|Word/name||State of Qin|
Qín ( [tɕʰǐn] ) (秦) is a common Chinese surname. "Qin" is the hanyu pinyin romanization of the surname for Mandarin, the common dialect of China; other romanizations of the surname include Chin and Jin in Mandarin, Ceon and Cheun in Cantonese, and Tần (or Tan when commonly written without accent in ASCII) in Vietnamese. People with this surname are most commonly found in Henan, Shaanxi, Shandong, Sichuan, Hubei and Hebei. It is the 18th name on the Hundred Family Surnames poem.
Other surnames romanized as "Qin" include 欽/钦.
According to the Shuowen Jiezi , the character for Qin is a compound ideogram which combined two characters: chong 舂 "to pound", and he 禾 "grain". : 嬴 ), was said to have adopted the surname Qin. Many people sought to identify themselves with the Qin long since the fall of the Qin dynasty; in Japan, the Hata clan of Japan claims descent from a branch of the Qin royal family, "Hata" being the native Japanese reading for the character "Qin".The character originally refers to Qin Valley (秦谷) in Longxi near Tianshui, Gansu and became the name of that area. The area was granted to Feizi, a descendants of Gao Tao, by King Xiao of Zhou as a fief in the 9th century BC, which then grew into the state of Qin. In the 3rd century BC, the state of Qin unified China and became the first imperial dynasty under Qin Shi Huang. After the fall of the dynasty in 206 BC, the descendants of Qin royalty, whose ancestral name was Ying (Chinese
Another origin came from the Qin City (秦邑; present-day Fan County, Henan) in the state of Lu (鲁). During the early Zhou dynasty in the 10th century BC, Boqin the son of the Duke of Zhou, originally surnamed Ji (姬), was given the state of Lu, and his descendants who were assigned to the Qin estate adopted the name of their place of residence as their surname.
After the opening of the Silk Road in the 2nd century BC, Daqin (大秦, Great Qin) was the name used by the Han Chinese for the Roman Empire. Some people to the west of China arriving via the Silk Road was therefore said to have adopted the surname Qin. [ citation needed ]Various non-Han people of China also took "Qin" as their surname, such as the Mongols, the Daurs, the Manchus, and the Jurchen Moyan (抹捻 during the Jin dynasty and 穆颜 during the Manchu period).
Ancient Chinese texts recorded that one of the friends of the legendary sage king Emperor Shun (23rd century BC) was named Qin Buxu (秦不虛). However, no record exists of the later lineages of this Qin Buxu.
Zhao is a Chinese surname, ranking as the 7th most common surname in China and carried mainly by people of Mandarin-speaking regions. Zhao is the 1st surname in the famous Hundred Family Surnames – the traditional list of all Chinese surnames – because it was the emperor's surname of the Song Dynasty (960–1279) when the list was compiled. The first line of the poem is in the line 趙錢孫李.
Sima is a Chinese family name. It is one of the rare two-character Chinese family names; most Chinese family names consist of only a single character. It is an occupational surname, literally meaning "control" (sī) "horses" (mǎ); in a similar way as the English surname Marshall is derived from the Frankish: "mare" (horse) + "skalkoz" (master). The family name originated from one of the offices of the Three Excellencies of the Zhou dynasty. The name has also been anglicised as "Szema".
Yang is the transcription of a Chinese family name. It is the sixth most common surname in Mainland China. It is the 16th surname on the Hundred Family Surnames text.
The Hata Clan was an immigrant clan active in Japan since the Kofun period (250–538), according to the history of Japan laid out in Nihon Shoki.
Tsai is a Chinese surname that derives from the name of the ancient Cai state. In 2019 it was the 38th most common surname in Mainland China, but the 9th most common in Taiwan, where it is usually romanized as Tsai, Tsay, or Chai based on Wade-Giles romanization of Standard Mandarin and the 8th most common in Singapore, where it is usually romanized as Chua, which is based on its Teochew and Hokkien pronunciation. Koreans use Chinese-derived family names and in Korean, Cai is 채 in Hangul, Chae in Revised Romanization, It is also a common name in Hong Kong where it is romanized as Choy, Choi or Tsoi. In Macao and Malaysia, it is spelled as Choi, in Malaysia and the Philippines as Chua or Chuah, in Thailand as Chuo (ฉั่ว). Moreover, it is also romanized in Cambodia as either Chhay or Chhor among people of full Chinese descent living in Cambodia and as Tjoa or Chua in Indonesia.
