean People's Army commanders served in the Soviet Army and as such adopted many of the Soviet awards criteria for their own. During the late 1940s and until the Sino-Soviet Split in late 1958, orders and titles were made in the Soviet Money Mints in Moscow or Leningrad. Soviet made awards were modeled after Soviet orders and made of sterling silver. Initially the orders were attached to clothing with a screw-plate, but after Soviet production stopped, production was moved to North Korea. The screwback was replaced with a pin and the silver content was replaced with cheap tin. With the exception of a few examples of modern orders, Soviet and Czech KPA awards are the most sought after in current militaria markets.

Trolleybuses in Pyongyang

The Pyongyang trolleybus system forms part of the public transport network of Pyongyang, the capital city of North Korea, and extends to some of its suburbs.

Kim Il-sung Military University Military university in Pyongyang. North Korea

Kim Il-sung Military University is a university located in Mangyongdae-guyok, Pyongyang, capital of North Korea. Founded in 1948 and named after Kim Il-sung, the school is a post-secondary educational institution for officers in the Korean People's Army. It is the most prominent military academy in North Korea.

The Moranbong Band, also known as the Moran Hill Orchestra, is a North Korean girl group. The original members were selected by the country's supreme leader Kim Jong-un. Performing interpretive styles of pop, rock, and fusion, they are the first all-female band from the DPRK, and made their world debut on July 6, 2012. Their varied musical style has been described as symphonic because it is "putting together different kinds of sounds, and ending in a harmonious, pleasing result."

Pyongyang Maternity Hospital Hospital in Pyongyang, North Korea

The Pyongyang Maternity Hospital is a maternity and teaching hospital in Pyongyang. Nurses and midwives are educated in the hospital for work outside the North Korean capital. There is a neonatal intensive care unit at the hospital. In addition, there are multiple different wards, such as dental and breast cancer wards, to treat mothers' various health problems.

April 25 House of Culture

The April 25 House of Culture is a theatre located in Pyongyang, North Korea. It was built in 1974-1975 to provide a venue for military education, and was originally called the February 8 House of Culture. It is located on Pipha Street in the Moranbong District of Pyongyang. The classically colonnaded building is considered one of the best examples of 1970s socialist monumentality in North Korea, the other being the visually similar Mansudae Art Theatre.

The Ponghwa Clinic and Hospital(봉화진료소) is a hospital located in Sinwŏn-dong, Potonggang-guyok, Pyongyang, North Korea, and is believed to be one of the top hospitals in North Korea, treating members of the political elite. It is administered by the Ministry of Public Health.

Kim Jong-un bibliography

Kim Jong-un has been the supreme leader of North Korea since the death of Kim Jong-il, the previous leader and his father.

Changsan Revolutionary Site is a Revolutionary Site in Ryonmot-dong, Sosong District in Pyongyang.

