Quad Flat Package

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A Zilog Z80 in a 44-pin QFP package (special case: LQFP). Z84C0010FEC LQFP.png
A Zilog Z80 in a 44-pin QFP package (special case: LQFP).

A QFP or Quad Flat Package is a surface-mounted integrated circuit package with "gull wing" leads extending from each of the four sides. [1] Socketing such packages is rare and through-hole mounting is not possible. Versions ranging from 32 to 304 pins with a pitch ranging from 0.4 to 1.0 mm are common. Other special variants include low-profile QFP (LQFP) and thin QFP (TQFP). [2]

Surface-mount technology method for producing electronic circuits

Surface-mount technology (SMT) is a method for producing electronic circuits in which the components are mounted or placed directly onto the surface of printed circuit boards (PCBs). An electronic device so made is called a surface-mount device (SMD). In industry, it has largely replaced the through-hole technology construction method of fitting components with wire leads into holes in the circuit board. Both technologies can be used on the same board, with the through-hole technology used for components not suitable for surface mounting such as large transformers and heat-sinked power semiconductors.

Integrated circuit electronic circuit manufactured by lithography; set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon

An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece of semiconductor material that is normally silicon. The integration of large numbers of tiny transistors into a small chip results in circuits that are orders of magnitude smaller, faster, and less expensive than those constructed of discrete electronic components. The IC's mass production capability, reliability, and building-block approach to circuit design has ensured the rapid adoption of standardized ICs in place of designs using discrete transistors. ICs are now used in virtually all electronic equipment and have revolutionized the world of electronics. Computers, mobile phones, and other digital home appliances are now inextricable parts of the structure of modern societies, made possible by the small size and low cost of ICs.

Integrated circuit packaging Final stage of semiconductor device fabrication

In electronics manufacturing, integrated circuit packaging is the final stage of semiconductor device fabrication, in which the block of semiconductor material is encapsulated in a supporting case that prevents physical damage and corrosion. The case, known as a "package", supports the electrical contacts which connect the device to a circuit board.

Contents

The QFP component package type became common in Europe and United States during the early nineties, even though it has been used in Japanese consumer electronics since the seventies. It is often mixed with hole mounted, and sometimes socketed, components on the same printed circuit board.

Europe Continent in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere

Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia.

United States Federal republic in North America

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States or America, is a country comprising 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico. The State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U.S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The extremely diverse geography, climate, and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.

Japan Country in East Asia

Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south.

A package related to QFP is PLCC which is similar but has pins with larger pitch, 1.27 mm (or 1/20 inch), curved up underneath a thicker body to simplify socketing (soldering is also possible). It is commonly used for NOR flash memories and other programmable components.

Limitations

The quad flat-pack has connections only around the periphery of the package. To increase the number of pins, the spacing was decreased from 50 thou (thousandths of an inch) (as found on small outline packages) to 20 and later 12 thou (1.27 mm, 0.51 mm and 0.30 mm respectively). However, this close lead spacing made solder bridges more likely and put higher demands on the soldering process and alignment of parts during assembly. [1] The later pin grid array (PGA) and ball grid array (BGA) packages, by allowing connections to be made over the area of the package and not just around the edges, allowed for higher pin counts with similar package sizes, and reduced the problems with close lead spacing.

Pin grid array type of integrated circuit packaging. In a PGA, the package is square or rectangular, and the pins are arranged in a regular array on the underside of the package

A pin grid array, often abbreviated PGA, is a type of integrated circuit packaging. In a PGA, the package is square or rectangular, and the pins are arranged in a regular array on the underside of the package. The pins are commonly spaced 2.54 mm (0.1") apart, and may or may not cover the entire underside of the package.

Ball grid array

A ball grid array (BGA) is a type of surface-mount packaging used for integrated circuits. BGA packages are used to permanently mount devices such as microprocessors. A BGA can provide more interconnection pins than can be put on a dual in-line or flat package. The whole bottom surface of the device can be used, instead of just the perimeter. The traces connecting the package's leads to the wires or balls which connect the die to package are also on average shorter than with a perimeter-only type, leading to better performance at high speeds.

Variants

In computing and electronics, thermal pads are a pre-formed square or rectangle of solid material commonly found on the underside of heatsinks to aid the conduction of heat away from the component being cooled and into the heatsink. Thermal pads and thermal compound are used to fill air gaps caused by imperfectly flat or smooth surfaces which should be in thermal contact; they would not be needed between perfectly flat and smooth surfaces. Thermal pads are relatively firm at room temperature, but become soft and well able to fill gaps at higher temperatures.

Cyrix Cx486SLC microprocessor

The Cyrix Cx486SLC was Cyrix's first CPU offering, released after years of selling coprocessors that competed with Intel's units and offered better performance at a comparable or lower price.