Lai is a common Chinese surname that is pronounced similarly in both Mandarin and Hakka dialect. The meaning of the character used in the Lai (賴) surname is "depend on; trust in; rely on".
Zhōu is the Hanyu Pinyin transliteration of the Chinese family name 周, which ranks as the 10th most common surname in Mainland China as of 2019. In 2013 it was found to be the 10th most common name, shared by 25,200,000 people or 1.900% of the population, with the province with the most being Hunan. Derived from the Zhou dynasty, it has been one of the ten most common surnames in China since the Yuan dynasty. It is the 5th name on the Hundred Family Surnames poem.
Fàn is a Chinese family name. Is it also one of the most common surnames in Vietnam, where it is written Pham. It is the 46th name on the Hundred Family Surnames poem.
Shan is a Chinese surname. The origin of this surname is not clear. One explanation is that it came from Shan County in Shandong province. Another possible origin involves King Cheng of Zhou's youngest son's acquisition of the name when he was given what would become the Shan state when the enfeoffment system was enacted during the Zhou Dynasty. The Shan state existed for a few hundred years before it was annexed by a stronger neighbouring state. It was located in present-day Jiyuan, Henan province. Although the surname comes from the place name, the Shan family was a branch of the royal family of the Zhou Dynasty. Its ancient origin determines its rareness and not many people have the Shan surname. According to one unverifiable estimate, about 150,000 people are of the surname.
This is a family tree of Chinese emperors from the foundation of the Qin dynasty in 221 BCE, till the end of the Sixteen Kingdoms period, in 453 CE.
Lü is the pinyin and Wade–Giles romanisation of the Chinese surname written 吕 in simplified character and 呂 in traditional character. It is the 47th most common surname in China, shared by 5.6 million people, or 0.47% of the Chinese population as of 2002. It is especially common in Shandong and Henan provinces.
Tong is a Chinese surname. Tong as transcribed in English however represents of a number of different Chinese surnames.
Duke Jian of Qin was, from 414 to 400 BC, the 26th ruler of the Zhou Dynasty Chinese state of Qin that eventually united China to become the Qin Dynasty. His ancestral name was Ying (嬴), and Duke Jian was his posthumous title.
Li is the second most common surname in China as of 2018, behind Wang. It is one of the most common surnames in the world, shared by 92.76 million people in China, and more than 100 million worldwide. It is the fourth name listed in the Song dynasty classic text Hundred Family Surnames.
Lóu is the pinyin romanization of the Chinese surname written 楼 in simplified character and 樓 in traditional character. It is the 269th most common surname in China, shared by approximately 220,000 people. Lou 楼 is not listed in the Song Dynasty classic text Hundred Family Surnames.
Jì is the Mandarin pinyin romanization of the Chinese surname written 蓟 in simplified Chinese and 薊 in traditional Chinese. It is romanized as Chi in Wade–Giles and Gai or Kai in Cantonese. Ji is listed 263rd in the Song Dynasty classic text Hundred Family Surnames. It is not among the 300 most common surnames in China.
Jí is the Mandarin pinyin romanization of the Chinese surname written 籍 in Chinese character. It is romanized as Chi in Wade–Giles, and Zik in Cantonese. Ji is listed 275th in the Song dynasty classic text Hundred Family Surnames. It is not among the 300 most common surnames in China.
Jí is the Mandarin pinyin romanization of the Chinese surname written 吉 in Chinese character. It is romanized as Chi in Wade–Giles, and Gat in Cantonese. Ji is the 195th most common surname in China, with a population of 490,000. It is listed 190th in the Song dynasty classic text Hundred Family Surnames.
Xu is a Chinese surname. It is different from Xu, which is represented by a different character.
Yiqu, was an ancient Chinese state which existed in the Hetao region and what is now Ningxia, eastern Gansu and northern Shaanxi during the Zhou dynasty, and was a centuries-long western rival of the state of Qin. It was inhabited by a semi-sinicized people called the Rong of Yiqu, who were regarded as a branch of western Rong people by contemporary writers, whom modern scholars have attempted to identify as one of the ancestors of the minority people in Northwest China.