Pyrénées-Atlantiques

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Pyrénées-Atlantiques

Pirenèus Atlantics  (Occitan)
Pirinio Atlantiarrak  (Basque)
Saint-Pee-sur-Nivelle (lac), 4.jpg
Drapeau propose pour les Pyrenees-atlantiques.svg
Flag
Arms of the French Department of the Pyrenees Atlantiques.svg
Coat of arms
Nickname(s): 
64, P-A
Pyrenees-Atlantiques-Position.svg
Location of Pyrénées-Atlantiques in France
Coordinates: 43°15′N0°50′E / 43.250°N 0.833°E / 43.250; 0.833 Coordinates: 43°15′N0°50′E / 43.250°N 0.833°E / 43.250; 0.833
Country France
Region Nouvelle-Aquitaine
Prefecture Pau
Subprefectures Bayonne
Oloron-Sainte-Marie
Government
   President of the Departmental Council Jean-Jacques Lasserre (MoDem)
Area
1
  Total7,645 km2 (2,952 sq mi)
Population
 (2017)
  Total677,309
  Rank 36th
  Density89/km2 (230/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
Department number 64
Arrondissements 3
Cantons 27
Communes 546
^1 French Land Register data, which exclude estuaries and lakes, ponds and glaciers larger than 1 km2

Pyrénées-Atlantiques (French pronunciation:  [piʁene atlɑ̃tik] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); Gascon and Occitan: Pirenèus Atlantics; Basque : Pirinio Atlantiarrak or Pirinio Atlantikoak) is a department in the southwest corner of France and of the region of Nouvelle-Aquitaine. Named after the Pyrenees mountains and the Atlantic Ocean, it covers the French Basque Country and the Béarn. Its prefecture is Pau. In 2017, it had a population of 677,309.

Contents

History

Originally named Basses-Pyrénées, it is one of the first 83 departments of France created during the French Revolution, on 4 March 1790. It was created out of parts belonging to the former greater province of Guyenne and Gascony, as well as the Béarn-Navarre (still, at least nominally, Kingdom of Navarre), meaning the Basques provinces of Basse-Navarre, Labourd, Bayonne (detached a few years before from Labourd) and Soule, as well as Béarn. [1]

French Basque Country (western side) and the Bearn (eastern side) Pays basque nord-Bearn.png
French Basque Country (western side) and the Béarn (eastern side)

The 1790 administrative design brought about the end of native institutions and laws. All Basque estates representatives from Labourd overtly opposed the new administrative layout since it suppressed their institutions and laws. The representatives of Lower Navarre refused to vote in Paris arguing that they were not part of the Kingdom of France; those of Soule voted against. The brothers Garat, representing Labourd, eventually voted yes, thinking that it would give them a say in upcoming political decisions.

On 10 October 1969, Basses-Pyrénées was renamed Pyrénées-Atlantiques.

Geography

Pyrénées-Atlantiques is part of the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of Southwestern France. It is bordered by the Landes, Hautes-Pyrénées, Gers departments and the Bay of Biscay. Principal settlements include Pau, Oloron-Sainte-Marie, Orthez, Biarritz, Bayonne, Anglet, Urrugne, Saint-Jean-de-Luz and Hendaye. Lac Gentau is located in Pyrénées-Atlantiques, as are the Lacs de Carnau.

Demographics

Population development since 1801:

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
1801355,573    
1811383,502+0.76%
1821399,474+0.41%
1831428,401+0.70%
1841451,683+0.53%
1851446,997−0.10%
1861436,628−0.23%
1872426,700−0.21%
1881434,366+0.20%
1891425,033−0.22%
1901426,347+0.03%
1911433,318+0.16%
1921402,981−0.72%
1931422,719+0.48%
1936413,411−0.44%
1946415,797+0.06%
1954420,019+0.13%
1962466,038+1.31%
1968508,734+1.47%
1975534,748+0.71%
1982555,696+0.55%
1990578,516+0.50%
1999600,018+0.41%
2006636,845+0.85%
2016673,986+0.57%
source: [2]

Economy

Urban areas

Pyrénées-Atlantiques, a border department, has cultivated a number of economic and cultural links with Spain.