References

Citations

  1. Funabashi, Yoichi (2007). The Peninsula Question: A Chronicle of the Second Northern Korean Nuclear Crisis. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press. p. 50. ISBN   978-0-8157-3010-1.
  2. Collins, Robert (2016). Pyongyang Republic (PDF). Washington, D.C.: Committee for Human Rights in North Korea. p. 54. ISBN   978-0-9856480-6-0.
  3. 김정은 '최고권력' 조직지도부장 해임 파격...기강잡기 칼 빼들다. 연합뉴스. 1 March 2020.
  4. Nick Heath-Brown (ed.). The Statesman's Yearbook 2016: The Politics, Cultures and Economies of the World. p. 720.
  5. United Nations. "Democratic People's Republic of Korea". Data.un.org. Retrieved 13 August 2022.
  6. Wells, John C. (2008). Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.). Longman. ISBN   978-1-40588118-0.
  7. "「혁명의 수도」선포…금속·건재 공업이 주류". 중앙일보 (in Korean). 3 July 1989. Retrieved 11 August 2022.
  8. D P R Korea, 2008 Population Census, National Report (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 March 2009. Retrieved 17 February 2018.
  9. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 "Pyongyang". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 19 April 2015.
  10. Funabashi, Yoichi (2007). The Peninsula Question: A Chronicle of the Second Northern Korean Nuclear Crisis. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press. p. 50. ISBN 978-0-8157-3010-1.
  11. Japan and Korea compiled and drawn in the Cartographic Section of the National Geographic Society for The National Geographic Magazine (Map). Washington: Gilbert Grosvenor. 1945. OCLC   494696670. Archived from the original on 11 May 2018. Retrieved 30 September 2018.
  12. "Heijō: North Korea" . Retrieved 26 June 2013.
  13. "Heijō-fu: North Korea" . Retrieved 26 June 2013.
  14. "Heizyō: North Korea" . Retrieved 26 June 2013.
  15. "Heizyō Hu: North Korea" . Retrieved 26 June 2013.
  16. "Hpyeng-yang: North Korea" . Retrieved 26 June 2013.
  17. "P-hjöng-jang: North Korea" . Retrieved 26 June 2013.
  18. "Phyeng-yang: North Korea" . Retrieved 26 June 2013.
  19. "Phyong-yang: North Korea" . Retrieved 26 June 2013.
  20. "Pienyang: North Korea" . Retrieved 26 June 2013.
  21. "Pingyang: North Korea" . Retrieved 26 June 2013.
  22. "Pyengyang: North Korea" . Retrieved 26 June 2013.
  23. EB (1878), p. 390.
  24. Lankov, Andrei (16 March 2005). "North Korea's missionary position". Asia Times Online. Archived from the original on 18 March 2005. Retrieved 25 January 2013. By the early 1940s Pyongyang was by far the most Protestant of all major cities of Korea, with some 25–30% of its adult population being church-going Christians. In missionary circles this earned the city the nickname "Jerusalem of the East".{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  25. Caryl, Christian (15 September 2007). "Prayer in Pyongyang". The Daily Beast. The Newsweek/Daily Beast Co. Archived from the original on 23 May 2012. Retrieved 25 January 2013. It's hard to say how many covert Christians the North has; estimates range from the low tens of thousands to 100,000. Christianity came to the peninsula in the late 19th century. Pyongyang, in fact, was once known as the 'Jerusalem of the East.'
  26. "Pyongyang was to become 'Kim Il Sung City'; The followers of Kim Jong Il suggested the idea". Daily NK . 21 February 2005.
  27. National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage. 2001. Geumtan-ri. Hanguk Gogohak Sajeon [Dictionary of Korean Archaeology], pp. 148–149. NRICH, Seoul. ISBN   89-5508-025-5
  28. Beckwith, Christopher I. (2009). Empires of the Silk Road: A History of Central Eurasia from the Bronze Age to the Present. Princeton University Press. p. 104. ISBN   978-0-691-13589-2.
  29. "Pyongyang, one-time Jerusalem of East". The Korea Times. 4 March 2021.
  30. 1 2 Lahmeyer, Jan. "North Korea – Urban Population". Populstat. University of Utrecht. Archived from the original on 16 May 2013. Retrieved 27 April 2011.
  31. Memorandum (Institute of Pacific Relations, American Council), Vol. 2, No. 5 (16 Mar 1933), pp. 1–3
  32. Buzo, Adrian (2002). The Making of Modern Korea. London: Routledge. pp. 54–57. ISBN   0-415-23749-1.
  33. "Pyongyang taken as UN retreats, 1950". BBC Archive. Retrieved 21 August 2021.
  34. Schinz, Alfred; Eckart, Dege (1990). "Pyongyang-Ancient and Modern – the Capital of North Korea". GeoJournal. 22 (1): 25. doi:10.1007/BF02428536. S2CID   153574542.
  35. 金聖甫、李信澈『写真と絵で見る北朝鮮現代史』監修:李泳采、韓興鉄訳、コモンズ、東京・新宿(原著2010年12月1日)。 ISBN   978-4861870750。2018年4月30日閲覧。
  36. Pyongyang Development Projects off to a Strong Start, April 15, 2021.
