Queen Anne of Romania

Last updated

Anne of Bourbon-Parma
Queen consort of Romania [1]
ReginaAnaARomaniei.jpg
Anne at the Romanian French Community gala in Paris, 1991
Born(1923-09-18)18 September 1923
Paris, France
Died1 August 2016(2016-08-01) (aged 92)
Morges, Switzerland
Burial13 August 2016
Spouse
Issue Margareta of Romania
Princess Elena
Princess Irina
Princess Sophie
Princess Marie
Full name
Anne Antoinette Françoise Charlotte Zita Marguerite
House Bourbon-Parma
Father Prince René of Bourbon-Parma
Mother Princess Margaret of Denmark

Queen Anne of Romania (Romanian : Ana; néePrincess Anne Antoinette Françoise Charlotte Zita Marguerite of Bourbon-Parma; [2] 18 September 1923 – 1 August 2016) was the wife of Michael I of Romania, whom she married after he abdicated the throne.

Contents

Early life

Anne was born in Paris, France, the only daughter of Prince René of Bourbon-Parma and Princess Margaret of Denmark. [2] With her three brothers she spent her childhood in France. To her family she was known as Nane (in English Nan). [3]

Their holidays were spent alternately at the Villa Pianore in Lucca with their paternal grandmother the Dowager Duchess of Parma, or at Bernstorff Palace in Copenhagen with their maternal grandfather. [4] Anne's paternal aunt was the last Austrian Empress Zita while maternal great aunts were Empress Maria Feodorovna of Russia and Queen Alexandra of the United Kingdom. In 1939 her family fled from the Nazis and escaped to Spain. From there they went on to Portugal and then to the United States. [4] She attended the Parsons School of Design in New York City from 1940 to 1943. She also worked as a sales assistant at Macy's department store. In 1943, she volunteered for military service in the French Army. [5] She served in Algeria, Morocco, Italy, Luxembourg and in liberated Germany, as an ambulance driver. Anne received the French Croix de guerre for her wartime service. [4]

Marriage

Engagement

In November 1947, Anne met King Michael I of Romania who was visiting London for the wedding of Princess Elizabeth and Philip Mountbatten. [2] In fact, a year previously Queen Mother Elena had invited Anne, her mother, and brothers for a visit to Bucharest, but the plan did not come off. [6] Meanwhile, Michael had glimpsed Anne in a newsreel and requested a photograph from the film footage. [6]

She did not want to accompany her parents to London for the royal wedding as she wished to avoid meeting King Michael in official surroundings. Instead, she planned to stay behind, go alone to the Paris railway station and, pretending to be a passerby in the crowd, privately observe the king as his entourage escorted him to his London-bound train. [6] However, at the last moment she was persuaded by her first cousin, Prince Jean of Luxembourg, to come to London, where he planned to host a party. Upon arrival in London, she stopped by Claridge's to see her parents, and found herself being introduced unexpectedly to King Michael. Abashed to the point of confusion, she clicked her heels instead of curtseying, and fled in embarrassment. Charmed, the king saw her again the night of the wedding at the Luxembourg embassy soirée, confided in her some of his concerns about the Communist takeover of Romania and fears for his mother's safety, and nicknamed her Nan. [6] They saw each other several times thereafter on outings in London, always chaperoned by her mother or brother.

A few days later, she accepted an invitation to accompany Michael and his mother when he piloted a Beechcraft aeroplane to take his aunt Princess Irene, Duchess of Aosta, back home to Lausanne. [6] Sixteen days after meeting, Michael proposed to Anne while the couple were out on a drive in Lausanne. She initially declined, but later accepted after taking long walks and drives with him. [4] Although Michael gave her an engagement ring a few days later, he felt obliged to refrain from a public announcement until he informed his government, despite the fact that the press besieged them in anticipation. [6]

Michael returned to Romania, where he was told by the prime minister that a wedding announcement was not "opportune". Yet within days it was used as the government's public explanation for Michael's sudden "abdication", when in fact the king was deposed by the Communists on 30 December. [6] Anne was unable to get further news of Michael until he left the country. They finally reunited in Davos on 23 January 1948. [6]

Wedding

Michael and Anne on a 2014 Romanian stamp Michael I 2014 Romanian stamp 2.jpg
Michael and Anne on a 2014 Romanian stamp

As a Bourbon, Anne was bound by the canon law of the Roman Catholic Church, which required that she receive a dispensation to marry a non-Catholic Christian (Michael was Orthodox). At the time, such a dispensation was normally only given if the non-Roman Catholic partner promised to allow the children of the marriage to be raised as Roman Catholics. Michael refused to make this promise since it would have violated Romania's monarchical constitution, and would be likely to have a detrimental impact upon any possible restoration. [6] The Holy See (which handled the matter directly since Michael was a member of a reigning dynasty) refused to grant the dispensation unless Michael made the required promise.