The basic form is a flat rectangular (often square) body with leads on four sides but with numerous variation in the design. These differ usually only in lead number, pitch, dimensions, and materials used (usually to improve thermal characteristics). A clear variation is Bumpered Quad Flat Package (BQFP) with extensions at the four corners to protect the leads against mechanical damage before the unit is soldered.

Heat sink Quad Flat Package, Heatsink Very-thin Quad Flat-pack No-leads ( HVQFN ) is a package with no component leads extending from the IC. Pads are spaced along the sides of the IC with an exposed die that can be used as ground. Spacing between pins can vary.

Quad Flat No-leads package

Flat no-leads packages such as quad-flat no-leads (QFN) and dual-flat no-leads (DFN) physically and electrically connect integrated circuits to printed circuit boards. Flat no-leads, also known as micro leadframe (MLF) and SON, is a surface-mount technology, one of several package technologies that connect ICs to the surfaces of PCBs without through-holes. Flat no-lead is a near chip scale plastic encapsulated package made with a planar copper lead frame substrate. Perimeter lands on the package bottom provide electrical connections to the PCB. Flat no-lead packages include an exposed thermal pad to improve heat transfer out of the IC. Heat transfer can be further facilitated by metal vias in the thermal pad. The QFN package is similar to the quad-flat package (QFP), and a ball grid array (BGA).

A thin quad flat pack (TQFP) provides the same benefits as the metric QFP, but is thinner. Regular QFP are 2.0 to 3.8 mm thick depending on size. TQFP packages range from 32 pins with a 0.8 mm lead pitch, in a package 5 mm by 5 mm by 1 mm thick, to 256 pins, 28 mm square, 1.4 mm thick and a lead pitch of 0.4 mm. [2]

TQFPs help solve issues such as increasing board density, die shrink programs, thin end-product profile and portability. Lead counts range from 32 to 176. Body sizes range from 5 mm x 5 mm to 20  x 20 mm. Copper lead-frames are used in TQFPs. Lead pitches available for TQFPs are 0.4 mm, 0.5 mm, 0.65 mm, 0.8 mm, and 1.0 mm. PQFP, or plastic quad flat pack, is a type of QFP, as is the thinner TQFP package. PQFP packages can vary in thickness from 2.0 mm to 3.8 mm. A Low-profile Quad Flat Package (LQFP) is a surface mount integrated circuit package format with component leads extending from each of the four sides. Pins are numbered counter-clockwise from the index dot. Spacing between pins can vary; common spacings are 0.4, 0.5, 0.65 and 0.80 mm intervals.

Other quad flat package types
Package
BQFP: Bumpered Quad Flat Package
BQFPH: Bumpered Quad Flat Package with heat spreader
CQFP: Ceramic Quad Flat Package
EQFP: Plastic Enhanced Quad Flat Package
FQFP: Fine Pitch Quad Flat Package
LQFP: Low Profile Quad Flat Package
MQFP: Metric Quad Flat Package
NQFP: Near chip-scale Quad Flat Package. [3]
SQFP: Small Quad Flat Package
TQFP: Thin Quad Flat Package
VQFP: Very small Quad Flat Package
VTQFP: Very Thin Quad Flat Package
TDFP: Thin Dual Flat Package. [4]

Some QFP packages have an exposed pad. The exposed pad is an extra pad underneath or on top of the QFP that may act as a ground connection and/or as a heat sink for the package. The pad is typically 10 or more mm², and with the pad soldered down onto the ground plane, heat is passed into the PCB. This exposed pad also gives a solid ground connection. These type of QFP packages often have a -EP suffix (e.g. a LQFP-EP 64), or they have an odd number of leads, (e.g. a TQFP-101).

Ceramic QFP packages

Ceramic QFP packages come in two variants, CERQUAD and CQFP:

CERQUAD packages:

Hereby the leadframe is attached between two ceramic layers of the package. The leadframe is attached using glass. This package is a variant of the CERDIP package. CERQUAD packages are the "low cost" alternative for CQFP packages, and are mainly used for terrestrial applications. Main ceramic package manufacturers are Kyocera, NTK,... and offer the full pincount range

CQFP packages:

Hereby the leads are soldered on top of the package. The package is a multilayer package, and is offered as HTCC (High Temperature co-fired ceramic). The number of bonding decks can be one, two or three. Package is finished with a nickel plus a thick gold layer, except where the leads are soldered and decoupling capacitors are soldered on top of the package. These packages are hermetic. Two methods are used in order to make the hermetic sealing: eutectic gold-tin alloy (melting point 280C) or seam welding. Seam welding gives rise to significantly less temperature rise in the internal of the package (e.g. the die attach). This package is the main package used for Space projects. Due to the large body size of CQFP packages, parasitics are important for this package. Power supply decoupling is improved by having the decoupling capacitors mounted on top of this package. e.g. TI offers 256-pin CQFP packages where decoupling capacitors can be soldered on top of the package [5] e.g. Test-expert 256-pin CQFP packages where decoupling capacitors can be soldered on top of the package [6] Main ceramic package manufacturers are Kyocera (Japan), NTK (Japan), Test-Expert (Russia), etc. and offer the full pincount range. Maximum pin count is 352 pins.

