Qareh

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Qareh Khawoserre was possibly the third king [1] [2] of the Canaanite 14th Dynasty of Egypt, who reigned over the eastern Nile Delta from Avaris during the Second Intermediate Period. His reign is believed to have lasted about 10 years, from 1770 BC until 1760 BC [1] or later, around 1710 BC. Alternatively, Qareh could have been a later vassal of the Hyksos kings of the 15th Dynasty and would then be classified as a king of the 16th Dynasty.

Canaan region

Canaan was a Semitic-speaking region in the Ancient Near East during the late 2nd millennium BC. The name Canaan appears throughout the Bible, where it corresponds to the Levant, in particular to the areas of the Southern Levant that provide the main setting of the narrative of the Bible: Phoenicia, Philistia, Israel, and other nations.

The Fourteenth Dynasty of Egypt was a series of rulers reigning during the Second Intermediate Period over the Nile Delta region of Egypt. It lasted between 75 and 155 years, depending on the scholar. The capital of the dynasty was probably Avaris. The 14th dynasty existed concurrently with the 13th dynasty based in Memphis. The rulers of the 14th dynasty are commonly identified by Egyptologists as being of Canaanite (Semitic) descent, owing to the distinct origins of the names of some of their kings and princes, like Ipqu, Yakbim, Qareh, or Yaqub-Har. Names in relation with Nubia are also recorded in two cases, king Nehesy and queen Tati.

Avaris Archaeological site in Egypt

Avaris was the capital of Egypt under the Hyksos. It was located at modern Tell el-Dab'a in the northeastern region of the Nile Delta, at the juncture of the 8th, 14th, 19th and 20th Nomes. As the main course of the Nile migrated eastward, its position at the hub of Egypt's delta emporia made it a major administrative capital of the Hyksos and other traders. It was occupied from about 1783 to 1550 BC, or from the Thirteenth Dynasty of Egypt through the Second Intermediate Period of Egypt until its destruction by Ahmose I, the first Pharaoh of the Eighteenth dynasty. The name in the Egyptian language of the 2nd millennium BC was probably pronounced *Ḥaʔat-Wūrat 'Great House' and denotes the capital of an administrative division of the land. Today, the name Hawara survives, referring to the site at the entrance to Faiyum. Alternatively, Clement of Alexandria referred to the name of this city as "Athyria".

Qareh's name is West Semitic and means "The bald one". His existence is only attested by thirty royal seals inscribed with his name, only one of which has a known provenance: Jericho in Canaan. [3] Qareh's name was earlier misread as Qar, Qur, and Qal. [4]

The West Semitic languages are a proposed major sub-grouping of ancient Semitic languages. The term was first coined in 1883 by Fritz Hommel.

Jericho City in Jericho

Jericho is a city in the Palestinian Territories and is located near the Jordan River in the West Bank. It is the administrative seat of the Jericho Governorate, and is governed by the Fatah faction of the Palestinian National Authority. In 2007, it had a population of 18,346. The city was occupied by Jordan from 1949 to 1967, and has been held under Israeli occupation since 1967; administrative control was handed over to the Palestinian Authority in 1994. It is believed to be one of the oldest inhabited cities in the world and the city with the oldest known protective wall in the world. It was thought to have the oldest stone tower in the world as well, but excavations at Tell Qaramel in Syria have discovered stone towers that are even older.

The Egyptologist Kim Ryholt equates Qareh with the prenomen Khawoserre, which is also only attested through scarab seals. Qareh's chronological position is uncertain, with Ryholt and Darrell Baker placing him as the third king of the 14th dynasty based on the style of his seals. On the other hand, Thomas Schneider and Jürgen von Beckerath see him as a ruler of the 16th dynasty. [5] Alternatively, James Peter Allen proposes that he was an Hyksos ruler of the early 15th dynasty [6]

Kim Steven Bardrum Ryholt is a professor of Egyptology at the University of Copenhagen and a specialist on Egyptian history and literature. He is director of the research center Canon and Identity Formation in the Earliest Literate Societies under the University of Copenhagen Programme of Excellence and director of The Papyrus Carlsberg Collection & Project.

Thomas Schneider is a German Egyptologist.

Jürgen von Beckerath was a German Egyptologist. He was a prolific writer who published countless articles in journals such as Orientalia, Göttinger Miszellen (GM), Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt (JARCE), Archiv für Orientforschung (AfO), and Studien zur Altägyptischen Kultur (SAK) among others. Together with Kenneth Kitchen, he is viewed as one of the foremost scholars on the New Kingdom and the Third Intermediate Period of Egypt.

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References

  1. 1 2 3 K.S.B. Ryholt (1998). The Political Situation in Egypt During the Second Intermediate Period, C1800-1550 BC. Museum Tusculanum Press. ISBN   8772894210.
  2. Darrell D. Baker: The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I - Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300–1069 BC, Stacey International, ISBN   978-1-905299-37-9, 2008, p. 303
  3. Percy Newberry: Egyptian antiquities. Scarabs. An Introduction to the Study of Egyptian Seals and Signet Rings. Constable, London 1906, S. 150, pl. XXI, 23, 24.
  4. K., Ryholt (1998). "King Qareh, a Canaanite King in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period". Israel Exploration Journal (48): 194–200.
  5. Thomas Schneider: Lexikon der Pharaonen. Albatros, Düsseldorf 2002, ISBN   3-491-96053-3, p. 226.
  6. Daphna Ben-Tor, Susan J. Allen, James P. Allen: Seals and Kings. In: Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research Bd. 315, 1999, S. 47–74 (pdf-download).
Preceded by
Ya'ammu Nubwoserre
Pharaoh of Egypt
Fourteenth Dynasty
Succeeded by
'Ammu Ahotepre