Pyramid

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The Egyptian pyramids of the Giza Necropolis, as seen from the air. Built circa 2600 BC. Giza-pyramids.JPG
The Egyptian pyramids of the Giza Necropolis, as seen from the air. Built circa 2600 BC.
Prasat Thom temple at Koh Ker, Cambodia Koh Ker temple(2007).jpg
Prasat Thom temple at Koh Ker, Cambodia
Pyramid of the Moon, Teotihuacan. Build between AD 100 and 450. PyramidOfTheMoonTeotihuacan.jpg
Pyramid of the Moon, Teotihuacan. Build between AD 100 and 450.

A pyramid (from Greek : πυραμίςpyramís) [1] [2] is a structure whose outer surfaces are triangular and converge to a single step at the top, making the shape roughly a pyramid in the geometric sense. The base of a pyramid can be trilateral, quadrilateral, or of any polygon shape. As such, a pyramid has at least three outer triangular surfaces (at least four faces including the base). The square pyramid, with a square base and four triangular outer surfaces, is a common version.

Contents

A pyramid's design, with the majority of the weight closer to the ground, [3] and with the pyramidion at the apex, means that less material higher up on the pyramid will be pushing down from above. This distribution of weight allowed early civilizations to create stable monumental structures.

Civilizations in many parts of the world have built pyramids. The largest pyramid by volume is the Great Pyramid of Cholula, in the Mexican state of Puebla. For thousands of years, the largest structures on Earth were pyramids—first the Red Pyramid in the Dashur Necropolis and then the Great Pyramid of Khufu, both in Egypt—the latter is the only one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World still remaining.

Ancient monuments

Mesopotamia

Anu ziggurat and White Temple
White Temple ziggurat in Uruk.jpg
The White Temple 'E at Uruk, 3500-3000 BCE.jpg
Anu ziggurat and White Temple at Uruk. The original pyramidal structure, the "Anu Ziggurat" dates to around 4000 BC, and the White Temple was built on top of it circa 3500 BC. [4] The design of the ziggurat was probably a precursor to that of the pyramids in Egypt, the earliest of which dates to circa 2600 BC. [5]

The Mesopotamians built the earliest pyramidal structures, called ziggurats . In ancient times, these were brightly painted in gold/bronze. Since they were constructed of sun-dried mud-brick, little remains of them. Ziggurats were built by the Sumerians, Babylonians, Elamites, Akkadians, and Assyrians for local religions. Each ziggurat was part of a temple complex which included other buildings. The precursors of the ziggurat were raised platforms that date from the Ubaid period [6] during the fourth millennium BC. The earliest ziggurats began near the end of the Early Dynastic Period. [7] The latest Mesopotamian ziggurats date from the 6th century BC.

Built in receding tiers upon a rectangular, oval, or square platform, the ziggurat was a pyramidal structure with a flat top. Sun-baked bricks made up the core of the ziggurat with facings of fired bricks on the outside. The facings were often glazed in different colors and may have had astrological significance. Kings sometimes had their names engraved on these glazed bricks. The number of tiers ranged from two to seven. It is assumed that they had shrines at the top, but there is no archaeological evidence for this and the only textual evidence is from Herodotus. [8] Access to the shrine would have been by a series of ramps on one side of the ziggurat or by a spiral ramp from base to summit.

Egypt

The most famous pyramids are the Egyptian — huge structures built of brick or stone, some of which are among the world's largest constructions. They are shaped as a reference to the rays of the sun. Most pyramids had a polished, highly reflective white limestone surface, to give them a shining appearance when viewed from a distance. The capstone was usually made of hard stone – granite or basalt – and could be plated with gold, silver, or electrum and would also be highly reflective. [9] The ancient Egyptians built pyramids from 2700 BC until around 1700 BC. The first pyramid was erected during the Third Dynasty by the Pharaoh Djoser and his architect Imhotep. This step pyramid consisted of six stacked mastabas. The largest Egyptian pyramids are those at the Giza pyramid complex. [10]

Pyramid of Khafre, Egypt, circa 2600 BC. 01 khafre north.jpg
Pyramid of Khafre, Egypt, circa 2600 BC.

