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In mathematics and theoretical physics, the term **quantum group** denotes one of a few different kinds of noncommutative algebras with additional structure. These include Drinfeld–Jimbo type quantum groups (which are quasitriangular Hopf algebras), compact matrix quantum groups (which are structures on unital separable C*-algebras), and bicrossproduct quantum groups.

- Intuitive meaning
- Drinfeld–Jimbo type quantum groups
- Representation theory
- Quasitriangularity
- Quantum groups at q = 0
- Description and classification by root-systems and Dynkin diagrams
- Compact matrix quantum groups
- General definition
- Representations
- Example
- Bicrossproduct quantum groups
- See also
- Notes
- References

The term "quantum group" first appeared in the theory of quantum integrable systems, which was then formalized by Vladimir Drinfeld and Michio Jimbo as a particular class of Hopf algebra. The same term is also used for other Hopf algebras that deform or are close to classical Lie groups or Lie algebras, such as a "bicrossproduct" class of quantum groups introduced by Shahn Majid a little after the work of Drinfeld and Jimbo.

In Drinfeld's approach, quantum groups arise as Hopf algebras depending on an auxiliary parameter *q* or *h*, which become universal enveloping algebras of a certain Lie algebra, frequently semisimple or affine, when *q* = 1 or *h* = 0. Closely related are certain dual objects, also Hopf algebras and also called quantum groups, deforming the algebra of functions on the corresponding semisimple algebraic group or a compact Lie group.

The discovery of quantum groups was quite unexpected since it was known for a long time that compact groups and semisimple Lie algebras are "rigid" objects, in other words, they cannot be "deformed". One of the ideas behind quantum groups is that if we consider a structure that is in a sense equivalent but larger, namely a group algebra or a universal enveloping algebra, then a group or enveloping algebra can be "deformed", although the deformation will no longer remain a group or enveloping algebra. More precisely, deformation can be accomplished within the category of Hopf algebras that are not required to be either commutative or cocommutative. One can think of the deformed object as an algebra of functions on a "noncommutative space", in the spirit of the noncommutative geometry of Alain Connes. This intuition, however, came after particular classes of quantum groups had already proved their usefulness in the study of the quantum Yang–Baxter equation and quantum inverse scattering method developed by the Leningrad School (Ludwig Faddeev, Leon Takhtajan, Evgeny Sklyanin, Nicolai Reshetikhin and Vladimir Korepin) and related work by the Japanese School.^{ [1] } The intuition behind the second, bicrossproduct, class of quantum groups was different and came from the search for self-dual objects as an approach to quantum gravity.^{ [2] }

One type of objects commonly called a "quantum group" appeared in the work of Vladimir Drinfeld and Michio Jimbo as a deformation of the universal enveloping algebra of a semisimple Lie algebra or, more generally, a Kac–Moody algebra, in the category of Hopf algebras. The resulting algebra has additional structure, making it into a quasitriangular Hopf algebra.

Let *A* = (*a _{ij}*) be the Cartan matrix of the Kac–Moody algebra, and let

And for *i* ≠ *j* we have the *q*-Serre relations, which are deformations of the Serre relations:

where the q-factorial, the q-analog of the ordinary factorial, is defined recursively using q-number:

In the limit as *q* → 1, these relations approach the relations for the universal enveloping algebra *U*(*G*), where

and *t _{λ}* is the element of the Cartan subalgebra satisfying (

There are various coassociative coproducts under which these algebras are Hopf algebras, for example,

where the set of generators has been extended, if required, to include *k _{λ}* for

In addition, any Hopf algebra leads to another with reversed coproduct *T* o Δ, where *T* is given by *T*(*x* ⊗ *y*) = *y* ⊗ *x*, giving three more possible versions.

The counit on *U*_{q}(*A*) is the same for all these coproducts: *ε*(*k _{λ}*) = 1,

Alternatively, the quantum group *U*_{q}(*G*) can be regarded as an algebra over the field **C**(*q*), the field of all rational functions of an indeterminate *q* over **C**.