Two urban concentrations exist in the east and west of the department: Pau, which has 145,000 inhabitants and 344,000 workers in the local area; and Bayonne-Anglet-Biarritz which has 166,400 inhabitants and 235,000 workers in the local area.

Tourism

The department is known for its tourism industry:

Culture

The parts of the department that were part of Guyenne and Gascony, as well as Béarn, have a culture heavily influenced by the Basques, but clearly different identities.

Both the Gascon Bearnese variant and Basque language are indigenous to the region in their respective districts. Gascon in turn is a dialect of Occitan, formerly the main language of southern France. It is more closely related to Catalan than it is to French. Basque is a language isolate, not related to any known language. Today, French, the sole official language of the French Republic, is the predominant native language and is spoken by virtually all inhabitants.

Pyrénées-Atlantiques is also home to a number of professional sports teams, including rugby union football clubs Aviron Bayonnais, Biarritz Olympique and Section Paloise; basketball club Élan Béarnais Pau-Orthez; and association football club Pau FC.

The Pau Grand Prix, an auto race first held in 1901, has hosted the World Touring Car Championship, British Formula Three, Formula 3 Euro Series and FIA European Formula 3 Championship.

Politics

Pyrénées-Atlantiques is a stronghold of the centrist Democratic Movement (MoDem). Its founder and president, François Bayrou, has served as Mayor of Pau since 2014.

Departmental politics

The Departmental Council of Pyrénées-Atlantiques has 54 seats. Its president has been Jean-Jacques Lasserre of the Democratic Movement since 2015.

National representation

In the 2017 legislative election, Pyrénées-Atlantiques elected the following members of the National Assembly:

ConstituencyMember [3] Party
Pyrénées-Atlantiques's 1st constituency Josy Poueyto Democratic Movement
Pyrénées-Atlantiques's 2nd constituency Jean-Paul Mattei Democratic Movement
Pyrénées-Atlantiques's 3rd constituency David Habib Socialist Party
Pyrénées-Atlantiques's 4th constituency Jean Lassalle Résistons!
Pyrénées-Atlantiques's 5th constituency Florence Lasserre-David Democratic Movement
Pyrénées-Atlantiques's 6th constituency Vincent Bru Democratic Movement

In the Senate, the department is represented by three members: Frédérique Espagnac (since 2011), Max Brisson (since 2017) and Denise Saint-Pé (since 2017).

Heraldry

The coat of arms of Pyrénées-Atlantiques combines those of four traditional provinces:

  1. Lower Navarre
  2. Béarn
  3. Labourd
  4. Soule

See also

Related Research Articles

Bayonne Subprefecture of Pyrénées-Atlantiques, Nouvelle-Aquitaine

Bayonne is a city and commune and one of the two sub-prefectures of the department of Pyrénées-Atlantiques, in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of southwestern France. It is located at the confluence of the Nive and Adour rivers in the northern part of the cultural region of the Basque Country. Bayonne is alongside Biarritz the seat of the CA Pays Basque. This is also the southern part of Gascony, where the Aquitaine basin joins the beginning of the Pre-Pyrenees.

Aquitaine Region of France

Aquitaine, archaic Guyenne or Guienne, is a historical region of southwestern France and a former administrative region of the country. Since 1 January 2016 it has been part of the region of Nouvelle-Aquitaine. It is situated in the far southwest corner of Metropolitan France, along the Atlantic Ocean and the Pyrenees mountain range on the border with Spain. It is composed of the five departments of Dordogne, Lot-et-Garonne, Pyrénées-Atlantiques, Landes and Gironde. In the Middle Ages, Aquitaine was a kingdom and a duchy, whose boundaries fluctuated considerably.

Gascony Former French territory

Gascony was a province of southwestern France that was part of the "Province of Guyenne and Gascony" prior to the French Revolution. The region is vaguely defined, and the distinction between Guyenne and Gascony is unclear; by some they are seen to overlap, while others consider Gascony a part of Guyenne. Most definitions put Gascony east and south of Bordeaux.