See also

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555 timer IC Most popular integrated circuit ever manufactured

The 555 timer IC is an integrated circuit (chip) used in a variety of timer, pulse generation, and oscillator applications. The 555 can be used to provide time delays, as an oscillator, and as a flip-flop element. Derivatives provide two (556) or four (558) timing circuits in one package.

Desoldering

In electronics, desoldering is the removal of solder and components from a circuit board for troubleshooting, repair, replacement, and salvage.

Lead (electronics) connecting wire or pad within an electronic device; electrical connection consisting of a length of wire or metal pad (SMD) that comes from a device

In electronics, a lead is an electrical connection consisting of a length of wire or a metal pad that is designed to connect two locations electrically. Leads are used for many purposes, including: transfer of power; testing of an electrical circuit to see if it is working, using a test light or a multimeter; transmitting information, as when the leads from an electrocardiograph, or ECG are attached to a person's body to transmit information about their heart rhythm; and sometimes to act as a heatsink. The tiny leads coming off through-hole components are also often called pins.

Small Outline Integrated Circuit

A Small Outline Integrated Circuit (SOIC) is a surface-mounted integrated circuit (IC) package which occupies an area about 30–50% less than an equivalent dual in-line package (DIP), with a typical thickness being 70% less. They are generally available in the same pin-outs as their counterpart DIP ICs. The convention for naming the package is SOIC or SO followed by the number of pins. For example, a 14-pin 4011 would be housed in an SOIC-14 or SO-14 package.

Capacitor types

Capacitors are manufactured in many forms, styles, lengths, girths, and from many materials. They all contain at least two electrical conductors separated by an insulating layer. Capacitors are widely used as parts of electrical circuits in many common electrical devices.

Perfboard

Perfboard is a material for prototyping electronic circuits. It is a thin, rigid sheet with holes pre-drilled at standard intervals across a grid, usually a square grid of 0.1 inches (2.54 mm) spacing. These holes are ringed by round or square copper pads, though bare boards are also available. Inexpensive perfboard may have pads on only one side of the board, while better quality perfboard can have pads on both sides. Since each pad is electrically isolated, the builder makes all connections with either wire wrap or miniature point to point wiring techniques. Discrete components are soldered to the prototype board such as resistors, capacitors, and integrated circuits. The substrate is typically made of paper laminated with phenolic resin or a fiberglass-reinforced epoxy laminate (FR-4).

Ceramic capacitor

A ceramic capacitor is a fixed-value capacitor where the ceramic material acts as the dielectric. It is constructed of two or more alternating layers of ceramic and a metal layer acting as the electrodes. The composition of the ceramic material defines the electrical behavior and therefore applications. Ceramic capacitors are divided into two application classes:

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Failure of electronic components Ways electronic elements fail and prevention measures

Electronic components have a wide range of failure modes. These can be classified in various ways, such as by time or cause. Failures can be caused by excess temperature, excess current or voltage, ionizing radiation, mechanical shock, stress or impact, and many other causes. In semiconductor devices, problems in the device package may cause failures due to contamination, mechanical stress of the device, or open or short circuits.

The KOMDIV-32 is a family of 32-bit microprocessors developed and manufactured by the Scientific Research Institute of System Development (NIISI) of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The manufacturing plant of NIISI is located in Dubna on the grounds of the Kurchatov Institute. The KOMDIV-32 processors are intended primarily for spacecraft applications and many of them are radiation hardened (rad-hard).

Chip carrier one of several kinds of surface mount technology packages for integrated circuits

In electronics, a chip carrier is one of several kinds of surface-mount technology packages for integrated circuits. Connections are made on all four edges of a square package; Compared to the internal cavity for mounting the integrated circuit, the package overall size is large.

Chip on board Circuit board manufacturing technique

Chip on board is the method of manufacturing where integrated circuits are wired and bonded directly to a printed circuit board. By eliminating the packaging of individual semiconductor devices, the completed product can be more compact, lighter, and less costly. In some cases chip on board construction improves the operation of radio frequency systems by reducing the inductance and capacitance of integrated circuit leads. Chip on board effectively merges two levels of electronic packaging, level 1 (components) and level 2, and may be referred to as a "level 1.5"

References

  1. 1 2 Greig, William J. (2007). Integrated circuit packaging, assembly and interconnections. Springer. pp. 35–26. ISBN   0-387-28153-3.
  2. 1 2 Cohn, Charles; Harper, Charles A., eds. (2005). Failure-free integrated circuit packages. McGraw-Hill. pp. 22–28. ISBN   0-07-143484-4.
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