Similarly, the quantum group *U*_{q}(*G*) can be regarded as an algebra over the field **Q**(*q*), the field of all rational functions of an indeterminate *q* over **Q** (see below in the section on quantum groups at *q* = 0). The center of quantum group can be described by quantum determinant.

Just as there are many different types of representations for Kac–Moody algebras and their universal enveloping algebras, so there are many different types of representation for quantum groups.

As is the case for all Hopf algebras, *U _{q}*(

where

One important type of representation is a weight representation, and the corresponding module is called a weight module. A weight module is a module with a basis of weight vectors. A weight vector is a nonzero vector *v* such that *k _{λ}* ·

- for all weights
*λ*and*μ*.

A weight module is called integrable if the actions of *e _{i}* and

- for all weights
*λ*and*μ*, - for all
*i*.

Of special interest are highest-weight representations, and the corresponding highest weight modules. A highest weight module is a module generated by a weight vector *v*, subject to *k*_{λ} · *v* = *d _{λ}v* for all weights

Define a vector *v* to have weight *ν* if for all *λ* in the weight lattice.

If *G* is a Kac–Moody algebra, then in any irreducible highest weight representation of *U*_{q}(*G*), with highest weight ν, the multiplicities of the weights are equal to their multiplicities in an irreducible representation of *U*(*G*) with equal highest weight. If the highest weight is dominant and integral (a weight *μ* is dominant and integral if *μ* satisfies the condition that is a non-negative integer for all *i*), then the weight spectrum of the irreducible representation is invariant under the Weyl group for *G*, and the representation is integrable.

Conversely, if a highest weight module is integrable, then its highest weight vector *v* satisfies , where *c*_{λ} · *v* = *d*_{λ}*v* are complex numbers such that

- for all weights
*λ*and*μ*, - for all
*i*,

and *ν* is dominant and integral.

As is the case for all Hopf algebras, the tensor product of two modules is another module. For an element *x* of *U _{q}(G)*, and for vectors

The integrable highest weight module described above is a tensor product of a one-dimensional module (on which *k*_{λ} = *c*_{λ} for all *λ*, and *e _{i}* =

In the specific case where *G* is a finite-dimensional Lie algebra (as a special case of a Kac–Moody algebra), then the irreducible representations with dominant integral highest weights are also finite-dimensional.

In the case of a tensor product of highest weight modules, its decomposition into submodules is the same as for the tensor product of the corresponding modules of the Kac–Moody algebra (the highest weights are the same, as are their multiplicities).

Strictly, the quantum group *U*_{q}(*G*) is not quasitriangular, but it can be thought of as being "nearly quasitriangular" in that there exists an infinite formal sum which plays the role of an *R*-matrix. This infinite formal sum is expressible in terms of generators *e _{i}* and

and an infinite formal sum, where *λ*_{j} is a basis for the dual space to the Cartan subalgebra, and *μ*_{j} is the dual basis, and *η* = ±1.

The formal infinite sum which plays the part of the *R*-matrix has a well-defined action on the tensor product of two irreducible highest weight modules, and also on the tensor product of two lowest weight modules. Specifically, if *v* has weight *α* and *w* has weight *β*, then

and the fact that the modules are both highest weight modules or both lowest weight modules reduces the action of the other factor on *v* ⊗ *W* to a finite sum.

Specifically, if *V* is a highest weight module, then the formal infinite sum, *R*, has a well-defined, and invertible, action on *V* ⊗ *V*, and this value of *R* (as an element of End(*V* ⊗ *V*)) satisfies the Yang–Baxter equation, and therefore allows us to determine a representation of the braid group, and to define quasi-invariants for knots, links and braids.

Masaki Kashiwara has researched the limiting behaviour of quantum groups as *q* → 0, and found a particularly well behaved base called a crystal base.