The age of the pyramids reached its zenith at Giza in 2575–2150 BC. [11] Ancient Egyptian pyramids were in most cases placed west of the river Nile because the divine pharaoh's soul was meant to join with the sun during its descent before continuing with the sun in its eternal round. [9] As of 2008, some 135 pyramids have been discovered in Egypt. [12] [13] The Great Pyramid of Giza is the largest in Egypt and one of the largest in the world. At 481 ft, it was the tallest building in the world until Lincoln Cathedral was finished in 1311 AD. The base is over 52,600 square metres (566,000 sq ft) in area. The Great Pyramid of Giza is one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. It is the only one to survive into modern times. The Ancient Egyptians covered the faces of pyramids with polished white limestone, containing great quantities of fossilized seashells. [14] Many of the facing stones have fallen or have been removed and used for construction in Cairo.

Most pyramids are located near Cairo, with only one royal pyramid being located south of Cairo, at the Abydos temple complex. The pyramid at Abydos, Egypt were commissioned by Ahmose I who founded the 18th Dynasty and the New Kingdom. [15] The building of pyramids began in the Third Dynasty with the reign of King Djoser. [16] Early kings such as Snefru built several pyramids, with subsequent kings adding to the number of pyramids until the end of the Middle Kingdom.

The last king to build royal pyramids was Ahmose, [17] with later kings hiding their tombs in the hills, such as those in the Valley of the Kings in Luxor's West Bank. [18] In Medinat Habu, or Deir el-Medina, smaller pyramids were built by individuals. Smaller pyramids with steeper sides were also built by the Nubians who ruled Egypt in the Late Period. [19]

Sudan

Nubian Pyramids at Meroe with pylon-like entrances. Nubian20pyramids.jpg
Nubian Pyramids at Meroe with pylon-like entrances.

While pyramids are associated with Egypt, the nation of Sudan has 220 extant pyramids, the most numerous in the world. [20] Nubian pyramids were constructed (roughly 240 of them) at three sites in Sudan to serve as tombs for the kings and queens of Napata and Meroë. The pyramids of Kush, also known as Nubian Pyramids, have different characteristics than the pyramids of Egypt. The Nubian pyramids were constructed at a steeper angle than Egyptian ones. Pyramids were still being built in Sudan as late as 200 AD.

Nigeria

One of the unique structures of Igbo culture was the Nsude Pyramids, at the Nigerian town of Nsude, northern Igboland. Ten pyramidal structures were built of clay/mud. The first base section was 60 ft. in circumference and 3 ft. in height. The next stack was 45 ft. in circumference. Circular stacks continued, till it reached the top. The structures were temples for the god Ala, who was believed to reside at the top. A stick was placed at the top to represent the god's residence. The structures were laid in groups of five parallel to each other. Because it was built of clay/mud like the Deffufa of Nubia, time has taken its toll requiring periodic reconstruction. [21]

Greece

Pyramid of Hellinikon Pyramide von Hellinikon.jpg
Pyramid of Hellinikon

Pausanias (2nd century AD) mentions two buildings resembling pyramids, one, 19 kilometres (12 mi) southwest of the still standing structure at Hellenikon, [22] a common tomb for soldiers who died in a legendary struggle for the throne of Argos and another which he was told was the tomb of Argives killed in a battle around 669/8 BC. Neither of these still survive and there is no evidence that they resembled Egyptian pyramids.

There are also at least two surviving pyramid-like structures still available to study, one at Hellenikon and the other at Ligourio/Ligurio, a village near the ancient theatre Epidaurus. These buildings were not constructed in the same manner as the pyramids in Egypt. They do have inwardly sloping walls but other than those there is no obvious resemblance to Egyptian pyramids. They had large central rooms (unlike Egyptian pyramids) and the Hellenikon structure is rectangular rather than square, 12.5 by 14 metres (41 by 46 ft) which means that the sides could not have met at a point. [23] The stone used to build these structures was limestone quarried locally and was cut to fit, not into freestanding blocks like the Great Pyramid of Giza.[ citation needed ]

The dating of these structures has been made from the pot shards excavated from the floor and on the grounds. The latest dates available from scientific dating have been estimated around the 5th and 4th centuries. Normally this technique is used for dating pottery, but here researchers have used it to try to date stone flakes from the walls of the structures. This has created some debate about whether or not these structures are actually older than Egypt, which is part of the Black Athena controversy. [24]

