Québécois people

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Quebecers or Quebeckers [1] [2] [3] (Québécois in French, and sometimes also in English) are people living in the province of Quebec in Canada. The term is most often used in reference to French-Canadian descendants of the first settlers of Canada, though it may also be used to describe Quebec residents of other origins, especially if they are French-speaking. [4]


Self-identification as Québécois became dominant in the 1960s; prior to this, the Francophone people of Quebec identified themselves as French Canadians. [5] A majority in the House of Commons of Canada in 2006 approved a motion tabled by Prime Minister Stephen Harper, which stated that the Québécois are a nation within a united Canada. [4] Harper later elaborated that the motion's definition of Québécois relies on personal decisions to self-identify as Québécois, and therefore is a personal choice. [6] However, Gilles Duceppe, the leader of the Bloc Québécois, a sovereigntist party which then held the majority of seats in Quebec, disputed this view, stating that the Bloc considered the term "Québécois" to include all inhabitants of Quebec and accusing the Conservatives of wishing to ascribe an ethnic meaning to it. [7]

Québécois as an ethnicity

As shown by the 2016 Statistics Canada census, 58.3% of residents of Quebec identify their ethnicity as Canadien, 23.5% as French and 0.4% as Acadian. [8] Roughly 2.3% of residents, or 184,005 people, describe their ethnicity as Québécois. [9]

Number [10] LanguageBeliefs [11] Related Groups
184,005 French, English Roman Catholicism, Atheism, Agnosticism, Protestantism (Huguenot) Canadien, Acadian, French

See also

Related Research Articles

Québécois ; feminine: Québécoise, Quebecois, or Québecois is a word used primarily to refer to a native or inhabitant of the Canadian province of Quebec that speaks French as a mother tongue; sometimes, it is used more generally to refer to any native or inhabitant of Quebec. It can refer to French spoken in Quebec. It may also be used, with an upper- or lower-case initial, as an adjective relating to Quebec, or to the French culture of Quebec. A resident or native of Quebec is often referred to in English as a Quebecer or Quebecker. In French, Québécois or Québécoise usually refers to any native or resident of Quebec. Its use became more prominent in the 1960s as French Canadians from Quebec increasingly self-identified as Québécois.

Bloc Québécois Canadian political party

The Bloc Québécois is a federal political party in Canada devoted to Quebec nationalism and the promotion of Quebec sovereignty. The Bloc was formed by Members of Parliament (MPs) who defected from the federal Progressive Conservative Party and Liberal Party during the collapse of the Meech Lake Accord. Founder Lucien Bouchard was a cabinet minister in the federal Progressive Conservative government of Brian Mulroney.

Parti Québécois Sovereignist political party in Quebec, Canada

The Parti Québécois is a sovereignist and social democratic provincial political party in Quebec, Canada. The PQ advocates national sovereignty for Quebec involving independence of the province of Quebec from Canada and establishing a sovereign state. The PQ has also promoted the possibility of maintaining a loose political and economic sovereignty-association between Quebec and Canada. The party traditionally has support from the labour movement, but unlike most other social democratic parties, its ties with organized labour are informal. Members and supporters of the PQ are nicknamed péquistes, a French word derived from the pronunciation of the party's initials in Quebec French.

French Canadians North American ethnic group

French Canadians, or Franco-Canadians, are an ethnic group who trace their ancestry to French colonists who settled in Canada from the 17th century onward. Today, people of French heritage make up the majority of native speakers of French in Canada, who in turn account for about 22 percent of the country's total population.

Quebec sovereignty movement Movement for Québécois independence

The Quebec sovereignty movement is a political movement as well as an ideology of values, concepts and ideas that advocates independence for the Canadian province of Quebec.

The politics of Quebec are centred on a provincial government resembling that of the other Canadian provinces, namely a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy. The capital of Quebec is Quebec City, where the Lieutenant Governor, Premier, the legislature, and cabinet reside.

Quebec nationalism North American political ideology

Quebec nationalism or Québécois nationalism asserts that Quebec and the Québécois people are a nation, distinct from the rest of Canada. It promotes the unity of the Québécois people in the province of Quebec.

Demographics of Quebec

The demographics of Quebec constitutes a complex and sensitive issue, especially as it relates to the National question. Quebec is the only province in Canada to feature a francophone (French-speaking) majority, and where anglophones (English-speakers) constitute an officially recognized minority group. According to the 2011 census, French is spoken by more than 85.5% of the population while this number rises to 88% for children under 15 years old. According to the 2011 census, 95% of Quebec are able to conduct a conversation in French, with less than 5% of the population not able to speak French.