There has been considerable progress in describing finite quotients of quantum groups such as the above *U _{q}*(

- In 2002 H.-J. Schneider and N. Andruskiewitsch
^{ [3] }finished their classification of pointed Hopf algebras with an abelian co-radical group (excluding primes 2, 3, 5, 7), especially as the above finite quotients of*U*(_{q}**g**) decompose into*E*′s (Borel part), dual*F*′s and*K*′s (Cartan algebra) just like ordinary Semisimple Lie algebras:

- Here, as in the classical theory
*V*is a braided vector space of dimension*n*spanned by the*E*′s, and*σ*(a so-called cocylce twist) creates the nontrivial**linking**between*E*′s and*F*′s. Note that in contrast to classical theory, more than two linked components may appear. The role of the**quantum Borel algebra**is taken by a Nichols algebra of the braided vectorspace.

- A crucial ingredient was I. Heckenberger's classification of finite Nichols algebras for abelian groups in terms of generalized Dynkin diagrams.
^{ [4] }When small primes are present, some exotic examples, such as a triangle, occur (see also the Figure of a rank 3 Dankin diagram).

- Meanwhile, Schneider and Heckenberger
^{ [5] }have generally proven the existence of an**arithmetic**root system also in the nonabelian case, generating a PBW basis as proven by Kharcheko in the abelian case (without the assumption on finite dimension). This can be used^{ [6] }on specific cases*U*(_{q}**g**) and explains e.g. the numerical coincidence between certain coideal subalgebras of these quantum groups and the order of the Weyl group of the Lie algebra**g**.

S. L. Woronowicz introduced compact matrix quantum groups. Compact matrix quantum groups are abstract structures on which the "continuous functions" on the structure are given by elements of a C*-algebra. The geometry of a compact matrix quantum group is a special case of a noncommutative geometry.

The continuous complex-valued functions on a compact Hausdorff topological space form a commutative C*-algebra. By the Gelfand theorem, a commutative C*-algebra is isomorphic to the C*-algebra of continuous complex-valued functions on a compact Hausdorff topological space, and the topological space is uniquely determined by the C*-algebra up to homeomorphism.

For a compact topological group, *G*, there exists a C*-algebra homomorphism Δ: *C*(*G*) → *C*(*G*) ⊗ *C*(*G*) (where *C*(*G*) ⊗ *C*(*G*) is the C*-algebra tensor product - the completion of the algebraic tensor product of *C*(*G*) and *C*(*G*)), such that Δ(*f*)(*x*, *y*) = *f*(*xy*) for all *f* ∈ *C*(*G*), and for all *x*, *y* ∈ *G* (where (*f* ⊗ *g*)(*x*, *y*) = *f*(*x*)*g*(*y*) for all *f*, *g* ∈ *C*(*G*) and all *x*, *y* ∈ *G*). There also exists a linear multiplicative mapping *κ*: *C*(*G*) → *C*(*G*), such that *κ*(*f*)(*x*) = *f*(*x*^{−1}) for all *f* ∈ *C*(*G*) and all *x* ∈ *G*. Strictly, this does not make *C*(*G*) a Hopf algebra, unless *G* is finite. On the other hand, a finite-dimensional representation of *G* can be used to generate a *-subalgebra of *C*(*G*) which is also a Hopf *-algebra. Specifically, if is an *n*-dimensional representation of *G*, then for all *i*, *j**u _{ij}* ∈

It follows that the *-algebra generated by *u _{ij}* for all

As a generalization, a compact matrix quantum group is defined as a pair (*C*, *u*), where *C* is a C*-algebra and is a matrix with entries in *C* such that

- The *-subalgebra,
*C*_{0}, of*C*, which is generated by the matrix elements of*u*, is dense in*C*;

- The *-subalgebra,

- There exists a C*-algebra homomorphism called the comultiplication Δ:
*C*→*C*⊗*C*(where*C*⊗*C*is the C*-algebra tensor product - the completion of the algebraic tensor product of*C*and*C*) such that for all*i, j*we have:

- There exists a C*-algebra homomorphism called the comultiplication Δ:

- There exists a linear antimultiplicative map κ:
*C*_{0}→*C*_{0}(the coinverse) such that*κ*(*κ*(*v**)*) =*v*for all*v*∈*C*_{0}and

- There exists a linear antimultiplicative map κ:

where *I* is the identity element of *C*. Since κ is antimultiplicative, then *κ*(*vw*) = *κ*(*w*) *κ*(*v*) for all *v*, *w* in *C*_{0}.

