Qakare Ibi

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Qakare Ibi was an Ancient Egyptian pharaoh during the early First Intermediate Period (2181–2055 BC) and the 14th ruler of the Eighth Dynasty. [1] [2] [3] As such Qakare Ibi's seat of power was Memphis [4] and he probably did not hold power over all of Egypt. Qakare Ibi is one of the best attested pharaohs of the Eighth Dynasty due to the discovery of his small pyramid in South Saqqara.

Ancient Egypt ancient civilization of Northeastern Africa

Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in the place that is now the country Egypt. Ancient Egyptian civilization followed prehistoric Egypt and coalesced around 3100 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under Menes. The history of ancient Egypt occurred as a series of stable kingdoms, separated by periods of relative instability known as Intermediate Periods: the Old Kingdom of the Early Bronze Age, the Middle Kingdom of the Middle Bronze Age and the New Kingdom of the Late Bronze Age.

Pharaoh Title of Ancient Egyptian rulers

Pharaoh is the common title of the monarchs of ancient Egypt from the First Dynasty until the annexation of Egypt by the Roman Empire in 30 BCE, although the actual term "Pharaoh" was not used contemporaneously for a ruler until Merneptah, c. 1200 BCE. In the early dynasty, ancient Egyptian kings used to have up to three titles, the Horus, the Sedge and Bee (nswt-bjtj) name, and the Two Ladies (nbtj) name. The Golden Horus and nomen and prenomen titles were later added.

Memphis, Egypt Ancient capital of Inebu-hedj, Egypt

Memphis was the ancient capital of Inebu-hedj, the first nome of Lower Egypt. Its ruins are located near the town of Mit Rahina, 20 km (12 mi) south of Giza.



Qakare Ibi is attested on the 56th entry of the Abydos King List, a king list which was redacted some 900 years after the First Intermediate Period during the reign of Seti I. [2] [5] According to Kim Ryholt's latest reconstruction of the Turin canon, another king list compiled in the Ramesside era, Qakare Ibi is also attested there on column 5, line 10 (Gardiner 4.11, von Beckerath 4.10). The Turin canon further indicates that he reigned for "2 years, 1 month and 1 day". [1] [2] The only other attestion for Qakare Ibi is his pyramid in South Saqqara.

Abydos King List

The Abydos King List, also known as the Abydos Table, is a list of the names of seventy-six kings of Ancient Egypt, found on a wall of the Temple of Seti I at Abydos, Egypt. It consists of three rows of thirty-eight cartouches in each row. The upper two rows contain names of the kings, while the third row merely repeats Seti I's throne name and nomen.

Seti I second pharaoh of the 19th dynasty in ancient egypt

Menmaatre Seti I was a pharaoh of the New Kingdom Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt, the son of Ramesses I and Sitre, and the father of Ramesses II. As with all dates in Ancient Egypt, the actual dates of his reign are unclear, and various historians claim different dates, with 1294 BC to 1279 BC and 1290 BC to 1279 BC being the most commonly used by scholars today.

Kim Steven Bardrum Ryholt is a professor of Egyptology at the University of Copenhagen and a specialist on Egyptian history and literature. He is director of the research center Canon and Identity Formation in the Earliest Literate Societies under the University of Copenhagen Programme of Excellence and director of The Papyrus Carlsberg Collection & Project.

Pyramid complex

Qakare Ibi was buried in a small pyramid at Saqqara-South. It was discovered by Karl Richard Lepsius in the 19th century who listed it as the number XL in his pioneering list of pyramids. [6] The pyramid was excavated from 1929 until 1931 by Gustave Jéquier. [7]

Karl Richard Lepsius German egyptologist and linguist

Karl Richard Lepsius was a pioneering Prussian egyptologist, linguist and modern archaeologist.

Lepsius list of pyramids 1842 list by Karl Richard Lepsius

The Lepsius list of pyramids is a list of sixty-seven Ancient Egyptian pyramids established in 1842–1843 by Karl Richard Lepsius (1810–1884), an Egyptologist and leader of the "Prussian expedition to Egypt" from 1842 until 1846.

Gustave Jéquier was born in and died in Neuchâtel, Switzerland. He was an Egyptologist and one of the first archaeologists to excavate ancient Persian cities in what is now Iran. He was a member of Jacques de Morgan's 1901 Susa expedition, which led to the discovery of the famous Code of Hammurabi, now on display in the Louvre.

Ibi's pyramid is the last ever built in Saqqara, located to the northeast of Shepseskaf's tomb and near the causeway of the pyramid of Pepi II. [8] It is very similar in plan, dimensions and decorations to the pyramids of the queens of Pepi II, the last great pharaoh of the Old Kingdom. Consequently it was proposed that the pyramid was originally that of Ankhnespepi IV (ˁnḫ-n=s ppj, "Pepi lives for her") a wife of Pepi II, and was only later appropriated by Ibi. [9] Adjacent to the pyramid is a small chapel where the funerary cult took place. No trace of a causeway nor of a valley temple has been found to this day, and it is likely that there never was any.