Ethnic origins of people in Canada

Listed here are the ethnic groups of Canadian residents as self-identified in the 2016 census in which approximately 35,151,000 census forms were completed). The relevant census question asked for "the ethnic or cultural origins" of the respondent's ancestors and not the respondents themselves.

The History of the Quebec sovereignty movement covers various movements which sought to achieve political independence for Quebec, a province of Canada since 1867.

The Demographics of Montreal concern population growth and structure for Montreal, Quebec, Canada. The information is analyzed by Statistics Canada and compiled every five years, with the most recent census having taken place in 2016.

Anti-Quebec sentiment is opposition or hostility expressed toward the government, culture, or the francophone people of Quebec.

The Jan Wong controversy refers to a claim made by Jan Wong on September 16, 2006, three days after the shooting at Dawson College in Montreal. Canada's nationally distributed newspaper of record, The Globe and Mail, published a front-page article titled, "Get under the desk," by Jan Wong. In the article, Ms. Wong controversially linked all three Quebec school shootings of the last two decades—1989 École Polytechnique Massacre, 1992 Concordia University Massacre, and 2006 Dawson College Shooting —to the purported alienation brought about by "the decades-long linguistic struggle" within the province. Public outcry and political condemnation soon followed in many venues. In response, a Globe and Mail editorial attempted to minimize the controversy as a "small uproar" over journalistic freedom, but this caused further condemnation. Jan Wong maintained her perspective and wrote extensively about the whole experience in her book Out of the Blue, A Memoir of Workplace Depression, Recovery, Redemption and, Yes, Happiness.


Canadianism or Canadian patriotism refers to a patriotism involving cultural attachment of Canadians to Canada as their homeland. It has been identified as related, though in some cases distinct, to Canadian nationalism. In contemporary times, this patriotism has commonly emphasized Canada as a multicultural cosmopolitan society.

French-speaking Quebecers or Quebeckers are francophone residents of the province of Quebec in Canada.

The Québécois nation motion was a parliamentary motion tabled by Prime Minister of Canada Stephen Harper on Wednesday, November 22, 2006 and approved by the House of Commons of Canada on Monday, November 27, 2006. It was approved 265–16 with supporters in every party in the Commons. The English motion read:

Outline of Quebec Overview of and topical guide to Quebec

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Quebec:

Old Stock Canadians

Old Stock Canadians is a term referring to European Canadians whose family has lived in Canada for several generations. It is used by some to refer exclusively to anglophone Canadians with British immigrant ancestors, but it usually refers to either anglophone or francophone Canadians as parallel old stock groups. Francophone Canadians descended from early French immigrants in New France are sometimes referred to as Québécois pure laine, often translated as "dyed in the wool", but with the same connotation as old stock.

Quebecer, Quebecker or variant may refer to:

English-speaking Quebecers are terms used to refer to English-speaking residents of Quebec. Anglo-Quebecers (anglophone) are a minority in the officially French-speaking (francophone) province of Quebec, Canada. The English-speaking community in Quebec constitutes an official linguistic minority population under Canadian law.


  1. "Quebec's voters will decide tuition conflict; Education Minister Michelle Courchesne (with video)".
  2. Andy Radia (1 August 2012). "It's official: Quebecers are going to the polls September 4" . Retrieved 2014-06-18.
  3. "With Canada's four medals all won by Quebeckers, Parti Quebecois leader says province could shine as independent country". The Globe and Mail. Toronto. 2012-07-31.
  4. 1 2 Michael M. Brescia, John C. Super. North America: an introduction. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: University of Toronto Press, 2009. Pp. 72.
  5. Berberoglu, Berch (1995). The National Question: Nationalism, Ethnic Conflict, and Self-Determination in the Twentieth Century. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. p. 208. ISBN   1-56639-342-6.
  6. "Who's a Québécois? Harper isn't sure". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. 2006-12-19. Archived from the original on 2007-01-26. Retrieved 2014-06-18.
  7. Richard Fidler A “Québécois Nation”? Harper Fuels an Important Debate, The B u l l e t, Socialist Project • E-Bulletin No. 40 December 18, 2006
  8. "2016 Census Ethnic Origin" (consulted April 2021)
  9. Matthew Lange (2017). Killing Others: A Natural History of Ethnic Violence. Cornell University Press. p. 18. ISBN   978-1-5017-0776-6.
  10. https://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2016/dp-pd/prof/details/page.cfm?
  11. "National Household Survey: Data tables" (August 10, 2019)