Mary Lefkowitz has criticised this research. She suggests that some of the research was done not to determine the reliability of the dating method, as was suggested, but to back up an assumption of age and to make certain points about pyramids and Greek civilization. She notes that not only are the results not very precise, but that other structures mentioned in the research are not in fact pyramids, e.g. a tomb alleged to be the tomb of Amphion and Zethus near Thebes, a structure at Stylidha (Thessaly) which is just a long wall, etc. She also notes the possibility that the stones that were dated might have been recycled from earlier constructions. She also notes that earlier research from the 1930s, confirmed in the 1980s by Fracchia was ignored. She argues that they undertook their research using a novel and previously untested methodology in order to confirm a predetermined theory about the age of these structures. [25]

Liritzis responded in a journal article published in 2011, stating that Lefkowitz failed to understand and misinterpreted the methodology. [26]

Spain

The Pyramids of Güímar refer to six rectangular pyramid-shaped, terraced structures, built from lava stone without the use of mortar. They are located in the district of Chacona, part of the town of Güímar on the island of Tenerife in the Canary Islands. The structures have been dated to the 19th century and their original function explained as a byproduct of contemporary agricultural techniques.

Autochthonous Guanche traditions as well as surviving images indicate that similar structures (also known as, "Morras", "Majanos", "Molleros", or "Paredones") could once have been found in many locations on the island. However, over time they have been dismantled and used as a cheap building material. In Güímar itself there were nine pyramids, only six of which survive.

China

Ancient Korean tomb in Ji'an, Northeastern China Tomb of the General 1.jpg
Ancient Korean tomb in Ji'an, Northeastern China

There are many square flat-topped mound tombs in China. The First Emperor Qin Shi Huang (circa 221 BC, who unified the 7 pre-Imperial Kingdoms) was buried under a large mound outside modern day Xi'an. In the following centuries about a dozen more Han Dynasty royals were also buried under flat-topped pyramidal earthworks.

Mesoamerica

A number of Mesoamerican cultures also built pyramid-shaped structures. Mesoamerican pyramids were usually stepped, with temples on top, more similar to the Mesopotamian ziggurat than the Egyptian pyramid.

The largest pyramid by volume is the Great Pyramid of Cholula, in the Mexican state of Puebla. Constructed from the 3rd century BC to the 9th century AD, this pyramid is considered the largest monument ever constructed anywhere in the world, and is still being excavated. The third largest pyramid in the world, the Pyramid of the Sun, at Teotihuacan is also located in Mexico. There is an unusual pyramid with a circular plan at the site of Cuicuilco, now inside Mexico City and mostly covered with lava from an eruption of the Xitle Volcano in the 1st century BC. There are several circular stepped pyramids called Guachimontones in Teuchitlán, Jalisco as well.

Pyramids in Mexico were often used as places of human sacrifice. For the re-consecration of Great Pyramid of Tenochtitlan in 1487, Where, according to Michael Harner, "one source states 20,000, another 72,344, and several give 80,400". [27]

US and Canada

A diagram showing the various components of Eastern North American platform mounds Mississippian culture mound components HRoe 2011.jpg
A diagram showing the various components of Eastern North American platform mounds

Many pre-Columbian Native American societies of ancient North America built large pyramidal earth structures known as platform mounds. Among the largest and best-known of these structures is Monks Mound at the site of Cahokia in what became Illinois, completed around 1100 AD, which has a base larger than that of the Great Pyramid at Giza. Many of the mounds underwent multiple episodes of mound construction at periodic intervals, some becoming quite large. They are believed to have played a central role in the mound-building peoples' religious life and documented uses include semi-public chief's house platforms, public temple platforms, mortuary platforms, charnel house platforms, earth lodge/town house platforms, residence platforms, square ground and rotunda platforms, and dance platforms. [28] [29] [30] Cultures who built substructure mounds include the Troyville culture, Coles Creek culture, Plaquemine culture and Mississippian cultures.

Roman Empire

Pyramid of Cestius in Rome, Italy Pyramid of cestius.jpg
Pyramid of Cestius in Rome, Italy

The 27-metre-high Pyramid of Cestius was built by the end of the 1st century BC and still exists today, close to the Porta San Paolo. Another one, named Meta Romuli , standing in the Ager Vaticanus (today's Borgo), was destroyed at the end of the 15th century. [31]

Medieval Europe

Pyramids have occasionally been used in Christian architecture of the feudal era, e.g. as the tower of Oviedo's Gothic Cathedral of San Salvador.