As a consequence of continuity, the comultiplication on *C* is coassociative.

In general, *C* is not a bialgebra, and *C*_{0} is a Hopf *-algebra.

Informally, *C* can be regarded as the *-algebra of continuous complex-valued functions over the compact matrix quantum group, and *u* can be regarded as a finite-dimensional representation of the compact matrix quantum group.

A representation of the compact matrix quantum group is given by a corepresentation of the Hopf *-algebra (a corepresentation of a counital coassociative coalgebra *A* is a square matrix with entries in *A* (so *v* belongs to M(*n*, *A*)) such that

for all *i*, *j* and *ε*(*v _{ij}*) = δ

An example of a compact matrix quantum group is SU_{μ}(2), where the parameter μ is a positive real number. So SU_{μ}(2) = (C(SU_{μ}(2)), *u*), where C(SU_{μ}(2)) is the C*-algebra generated by α and γ, subject to

and

so that the comultiplication is determined by ∆(α) = α ⊗ α − γ ⊗ γ*, ∆(γ) = α ⊗ γ + γ ⊗ α*, and the coinverse is determined by κ(α) = α*, κ(γ) = −μ^{−1}γ, κ(γ*) = −μγ*, κ(α*) = α. Note that *u* is a representation, but not a unitary representation. *u* is equivalent to the unitary representation

Equivalently, SU_{μ}(2) = (C(SU_{μ}(2)), *w*), where C(SU_{μ}(2)) is the C*-algebra generated by α and β, subject to

and

so that the comultiplication is determined by ∆(α) = α ⊗ α − μβ ⊗ β*, Δ(β) = α ⊗ β + β ⊗ α*, and the coinverse is determined by κ(α) = α*, κ(β) = −μ^{−1}β, κ(β*) = −μβ*, κ(α*) = α. Note that *w* is a unitary representation. The realizations can be identified by equating .

When μ = 1, then SU_{μ}(2) is equal to the algebra *C*(SU(2)) of functions on the concrete compact group SU(2).

Whereas compact matrix pseudogroups are typically versions of Drinfeld-Jimbo quantum groups in a dual function algebra formulation, with additional structure, the bicrossproduct ones are a distinct second family of quantum groups of increasing importance as deformations of solvable rather than semisimple Lie groups. They are associated to Lie splittings of Lie algebras or local factorisations of Lie groups and can be viewed as the cross product or Mackey quantisation of one of the factors acting on the other for the algebra and a similar story for the coproduct Δ with the second factor acting back on the first.

The very simplest nontrivial example corresponds to two copies of **R** locally acting on each other and results in a quantum group (given here in an algebraic form) with generators *p*, *K*, *K*^{−1}, say, and coproduct

where *h* is the deformation parameter.

This quantum group was linked to a toy model of Planck scale physics implementing Born reciprocity when viewed as a deformation of the Heisenberg algebra of quantum mechanics. Also, starting with any compact real form of a semisimple Lie algebra **g** its complexification as a real Lie algebra of twice the dimension splits into **g** and a certain solvable Lie algebra (the Iwasawa decomposition), and this provides a canonical bicrossproduct quantum group associated to **g**. For **su**(2) one obtains a quantum group deformation of the Euclidean group E(3) of motions in 3 dimensions.

- ↑ Schwiebert, Christian (1994),
*Generalized quantum inverse scattering*, p. 12237, arXiv: hep-th/9412237v3 , Bibcode:1994hep.th...12237S - ↑ Majid, Shahn (1988), "Hopf algebras for physics at the Planck scale",
*Classical and Quantum Gravity*,**5**(12): 1587–1607, Bibcode:1988CQGra...5.1587M, CiteSeerX 10.1.1.125.6178 , doi:10.1088/0264-9381/5/12/010 - ↑ Andruskiewitsch, Schneider: Pointed Hopf algebras, New directions in Hopf algebras, 1–68, Math. Sci. Res. Inst. Publ., 43, Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, 2002.
- ↑ Heckenberger: Nichols algebras of diagonal type and arithmetic root systems, Habilitation thesis 2005.
- ↑ Heckenberger, Schneider: Root system and Weyl gruppoid for Nichols algebras, 2008.
- ↑ Heckenberger, Schneider: Right coideal subalgebras of Nichols algebras and the Duflo order of the Weyl grupoid, 2009.

