Qajar dynasty

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Qajar dynasty
Imperial Emblem of the Qajar Dynasty (Lion and Sun).svg
Parent house Qovanlu line of Qajars tribe
Country Sublime State of Persia
Founded1796
Founder Agha Mohammad Shah (1796–1797)
Current head Sultan Mohammad Ali Mirza (since 2011)
Final ruler Ahmad Shah (1909–1925)
Titles Shah of Iran
Deposition1925

The Qajar dynasty ( Loudspeaker.svg listen  ; Persian : سلسله قاجارSelsele-ye Qājār; [lower-alpha 1] ) was an Iranian [1] royal dynasty of Turkic origin, [2] [3] [4] [5] specifically from the Qajar tribe, ruling over Iran from 1789 to 1925. [6] [7] The Qajar family took full control of Iran in 1794, deposing Lotf 'Ali Khan, the last Shah of the Zand dynasty, and re-asserted Iranian sovereignty over large parts of the Caucasus. In 1796, Mohammad Khan Qajar seized Mashhad with ease, [8] putting an end to the Afsharid dynasty, and Mohammad Khan was formally crowned as Shah after his punitive campaign against Iran's Georgian subjects. [9] In the Caucasus, the Qajar dynasty permanently lost many of Iran's integral areas [10] to the Russians over the course of the 19th century, comprising modern-day Georgia, Dagestan, Azerbaijan and Armenia. [11]

Contents

Qajar Shahs of Persia, 1796–1925

NamePortraitTitleBorn-DiedEntered officeLeft office
1 Mohammad Khan Qajar Mohammad Khan Qajar.jpg Khan [12]
Shah [12]
1742–1797March 1796 [13] 17 June 1797
2 Fat′h-Ali Shah Qajar Fath Ali Shah(hermitage2).jpg Shahanshah [12]
Khaqan [12]
1772–183417 June 179723 October 1834
3 Mohammad Shah Qajar Mohammadshah.jpg Khaqan son of Khaqan [12] 1808–184823 October 18345 September 1848
4 Naser al-Din Shah Qajar Naser al-Din Schah.jpg Zell'ollah (Shadow of God [on earth]) [12]
Qebleh-ye 'ālam (Pivot of the Universe) [12]
Islampanah (Refuge of Islam) [12]
1831–18965 September 18481 May 1896
5 Mozaffar ad-Din Shah Qajar Mozaffar-ed-Din Shah Qajar - 1.jpg 1853–19071 May 18963 January 1907
6 Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar Mohammad Ali Shah.jpg 1872–19253 January 190716 July 1909
7 Ahmad Shah Qajar AhmadShahQajar2.jpg Sultan1898–193016 July 190931 October 1925

Qajar imperial family

The Qajar Imperial Family in exile is currently headed by the eldest descendant of Mohammad Ali Shah, Sultan Mohammad Ali Mirza Qajar, while the Heir Presumptive to the Qajar throne is Mohammad Hassan Mirza II, the grandson of Mohammad Hassan Mirza, Sultan Ahmad Shah's brother and heir. Mohammad Hassan Mirza died in England in 1943, having proclaimed himself shah in exile in 1930 after the death of his brother in France.

Today, the descendants of the Qajars often identify themselves as such and hold reunions to stay socially acquainted through the Kadjar (Qajar) Family Association, [14] often coinciding with the annual conferences and meetings of the International Qajar Studies Association (IQSA). The Kadjar (Qajar) Family Association was founded for a third time in 2000. Two earlier family associations were stopped because of political pressure. The offices and archives of IQSA are housed at the International Museum for Family History in Eijsden.

Titles and styles

The shah and his consort were styled Imperial Majesty . Their children were addressed as Imperial Highness , while male-line grandchildren were entitled to the lower style of Highness ; all of them bore the title of Shahzadeh or Shahzadeh Khanoum. [15]

Qajar dynasty since 1925

Heads of the Qajar Imperial Family

The headship of the Imperial Family is inherited by the eldest male descendant of Mohammad Ali Shah.