India

Many giant granite temple pyramids were made in South India during the Chola Empire, many of which are still in religious use today. Examples of such pyramid temples include Brihadisvara Temple at Thanjavur, the Brihadisvara Temple at Gangaikonda Cholapuram and the Airavatesvara Temple at Darasuram. However, temple pyramid the largest area is the Ranganathaswamy Temple in Srirangam, Tamil Nadu. The Thanjavur temple was built by Raja Raja Chola in the 11th century. The Brihadisvara Temple was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1987; the Temple of Gangaikondacholapuram and the Airavatesvara Temple at Darasuram were added as extensions to the site in 2004. [32]

Indonesia

Borobudur, Central Java, Indonesia. Borobudur-Nothwest-view.jpg
Borobudur, Central Java, Indonesia.

Next to menhir, stone table, and stone statue; Austronesian megalithic culture in Indonesia also featured earth and stone step pyramid structures called punden berundak as discovered in Pangguyangan site near Cisolok [33] and in Cipari near Kuningan. [34] The construction of stone pyramids is based on the native beliefs that mountains and high places are the abode for the spirit of the ancestors. [35]

The step pyramid is the basic design of 8th century Borobudur Buddhist monument in Central Java. [36] However the later temples built in Java were influenced by Indian Hindu architecture, as displayed by the towering spires of Prambanan temple. In the 15th century Java during late Majapahit period saw the revival of Austronesian indigenous elements as displayed by Sukuh temple that somewhat resemble Mesoamerican pyramid, and also stepped pyramids of Mount Penanggungan. [37]

East Asia and Tajikistan

Doto, Stupa of Ono-dera Temple, Sakai, Osaka Prefecture,Japan. Dotou, zenkei-1.jpg
Dotō, Stupa of Ōno-dera Temple, Sakai, Osaka Prefecture,Japan.

In east asia, Buddhist stupas had been usually represented as tall Pagodas. However, some pyramidal stupas remain in limited areas. There is a theory that these pyramid were inspired by Borobudur monument through Sumatran and Javanese monks. [38] Also, there is similar Buddhist monument in Vrang, Tajikistan. [39] [40] At least there are at least 9 Buddhist step pyramids in the world, 4 from former Gyeongsang Province of Korea, 3 from Japan, 1 from Indonesia(Borobudur) and 1 from Tajikistan. [38] [40]

Peru

Andean cultures had used pyramids in various architectural structures such as the ones in Caral, Túcume and Chavín de Huantar.

Modern examples

Louvre Pyramid (Paris, France) Louvre at dusk.JPG
Louvre Pyramid (Paris, France)
Luxor Hotel in Las Vegas, Nevada Luxor Hotel.jpg
Luxor Hotel in Las Vegas, Nevada
The central part of the "Tama-Re" village, as seen from the air TamaRe.jpg
The central part of the "Tama-Re" village, as seen from the air
Pyramid Arena in Memphis, Tennessee Pyramid Arena.jpg
Pyramid Arena in Memphis, Tennessee
Sunway Pyramid in Subang Jaya is the mall that has an Egyptian-inspired Pyramid with a lion designed Sphinx. Sunway Pyramid front.jpg
Sunway Pyramid in Subang Jaya is the mall that has an Egyptian-inspired Pyramid with a lion designed Sphinx.
Walter Pyramid in Long Beach, California Walter Pyramid.jpg
Walter Pyramid in Long Beach, California
Oscar Niemeyer's design for a museum in Caracas MAM Caracas.jpg
Oscar Niemeyer's design for a museum in Caracas
Transamerica Pyramid in San Francisco, California SF Transamerica full CA.jpg
Transamerica Pyramid in San Francisco, California

Modern pyramid mausoleums

With the Egyptian Revival movement in the nineteenth and early twentieth century, pyramids were becoming more common in funerary architecture. This style was especially popular with tycoons in the US. Hunt's Tomb in Phoenix, Arizona and Schoenhofen Pyramid Mausoleum in Chicago are some of the notable examples. Even today some people build pyramid tombs for themselves. Nicolas Cage bought a pyramid tomb for himself in a famed New Orleans graveyard. [47]

Comparison of approximate profiles of several notable pyramidal or near-pyramidal buildings. Dotted lines indicate original heights, where data is available. In its SVG file, hover over a pyramid to highlight and click for its article. Comparison of pyramids.svg
Comparison of approximate profiles of several notable pyramidal or near-pyramidal buildings. Dotted lines indicate original heights, where data is available. In its SVG file, hover over a pyramid to highlight and click for its article.