  37. Kim Jong-un visits construction site for new luxury apartments in Pyongyang
  38. North Korean leader Kim Jong Un builds luxury villas over grandfather’s old home
  39. Pyongyang’s Construction Boom: Is North Korea Beating Sanctions?
  40. N. Korean leader visits newly renovated orchestra theater in Pyongyang, 11 October 2018, Yonhap News Agency
  41. Major demolition underway in central Pyongyang’s Moranbong district: imagery, Colin Zwirko, 8 January 2019
  42. Colin Zwirko June 14, 2022
  43. Pyongyang City Youth Park Open-Air Theatre inaugurated
  44. Country Study 2009, p. 63.
  45. Muller, M. J. (6 December 2012). Selected climatic data for a global set of standard stations for vegetation science. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN   978-94-009-8040-2.
  46. "Pyongyang, North Korea Köppen Climate Classification (Weatherbase)". Weatherbase. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  47. "Average Weather in May in Pyongyang, North Korea - Weather Spark". weatherspark.com. Retrieved 23 August 2020.
  48. "Average Weather in September in Pyongyang, North Korea - Weather Spark". weatherspark.com. Retrieved 23 August 2020.
  49. "Average Weather in Pyongyang, North Korea, Year Round - Weather Spark". weatherspark.com. Retrieved 23 August 2020.
  50. "Average Weather in Pyongyang, North Korea, Year Round - Weather Spark". weatherspark.com. Retrieved 23 August 2020.
  51. "30 years report of Meteorological Observations in North Korea (1991 ~ 2020)" (PDF) (in Korean). Korea Meteorological Administration. pp. 199–367. Archived (PDF) from the original on 29 January 2022. Retrieved 31 January 2022.
  52. "Climate Pyongyang". Pogoda.ru.net. Retrieved 16 May 2019.
  53. "PYONGYANG SUN 1961–1990". DWD. Retrieved 16 May 2019.
  54. "Pyongyang, North Korea - Detailed climate information and monthly weather forecast". Weather Atlas. Yu Media Group. Retrieved 9 July 2019.
  55. Country Study 2009, p. 196.
  56. Country Study 2009, pp. 276–277.
  57. Country Study 2009, p. 277.
  58. "Haengjeong Guyeok Hyeonhwang" 행정구역현황. NK Chosun. Archived from the original on 9 January 2006. Retrieved 10 January 2006. Also Administrative divisions of North Korea Archived 18 October 2004 at the Wayback Machine (used as reference for hanja)
  59. "조선중앙통신 | 기사 | 화성지구의 행정구역명칭을 정하였다". kcna.kp. Retrieved 15 April 2022.
  60. "Pyongyang now more than one-third smaller; food shortage issues suspected". Asahi Shimbun . 17 July 2010. Retrieved 19 July 2010.
  61. "Kangnam moved into Pyongyang". North Korean Economy Watch. 29 February 2012.
  62. 안준용. "北, 평양서 150km 떨어진 곳을 평양市에 편입 왜?". The Chosun Ilbo. Retrieved 30 January 2022.
  63. Country Study 2009, p. 91,93–94.
  64. 1 2 3 Country Study 2009, p. 91.
  65. Country Study 2009, p. 97.
  66. Country Study 2009, p. 91-92.
  67. 1 2 3 "Architecture and City Planning". Library of Congress . Retrieved 24 April 2015.
  68. Glenday, Craig (2013). Guinness World Records 2014. Guinness World Records Limited. p.  144. ISBN   978-1-908843-15-9.
  69. "Will 'Hotel of Doom' ever be finished?". BBC News. BBC. 15 October 2009. Retrieved 24 April 2015.
  70. Yoon, Sangwon (1 November 2012). "Kempinski to Operate World's Tallest Hotel in North Korea". Bloomberg. Retrieved 24 April 2015.
  71. Gray, Nolan (16 October 2018). "The Improbable High-Rises of Pyongyang, North Korea". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 19 October 2018.
  72. Lee, Seok Young (25 August 2011). ""Pitiful" Changjeon Street the Top Priority". Daily NK. Retrieved 30 August 2011.
  73. "Pyongyang glitters but most of NKorea still dark". Yahoo News. 29 April 2013. Retrieved 24 April 2015.
  74. 1 2 Makinen, Julie (20 May 2016). "North Korea is building something other than nukes: architecture with some zing". Los Angeles Times.
  75. 1 2 3 4 5 Salmon, Andrew (4 December 2018). "Going native in the Hermit Kingdom". Asia Times.
  76. 평양시 平壤市 [Pyongyang] (in Korean). Nate/Encyclopedia of Korean Culture. Archived from the original on 10 June 2011.
  77. 1 2 닮은 듯 색다른 매력을 간직한 북한의 음식 문화 (in Korean). Korea Knowledge Portal. 19 June 2009. Archived from the original on 9 October 2011.
  78. Ju, Wan-jung (주완중) (12 June 2000). '오마니의 맛' 관심[Attention to "Mother's taste"]. The Chosun Ilbo (in Korean).
  79. Lankov, Andrei (2007). North of the DMZ: Essays on daily life in North Korea. Jefferson: McFarland. pp. 90–91. ISBN   978-0-7864-2839-7.
  80. Pearson, James; Yeom, Seung-Woo. "Fake meat and free markets ease North Koreans' hunger". Reuters. Retrieved 30 September 2018.
  81. "The Sights and Sounds of Domestic Football in North Korea". Footy Fair. August 2015. Retrieved 18 January 2018.