In the mathematical field of representation theory, a **weight** of an algebra *A* over a field **F** is an algebra homomorphism from *A* to **F**, or equivalently, a one-dimensional representation of *A* over **F**. It is the algebra analogue of a multiplicative character of a group. The importance of the concept, however, stems from its application to representations of Lie algebras and hence also to representations of algebraic and Lie groups. In this context, a **weight of a representation** is a generalization of the notion of an eigenvalue, and the corresponding eigenspace is called a **weight space**.

In mathematics, a **Hopf algebra**, named after Heinz Hopf, is a structure that is simultaneously a algebra and a coalgebra, with these structures' compatibility making it a bialgebra, and that moreover is equipped with an antiautomorphism satisfying a certain property. The representation theory of a Hopf algebra is particularly nice, since the existence of compatible comultiplication, counit, and antipode allows for the construction of tensor products of representations, trivial representations, and dual representations.

In the general theory of relativity the **Einstein field equations** relate the geometry of spacetime to the distribution of matter within it.

In mathematics, a Lie algebra is **semisimple** if it is a direct sum of simple Lie algebras.

In differential geometry, a **tensor density** or **relative tensor** is a generalization of the tensor field concept. A tensor density transforms as a tensor field when passing from one coordinate system to another, except that it is additionally multiplied or *weighted* by a power *W* of the Jacobian determinant of the coordinate transition function or its absolute value. A distinction is made among (authentic) tensor densities, pseudotensor densities, even tensor densities and odd tensor densities. Sometimes tensor densities with a negative weight *W* are called **tensor capacity.** A tensor density can also be regarded as a section of the tensor product of a tensor bundle with a density bundle.

In continuum mechanics, the **finite strain theory**—also called **large strain theory**, or **large deformation theory**—deals with deformations in which strains and/or rotations are large enough to invalidate assumptions inherent in infinitesimal strain theory. In this case, the undeformed and deformed configurations of the continuum are significantly different, requiring a clear distinction between them. This is commonly the case with elastomers, plastically-deforming materials and other fluids and biological soft tissue.

**Verma modules**, named after Daya-Nand Verma, are objects in the representation theory of Lie algebras, a branch of mathematics.

In mathematics, a **compact quantum group** is an abstract structure on a unital separable C*-algebra axiomatized from those that exist on the commutative C*-algebra of "continuous complex-valued functions" on a compact quantum group.

In mathematics, the **Weyl character formula** in representation theory describes the characters of irreducible representations of compact Lie groups in terms of their highest weights. It was proved by Hermann Weyl. There is a closely related formula for the character of an irreducible representation of a semisimple Lie algebra. In Weyl's approach to the representation theory of connected compact Lie groups, the proof of the character formula is a key step in proving that every dominant integral element actually arises as the highest weight of some irreducible representation. Important consequences of the character formula are the Weyl dimension formula and the Kostant multiplicity formula.

The **Newman–Penrose** (**NP**) **formalism** is a set of notation developed by Ezra T. Newman and Roger Penrose for general relativity (GR). Their notation is an effort to treat general relativity in terms of spinor notation, which introduces complex forms of the usual variables used in GR. The NP formalism is itself a special case of the tetrad formalism, where the tensors of the theory are projected onto a complete vector basis at each point in spacetime. Usually this vector basis is chosen to reflect some symmetry of the spacetime, leading to simplified expressions for physical observables. In the case of the NP formalism, the vector basis chosen is a null tetrad: a set of four null vectors—two real, and a complex-conjugate pair. The two real members asymptotically point radially inward and radially outward, and the formalism is well adapted to treatment of the propagation of radiation in curved spacetime. The Weyl scalars, derived from the Weyl tensor, are often used. In particular, it can be shown that one of these scalars— in the appropriate frame—encodes the outgoing gravitational radiation of an asymptotically flat system.