Shepseskaf Egyptian pharaoh

Shepseskaf was the sixth and last pharaoh of the Fourth Dynasty of Egypt during the Old Kingdom. He reigned 6 to 8 years starting circa 2510 BC. The only activities firmly datable to his reign are the completion of the temple complex of the Pyramid of Menkaure and the construction of its own mastaba tomb at South Saqqara, the Mastabat al-Fir’aun, "stone bench of the pharaoh".

Ankhesenpepi IV was an ancient Egyptian queen, a wife of Pharaoh Pepi II of the Sixth dynasty. She was the mother of King Neferkare II. Pepi II also had several other wives.

Pyramid complex of Qakare Ibi, Saqqara. Qakare-Ibi-Pyramid.png
Pyramid complex of Qakare Ibi, Saqqara.

The pyramid

Ibi's pyramid is not oriented to any cardinal point, being rather on a northwest–southeast axis. The edifice would have been around 31.5 m (103 ft) large and 21 m (69 ft) high with a slope of 53°7′ at the time of its construction. [2] The core of the pyramid was built with limestone blocks of local origin, most of which are now gone, probably reused in later constructions. As a result, the monument appears today as a 3 m (9.8 ft) high heap of mud and limestone chips in the sands of Saqqara. On some of the remaining blocks, inscriptions in red ink were found mentioning a chief of the Libyans, the meaning of which is unclear. It seems that even though the foundations for the outer casing of the pyramid were laid, the casing itself was never mounted.

Limestone Sedimentary rocks made of calcium carbonate

Limestone is a carbonate sedimentary rock that is often composed of the skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, foraminifera, and molluscs. Its major materials are the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). A closely related rock is dolomite, which contains a high percentage of the mineral dolomite, CaMg(CO3)2. In old USGS publications, dolomite was referred to as magnesian limestone, a term now reserved for magnesium-deficient dolomites or magnesium-rich limestones.

Internal structures

On the north side of the edifice, Jéquier found a 8 m (26 ft) long limestone-clad corridor leading down with an inclination of 25° to a large granite portcullis. [2] [7] Behind this portcullis lay the king's burial chamber. Both the corridor and the walls of the burial chamber were inscribed with the last known instance of the Pyramid Texts. [2] [7] The texts seem to have been directly inscribed for Ibi rather than appropriated by him. Jéquier judged the quality of the inscriptions as "very average". [7] Furthermore, the placement of the spells appears relatively indiscriminate. [9] The burial chamber's ceiling was flat and decorated with stars. It was probably made of a single 5 m (16 ft) long block of Tura limestone [7] now missing. Today a large block of concrete protects the chamber.

Pyramid Texts literary work

The Pyramid Texts are the oldest known corpus of ancient Egyptian religious texts dating to the Old Kingdom. Written in Old Egyptian, the pyramid texts were carved onto the subterranean walls and sarcophagi of pyramids at Saqqara from the end of the Fifth Dynasty, and throughout the Sixth Dynasty of the Old Kingdom, and into the Eighth Dynasty of the First Intermediate Period.

On the west side of the burial chamber is a false door and a huge granite block on which once stood the sarcophagus of the king. On the east side there is a serdab for the statue of the Ka of the deceased.


Adjacent to the east side of the pyramid is a small mudbrick chapel which served as temple for the cult of the dead king. [2] The entrance of the chapel is located on its north side. Inside the temple, immediately against the pyramid wall is an offering hall where Jequier found a stone washbasin as well as stele or a false door of which only the foundations remain. An alabaster tray and obsidian mortar tools were also discovered there.

The south part of the chapel is occupied by magazine rooms.

See also

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  1. 1 2 3 Kim Ryholt: The Late Old Kingdom in the Turin King-list and the Identity of Nitocris, Zeitschrift für ägyptische, 127, 2000, p. 99
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Darrell D. Baker: The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I - Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300–1069 BC, Stacey International, ISBN   978-1-905299-37-9, 2008, p. 302
  3. Jürgen von Beckerath: Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen, Münchner ägyptologische Studien, Heft 49, Mainz : P. von Zabern, 1999, ISBN   3-8053-2591-6, available online see pp. 68-69
  4. Ian Shaw: The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, p.107, ISBN   978-0192804587
  5. Jürgen von Beckerath: The Date of the End of the Old Kingdom of Egypt, JNES 21 (1962)
  6. Karl Richard Lepsius: Denkmäler aus Aegypten und Aethiopien, available online.
  7. 1 2 3 4 5 Gustave Jéquier, La pyramide d'Aba, 1935
  8. "Saqqara, City of the Dead: The Pyramid of Ibi" The Ancient Egypt Site Archived September 27, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  9. 1 2 Rainer Stadelmann: The Egyptian pyramids. From brick to the wonders of the world. 3rd edition of Saverne, Mainz, 1997, ISBN   3-8053-1142-7, pp. 203-204.


Preceded by
Neferkamin Anu
Pharaoh of Egypt
Eighth Dynasty
Succeeded by
Neferkaure II