  82. 1 2 "Ten Power Plants on Chongchon River under Construction to Increase Power Supply to Pyongyang". Institute for Far Eastern Studies. 19 December 2014. Archived from the original on 27 April 2015. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
  83. "Pyongyang's Perpetual Power Problems". 38 North. 25 November 2014. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
  84. "Pyongyang Metro maps". pyongyang-metro.com. Archived from the original on 26 October 2017. Retrieved 17 March 2013.
  85. "Effort to Prevent Outflow of Capital into Markets". Institute for Far Eastern Studies. 20 March 2015. Archived from the original on 8 March 2016. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
  86. "Outline for Development of Wonsan-Kumgangsan Tourist Region Revealed". Institute for Far Eastern Studies. 26 March 2015. Archived from the original on 27 April 2015. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
  87. "North Korea installs bike lanes in Pyongyang". Telegraph. Reuters. 14 July 2015. Retrieved 3 April 2017.
  88. Martin, Bradley K. (9 July 2007). "In Kim's North Korea, Cars Are Scarce Symbols of Power, Wealth". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 11 July 2015. Retrieved 27 September 2012.
  89. Fisher, Max (16 April 2012). "North Korean Press Bus Takes Wrong Turn, Opening Another Crack in the Hermit Kingdom". The Atlantic.
  90. "Air Koryo opens new office selling tickets for third country travel". NK News. 7 December 2016. Retrieved 30 September 2018.
  91. 国航开通北京至平壤航线(组图)- 手机新浪网. sina.cn. 15 April 2017. Archived from the original on 15 April 2017. Retrieved 30 September 2018.
  92. 国航17日起暂停平壤航线 _手机新浪网. sina.cn. 14 April 2017. Archived from the original on 15 April 2017.
  93. "Faculties - KIM IL SUNG UNIVERSITY". web.archive.org. 30 June 2022. Archived from the original on 30 June 2022. Retrieved 2 August 2022.
  94. "Research Institutes - KIM IL SUNG UNIVERSITY". web.archive.org. 30 June 2022. Archived from the original on 30 June 2022. Retrieved 2 August 2022.
  95. "Units - KIM IL SUNG UNIVERSITY". web.archive.org. 30 June 2022. Archived from the original on 30 June 2022. Retrieved 2 August 2022.
  96. "Colleges and Faculties". Kim Il-Sung University. Archived from the original on 13 December 2014. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
  97. "Ryongnamsan Law Office - KIM IL SUNG UNIVERSITY". web.archive.org. 30 June 2022. Archived from the original on 30 June 2022. Retrieved 2 August 2022.
  98. "Research Institutes and Units". Kim Il-Sung University. Archived from the original on 13 December 2014. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
  99. "Main Buildings". Kim Il-Sung University. Archived from the original on 3 July 2015. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
  100. "Building No. 3 - KIM IL SUNG UNIVERSITY". web.archive.org. 1 July 2022. Archived from the original on 1 July 2022. Retrieved 2 August 2022.
  101. "Building No. 4 - KIM IL SUNG UNIVERSITY". web.archive.org. 1 July 2022. Archived from the original on 1 July 2022. Retrieved 2 August 2022.
  102. "Inside North Korea's Western-funded university". BBC News. 3 February 2014. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
  103. "In North Korea, a Western-backed university". The Washington Post. 8 October 2011. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
  104. "Science and Technology Hall to be Built in Pyongyang's Ssuk Islet". Institute for Far Eastern Studies. 23 January 2015. Retrieved 21 April 2015.
  105. "MGC-20 Cyclotron". NTI.org. Archived from the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
  106. "Pyongyang City People's Hospital No. 1". KCNA. 22 May 2002. Archived from the original on 12 October 2014.
  107. "Ponghwa Clinic Expanded During 2009–2010, NK Leadership Watch". Nkleadershipwatch.wordpress.com. Archived from the original on 13 July 2015.
  108. "Where Did Kim Jong Il Receive His Surgery?". North Korean Economy Watch. 25 June 2007.
  109. "I Had A Scary Encounter With North Korea's Crumbling Healthcare System". Business Insider.
  110. Williams, Martyn (3 April 2020). "Construction Progressing Rapidly at the Pyongyang General Hospital". 38 North. Retrieved 30 June 2020.
  111. Corfield, Justin (2013). "Sister Cities". Historical Dictionary of Pyongyang. London: Anthem Press. p. 196. ISBN   978-0-85728-234-7.
  112. "Anniversary of sister-city relations". KCNA. 6 January 2000. Archived from the original on 19 September 2001. Retrieved 3 December 2017.

Bibliography

Further reading

Pyongyang at night