See also

Notes

  1. πυραμίς, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus Digital Library
  2. The word meant "a kind of cake of roasted wheat-grains preserved in honey"; the Egyptian pyramids were named after its form (R. S. P. Beekes, Etymological Dictionary of Greek, Brill, 2009, p. 1261).
  3. Centre of volume is one quarter of the way up—see Centre of mass .
  4. Crüsemann, Nicola; Ess, Margarete van; Hilgert, Markus; Salje, Beate; Potts, Timothy (2019). Uruk: First City of the Ancient World. Getty Publications. p. 325. ISBN   978-1-60606-444-3.
  5. Samuels, Charlie (2010). Ancient Science (Prehistory – A.D. 500): Prehistory-A.D. 500. Gareth Stevens Publishing LLLP. p. 23. ISBN   978-1-4339-4137-5.
  6. Crawford, page 73
  7. Crawford, page 73-74
  8. Crawford, page 85
  9. 1 2 Redford, Donald B., Ph.D.; McCauley, Marissa. "How were the Egyptian pyramids built?". Research. The Pennsylvania State University. Retrieved 11 December 2012.
  10. Lehner, Mark (2008-03-25). Mark Lehner (2008). The Complete Pyramids: Solving the Ancient Mysteries. pp. 14–15, 84. Thames & Hudson. ISBN   978-0-500-28547-3.
  11. "Egypt Pyramids-Time Line". National Geographic. 2002-10-17. Archived from the original on 2011-08-10. Retrieved 2011-08-13.
  12. Slackman, Michael (2008-11-17). "In the Shadow of a Long Past, Patiently Awaiting the Future". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-04-12.
  13. Lehner, Mark (2008-03-25). Mark Lehner (2008). The Complete Pyramids: Solving the Ancient Mysteries. p. 34. Thames & Hudson. ISBN   978-0-500-28547-3.
  14. Viegas, J., Pyramids packed with fossil shells, ABC News in Science, <www.abc.net.au/science/articles/2008/04/28/2229383.htm>
  15. Filer, Joyce (16 January 2006). Pyramids . Oxford University Press. pp.  38–39. ISBN   978-0-19-530521-0.
  16. Davidovits, Joseph (20 May 2008). They Built the Pyramids. Geopolymer Institute. p. 206. ISBN   978-2-9514820-2-9.
  17. Filer, Joyce (16 January 2006). Pyramids. Oxford University Press. p. 99. ISBN   978-0-19-530521-0.
  18. Fodor's (15 March 2011). Fodor's Egypt, 4th Edition. Random House Digital, Inc. pp. 249–250. ISBN   978-1-4000-0519-2.
  19. Harpur, James (1997). Pyramid. Barnes & Noble Books. p. 24. ISBN   978-0-7607-0215-4.
  20. Pollard, Lawrence (2004-09-09). "Sudan's past uncovered". BBC News. Retrieved 2010-04-12.
  21. Basden, G. S(1966). Among the Ibos of Nigeria, 1912. Psychology Press: p. 109, ISBN   0-7146-1633-8
  22. Mary Lefkowitz (2006). "Archaeology and the politics of origins". In Garrett G. Fagan (ed.). Archaeological Fantasies: How Pseudoarchaeology Misrepresents the Past and Misleads the Public. Routledge. p. 188. ISBN   978-0-415-30593-8.
  23. Mary Lefkowitz (2006). "Archaeology and the politics of origins". In Garrett G. Fagan (ed.). Archaeological Fantasies: How Pseudoarchaeology Misrepresents the Past and Misleads the Public. Routledge. pp. 189–190. ISBN   978-0-415-30593-8.
  24. Mary Lefkowitz (2006). "Archaeology and the politics of origins". In Garrett G. Fagan (ed.). Archaeological Fantasies: How Pseudoarchaeology Misrepresents the Past and Misleads the Public. Routledge. pp. 185–186. ISBN   978-0-415-30593-8.