Biarritz City on the Bay of Biscay, France

Biarritz is a city on the Bay of Biscay, on the Atlantic coast in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the French Basque Country in southwestern France. It is located 35 kilometres (22 mi) from the border with Spain. It is a luxurious seaside tourist destination known for the Hôtel du Palais, its casinos in front of the sea and its surfing culture.

Soule Province in Pays Basque, France

Soule is a former viscounty and French province and part of the present day Pyrénées-Atlantiques département. It is divided into two cantons of the arrondissement (district) of Oloron-Sainte-Marie, and a part of the canton of Saint Palais.

Labourd Province in Pays Basque, France

Labourd is a former French province and part of the present-day Pyrénées Atlantiques département. It is one of the traditional Basque provinces, and identified as one of the territorial component parts of the Basque Country by many, especially by the Basque nationalists.

Artix, Pyrénées-Atlantiques Commune in Nouvelle-Aquitaine, France

Artix is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of south-western France.

Béarn Place in France

Béarn is one of the traditional provinces of France, located in the Pyrenees mountains and in the plain at their feet, in southwest France. Along with the three Basque provinces of Soule, Lower Navarre, and Labourd, the principality of Bidache, as well as small parts of Gascony, it forms in the southwest the current département of Pyrénées-Atlantiques (64). The capitals of Béarn were Beneharnum, Morlaàs, Orthez, and then Pau.

Anglet Commune in Nouvelle-Aquitaine, France

Anglet is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of southwestern France.

Arbonne Commune in Nouvelle-Aquitaine, France

Arbonne is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of southwestern France.

Boucau Commune in Nouvelle-Aquitaine, France

Boucau is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department and Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of south-western France. It is located in the former province of Labourd.

La Bastide-Clairence Commune in Nouvelle-Aquitaine, France

La Bastide-Clairence is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of south-western France.

French Basque Country Region in southwestern France

The French Basque Country, or Northern Basque Country is a region lying on the west of the French department of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques. Since 1 January 2017, it constitutes the Basque Municipal Community presided over by Jean-René Etchegaray.

The following is a list of the 27 cantons of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department, in France, following the French canton reorganisation which came into effect in March 2015:

Autevielle-Saint-Martin-Bideren Commune in Nouvelle-Aquitaine, France

Autevielle-Saint-Martin-Bideren is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of south-western France.

Viscounts of Béarn

The viscounts of Béarn were the rulers of the viscounty of Béarn, located in the Pyrenees mountains and in the plain at their feet, in southwest France. Along with the three Basque provinces of Soule, Lower Navarre, and Labourd, as well as small parts of Gascony, it forms the current département of Pyrénées-Atlantiques (64).

Auterrive Commune in Nouvelle-Aquitaine, France

Auterrive is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of south-western France.

Barraute-Camu Commune in Nouvelle-Aquitaine, France

Barraute-Camu is a commune of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of south-western France.

Nouvelle-Aquitaine Administrative region of France

Nouvelle-Aquitaine is the largest administrative region in France, spanning the west and southwest of the mainland. The region was created by the territorial reform of French regions in 2014 through the merger of three regions: Aquitaine, Limousin and Poitou-Charentes. It covers 84,036 km2 (32,446 sq mi) – or 18 of the country – and has 5,956,978 inhabitants. The new region was established on 1 January 2016, following the regional elections in December 2015.

The end of Basque home rule or foruak/fors in France was an event putting an end to the secular Basque native institutional and legal system during the French revolutionary period (1789-1795). The final violent dissolution of the semi-autonomous Basque institutional and legal system was coupled with the arrival of French troops to the Basque Country within the War of the Pyrenees and a deliberate terror on the Basque population centred in Labourd.

References

  1. The history of the region, under the Ancien Régime , can be found in the articles about those individual regions.
  2. Site sur la Population et les Limites Administratives de la France
  3. http://www.assemblee-nationale.fr/