In algebra, a **crystal base** or **canonical base** is a base of a representation, such that generators of a quantum group or semisimple Lie algebra have a particularly simple action on it. Crystal bases were introduced by Kashiwara (1990) and Lusztig (1990).

In mathematics, the **group Hopf algebra** of a given group is a certain construct related to the symmetries of group actions. Deformations of group Hopf algebras are foundational in the theory of quantum groups.

In mathematics, **generalized Verma modules** are a generalization of a (true) Verma module, and are objects in the representation theory of Lie algebras. They were studied originally by James Lepowsky in the 1970s. The motivation for their study is that their homomorphisms correspond to invariant differential operators over generalized flag manifolds. The study of these operators is an important part of the theory of parabolic geometries.

In physics and mathematics, the **κ-Poincaré group**, named after Henri Poincaré, is a quantum group, obtained by deformation of the Poincaré group into a Hopf algebra. It is generated by the elements and with the usual constraint:

In mathematics, the **structure constants** or **structure coefficients** of an algebra over a field are used to explicitly specify the product of two basis vectors in the algebra as a linear combination. Given the structure constants, the resulting product is bilinear and can be uniquely extended to all vectors in the vector space, thus uniquely determining the product for the algebra.

In mathematics, the **Butcher group**, named after the New Zealand mathematician John C. Butcher by Hairer & Wanner (1974), is an infinite-dimensional Lie group first introduced in numerical analysis to study solutions of non-linear ordinary differential equations by the Runge–Kutta method. It arose from an algebraic formalism involving rooted trees that provides formal power series solutions of the differential equation modeling the flow of a vector field. It was Cayley (1857), prompted by the work of Sylvester on change of variables in differential calculus, who first noted that the derivatives of a composition of functions can be conveniently expressed in terms of rooted trees and their combinatorics.

In mathematical physics, the concept of **quantum spacetime** is a generalization of the usual concept of spacetime in which some variables that ordinarily commute are assumed not to commute and form a different Lie algebra. The choice of that algebra still varies from theory to theory. As a result of this change some variables that are usually continuous may become discrete. Often only such discrete variables are called "quantized"; usage varies.

In the theory of Lie groups, Lie algebras and their representation theory, a **Lie algebra extension****e** is an enlargement of a given Lie algebra **g** by another Lie algebra **h**. Extensions arise in several ways. There is the **trivial extension** obtained by taking a direct sum of two Lie algebras. Other types are the **split extension** and the **central extension**. Extensions may arise naturally, for instance, when forming a Lie algebra from projective group representations. Such a Lie algebra will contain central charges.

In relativistic quantum mechanics and quantum field theory, the **Joos–Weinberg equation** is a relativistic wave equations applicable to free particles of arbitrary spin *j*, an integer for bosons or half-integer for fermions. The solutions to the equations are wavefunctions, mathematically in the form of multi-component spinor fields. The spin quantum number is usually denoted by *s* in quantum mechanics, however in this context *j* is more typical in the literature.

In theoretical physics, the **dual graviton** is a hypothetical elementary particle that is a dual of the graviton under electric-magnetic duality, as an S-duality, predicted by some formulations of supergravity in eleven dimensions.

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*Introduction to Quantum Groups*. Cambridge, MA: Birkhäuser. ISBN 978-0-817-64716-2. - Majid, Shahn (2002),
*A quantum groups primer*, London Mathematical Society Lecture Note Series,**292**, Cambridge University Press, doi:10.1017/CBO9780511549892, ISBN 978-0-521-01041-2, MR 1904789 - Majid, Shahn (January 2006), "What Is...a Quantum Group?" (PDF),
*Notices of the American Mathematical Society*,**53**(1): 30–31, retrieved 2008-01-16 - Podles, P.; Muller, E. (1998), "Introduction to quantum groups",
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