  25. Mary Lefkowitz (2006). "Archaeology and the politics of origins". In Garrett G. Fagan (ed.). Archaeological Fantasies: How Pseudoarchaeology Misrepresents the Past and Misleads the Public. Routledge. p. 195. ISBN   978-0-415-30593-8.
  26. Liritzis Ioannis, "Surface dating by luminescence: An Overview" GEOCHRONOMETRIA 38(3) 292–302, June issue,
  27. "The Enigma of Aztec Sacrifice". Natural History, April 1977. Vol. 86, No. 4, pages 46–51.
  28. Owen Lindauer; John H. Blitz2 (1997). "Higher Ground: The Archaeology of North American Platform Mounds" (PDF). Journal of Archaeological Research. 5 (2). Retrieved 2011-11-02.
  29. Raymond Fogelson (September 20, 2004). Handbook of North American Indians : Southeast. Smithsonian Institution. p. 741. ISBN   978-0-16-072300-1.
  30. Henry van der Schalie; Paul W. Parmalee (September 1960). "The Etowah Site, Mound C :Barlow County, Georgia". Florida Anthropologist. 8: 37–39.
  31. Lacovara, Peter (2018). "Pyramids and Obelisks Beyond Egypt". Aegyptiaca (2): 124–129. Retrieved 17 June 2019.
  32. https://whc.unesco.org/archive/2004/whc04-28com-inf14ae.pdf
  33. "Pangguyangan". Dinas Pariwisata dan Budaya Provinsi Jawa Barat (in Indonesian).
  34. I.G.N. Anom; Sri Sugiyanti; Hadniwati Hasibuan (1996). Maulana Ibrahim; Samidi (eds.). Hasil Pemugaran dan Temuan Benda Cagar Budaya PJP I (in Indonesian). Direktorat Jenderal Kebudayaan. p. 87.
  35. Timbul Haryono (2011). Sendratari mahakarya Borobudur (in Indonesian). Kepustakaan Populer Gramedia. p. 14. ISBN   9789799103338.
  36. R. Soekmono (2002). Pengantar Sejarah Kebudayaan Indonesia 2 (in Indonesian). Kanisius. p. 87. ISBN   9789794132906.
  37. Edi Sedyawati; Hariani Santiko; Hasan Djafar; Ratnaesih Maulana; Wiwin Djuwita Sudjana Ramelan; Chaidir Ashari (2013). Candi Indonesia: Seri Jawa: Indonesian-English, Volume 1 dari Candi Indonesia, Indonesia. Direktorat Pelestarian Cagar Budaya dan Permuseuman, Seri Jawa. Direktorat Jenderal Kebudayaan. ISBN   9786021766934.
  38. 1 2 "古代における塔型建築物の伝播 ボロブドゥールと奈良頭塔の関係について" (PDF). Retrieved March 7, 2021.
  39. Salopek, Paul (October 2, 2017). "The Ruby Sellers of Vrang". National Geographic Magazine . Retrieved March 7, 2021.
  40. 1 2 Salopek, Paul (July 14, 2015). "ブァン仏教遺跡と熊山遺跡の比較検討" (PDF). National Geographic Magazine . Retrieved March 7, 2021.
  41. "Information Technology Services – IT Consulting – Offshore IT Services". thedigitalgroup.com.
  42. "La pyramide de la baies des HaHa: capteurs d'ondes telluriques". conspiration.ca. Archived from the original on 2011-03-07. Retrieved 2010-10-19.
  43. В Витебске открыли пирамиду «Марко-сити» Archived 2014-05-17 at the Wayback Machine
    В Витебске прошло открытие торгово-развлекательного комплекса «Марко-сити»
  44. Conception Official Zeitpyramide website, accessed: 14 December 2010
  45. Luisa Bocchietto, Mario Coda and Carlo Gavazzi. "THE OTHER OROPA: A Guide to the Monumental Cemetery of the Sanctuary" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-05-17. Retrieved 2013-06-21.
  46. "arquitextos 151.03 tributo a niemeyer: Transcrições arquitetônicas: Niemeyer e Villanueva em diálogo museal – vitruvius". vitruvius.com.br.
  47. "Nicolas Cage's Pyramid Tomb" . Retrieved 18 June 2019.