Heirs Presumptive of the Qajar dynasty

The Heir Presumptive is the Qajar heir to the Persian throne.

Notable members

Bahram Mirza Bahram-Mirza Moezzedoleh I.jpg
Bahram Mirza
Feyzullah Mirza Qajar Feyzulla Mirza Qovanlu-Qajar.JPG
Feyzullah Mirza Qajar
Politics
Military
Social work
Business

Religion

Women's rights
Literature
Entertainment

Family tree

Mothers of Qajar Shahs

See also

Notes

  1. Also Romanised as Ghajar, Kadjar, Qachar etc.

Citations

  1. Abbas Amanat, The Pivot of the Universe: Nasir Al-Din Shah Qajar and the Iranian Monarchy, 1831–1896, I. B. Tauris, pp 2–3
  2. Cyrus Ghani. Iran and the Rise of the Reza Shah: From Qajar Collapse to Pahlavi Power, I. B. Tauris, 2000, ISBN   1-86064-629-8, p. 1
  3. William Bayne Fisher. Cambridge History of Iran, Cambridge University Press, 1993, p. 344, ISBN   0-521-20094-6
  4. Dr Parviz Kambin, A History of the Iranian Plateau: Rise and Fall of an Empire, Universe, 2011, p.36, online edition.
  5. Jamie Stokes and Anthony Gorman, Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Africa and the Middle East, 2010, p.707, Online Edition: "The Safavid and Qajar dynasties, rulers in Iran from 1501 to 1722 and from 1795 to 1925 respectively, were Turkic in origin."
  6. Abbas Amanat, The Pivot of the Universe: Nasir Al-Din Shah Qajar and the Iranian Monarchy, 1831–1896, I. B. Tauris, pp 2–3; "In the 126 years between the fall of the Safavid state in 1722 and the accession of Nasir al-Din Shah, the Qajars evolved from a shepherd-warrior tribe with strongholds in northern Iran into a Persian dynasty."
  7. Choueiri, Youssef M., A companion to the history of the Middle East, (Blackwell Ltd., 2005), 231,516.
  8. H. Scheel; Jaschke, Gerhard; H. Braun; Spuler, Bertold; T Koszinowski; Bagley, Frank (1981). Muslim World. Brill Archive. pp. 65, 370. ISBN   978-90-04-06196-5 . Retrieved 28 September 2012.
  9. Michael Axworthy. Iran: Empire of the Mind: A History from Zoroaster to the Present Day, Penguin UK, 6 Nov. 2008. ISBN   0141903414
  10. Fisher et al. 1991, p. 330.
  11. Timothy C. Dowling. Russia at War: From the Mongol Conquest to Afghanistan, Chechnya, and Beyond, pp 728-730 ABC-CLIO, 2 dec. 2014 ISBN   1598849484
  12. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Amanat, Abbas (1997), Pivot of the Universe: Nasir Al-Din Shah Qajar and the Iranian Monarchy, 1831-1896, Comparative studies on Muslim societies, I. B. Tauris, p. 10, ISBN   9781860640971
  13. Perry, J. R. (1984). "ĀḠĀ MOḤAMMAD KHAN QĀJĀR". In Yarshater, Ehsan (ed.). Encyclopædia Iranica . I/6. pp. 602–605. in Ramażān, 1210/ March, 1796, he was officially crowned shah of Iran.
  14. "Qajar People". Qajars. Retrieved 31 October 2012.
  15. Qajar (Kadjar) Titles and Appellations
  16. Paidar 1997, p. 95.
  17. L. A. Ferydoun Barjesteh van Waalwijk van Doorn (Khosrovani) (ed.), "Qajar Studies". Journal of the International Qaja Studies Association, vol. X–XI, Rotterdam, Gronsveld, Santa Barbara and Tehran 2011, p. 220.
  18. Caton 1988.

General sources

Royal house
Qajar dynasty
Preceded by
Afsharid dynasty
Zand dynasty
Ruling house of Iran
1796–1925
Succeeded by
Pahlavi dynasty

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