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The Giza Pyramid Complex, also called the Giza Necropolis, is the site on the Giza Plateau in Greater Cairo, Egypt that includes the Great Pyramid of Giza, the Pyramid of Khafre, and the Pyramid of Menkaure, along with their associated pyramid complexes and the Great Sphinx of Giza. All were built during the Fourth Dynasty of the Old Kingdom of Ancient Egypt. The site also includes several cemeteries and the remains of a workers village.

Abusir Village in Giza Governorate, Egypt

Abusir is the name given to an Egyptian archaeological locality – specifically, an extensive necropolis of the Old Kingdom period, together with later additions – in the vicinity of the modern capital Cairo. The name is also that of a neighbouring village in the Nile Valley, whence the site takes its name. Abusir is located several kilometres north of Saqqara and, like it, served as one of the main elite cemeteries for the ancient Egyptian capital city of Memphis. Several other villages in northern and southern Egypt are named Abusir or Busiri. Abusir is one relatively small segment of the extensive "pyramid field" that extends from north of Giza to below Saqqara. The locality of Abusir took its turn as the focus of the prestigious western burial rites operating out of the then-capital of Memphis during the Old Kingdom 5th Dynasty. As an elite cemetery, neighbouring Giza had by then "filled up" with the massive pyramids and other monuments of the 4th Dynasty, leading the 5th Dynasty pharaohs to seek sites elsewhere for their own funerary monuments.

Meidum Village in Beni Suef Governorate, Egypt

Meidum, Maydum or Maidum is an archaeological site in Lower Egypt. It contains a large pyramid and several mudbrick mastabas. The pyramid was Egypt's first straight-sided one, but it partially collapsed in ancient times. The area is located around 62 miles south of modern Cairo.

Ancient Egyptian architecture Aspect of architecture

Spanning over two thousand years, ancient Egypt was not one stable civilization but in constant change and upheaval, commonly split into periods by historians. Likewise, ancient Egyptian architecture is not one style, but a set of styles differing over time but with some commonalities.

Pyramid of Djedefre Smooth-sided pyramid

The Pyramid of Djedefre consists today mostly of ruins located at Abu Rawash in Egypt. It is Egypt's northernmost pyramid and is believed to have been built by Djedefre, son and successor to king Khufu.

Pyramid of Neferirkare Second pyramid built at the Abusir necropolis

The Pyramid of Neferirkare was built for the Fifth Dynasty pharaoh Neferirkare Kakai in the 25th century BC. It was the tallest structure on the highest site at the necropolis of Abusir, found between Giza and Saqqara, and still towers over the necropolis. The pyramid is also significant because its excavation led to the discovery of the Abusir Papyri.

Corbel arch Architectural technique

A corbel arch is an arch-like construction method that uses the architectural technique of corbeling to span a space or void in a structure, such as an entranceway in a wall or as the span of a bridge. A corbel vault uses this technique to support the superstructure of a building's roof.

Greek pyramids

Greek pyramids, also known as the Pyramids of Argolis, refers to several ancient structures located in the plains of Argolid, Greece. The best known of these is known as the Pyramid of Hellinikon. In the time of the geographer Pausanias it was considered to be a tomb. Twentieth century researchers have suggested other possible uses.

Ancient Egyptian technology devices, and technologies invented or used in Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egyptian technology describes devices and technologies invented or used in Ancient Egypt. The Egyptians invented and used many simple machines, such as the ramp and the lever, to aid construction processes. They used rope trusses to stiffen the beam of ships. Egyptian paper, made from papyrus, and pottery were mass-produced and exported throughout the Mediterranean Basin. The wheel was used for a number of purposes, but chariots only came into use after the Second Intermediate Period. The Egyptians also played an important role in developing Mediterranean maritime technology including ships and lighthouses.

Theodore Spyropoulos is a Greek archeologist who is a regional official of Greece's Central Archaeological Council.

Pyramid of Neferefre Unfinished pyramid

The Pyramid of Neferefre, also known as the Pyramid of Raneferef, is a 25th century BC unfinished pyramid complex built for the Egyptian pharaoh Neferefre of the Fifth Dynasty. Neferefre's unfinished pyramid is the third and final one built on the Abusir diagonal – a figurative line connecting the Abusir pyramids with Heliopolis – of the necropolis, sited south-west of Neferirkare's pyramid.

Sphinx water erosion hypothesis Fringe theory on the age of the Great Sphinx of Giza

The Sphinx water erosion hypothesis is a fringe claim, contending that the Great Sphinx of Giza and its enclose walls eroded primarily due to ancient floods or rainfalls, attributing their creation to Plato's lost civilization of Atlantis over 11,500 years ago.

Inventory Stela

The Inventory Stela is an ancient Egyptian commemorative tablet dating to the 26th Dynasty. It was found in Giza during the 19th century. The stela presents a list of 22 divine statues owned by a Temple of Isis, and goes on to claim that the temple existed since before the time of Khufu.