Helen, Queen Mother of Romania and her sister Princess Irene of Greece and Denmark, Duchess of Aosta (an Orthodox married to a Catholic Prince) met with the fiancée's parents in Paris, where the two families resolved to take their case to the Vatican in person. In early March, the couple's mothers met with Pope Pius XII who, despite the entreaties of the Queen Mother and the fact that Princess Margrethe pounded her fist on the table in anger, refused permission for Anne to marry Michael. [6]

It has been surmised that the Pope's refusal was, in part, motivated by the fact that when Princess Giovanna of Italy married Anne's cousin, King Boris III of Bulgaria, in 1930, the couple had undertaken to raise their future children as Roman Catholics, but had baptized them in the Orthodox faith in deference to Bulgaria's state religion. [6] However, Michael declined to make a promise he could not keep politically, while Anne's mother was herself the daughter of a mixed marriage between a Catholic (Marie d'Orléans) and a Protestant (Prince Valdemar of Denmark), who had abided by their pre-ne temere compromise to raise their sons as Protestant and their daughter, Margrethe, as Catholic. [6]

Although under a great deal of stress, [4] the engaged couple resolved to proceed. Anne's paternal uncle, Xavier, Duke of Parma, issued a statement objecting to any marriage conducted against the will of the Pope and the bride's family. It was he, not the Pontiff, who forbade Anne's parents to attend the wedding. [6] Michael's spokesman declared on 9 June that the parents had been asked and had given their consent, and that the bride's family would be represented at the nuptials by her maternal uncle, the Protestant Prince Erik of Denmark, who was to give the bride away. [6]

The wedding ceremony was held on 10 June 1948 in Athens, Greece, in the throne room of the Royal Palace; [4] the ceremony was performed by Archbishop Damaskinos, and King Paul of Greece served as koumbaros . [6] Guests at the wedding included: Michael's mother Helen, Queen Mother of Romania, aunts Queen Frederica, Princess Irene of Greece and Denmark, Duchess of Aosta, Princess Katherine of Greece and Denmark; cousins Alexandra, Queen Consort of Yugoslavia, Prince Amedeo, Duke of Aosta, Princess Sophia of Greece and Denmark, Crown Prince Constantine of Greece and Princess Irene of Greece and Denmark, the three youngest ones serving as bridesmaids and pageboy; Anne's maternal uncle Prince Erik of Denmark; Princess Nicholas of Greece and Denmark, Princess Olga of Yugoslavia, Princess Elizabeth of Yugoslavia, Prince George William of Hanover and many other dignitaries. Michael's father, Prince Carol, and his sisters, Maria, Queen Mother of Yugoslavia, Princess Elisabeth of Romania (ex-Queen Consort of Greece) and Princess Ileana of Romania were notified, but not invited.[ why? ] [6]

As no papal dispensation was given for the marriage, when it was celebrated according to the rites of the Eastern Orthodox Church, it was deemed invalid by the Roman Catholic Church, but perfectly legal by every other authority. The couple eventually took part in a religious ceremony again, on 9 November 1966, at the Roman Catholic Church of St Charles in Monaco, thus satisfying Roman Catholic canon law. [6]

Adult life

After their wedding in 1948, Anne and Michael rented a house in Hertfordshire for four years, where they became market gardeners and farmed poultry. In 1956 they moved to Versoix on Lake Geneva, and raised five daughters there. [4] In 1992 Anne and Michael visited Romania for three days; it was Anne's first visit to the country. [4] From 1993 to 1997, despite repeated attempts, Michael was refused entry to Romania by the hostile Romanian government. [4] During these years Anne visited the country a number of times representing her husband. After 1997, there were no restrictions on Anne and Michael's entry into Romania. Elisabeta Palace was put at their disposal by the government, and they recovered some properties from the state, including Săvârşin Castle and Peleş Castle. [6]

In June 2008, Anne and Michael celebrated their diamond wedding anniversary with three days of events in Romania, which was the largest celebration the couple ever had since their wedding in June 1948. [7]

Guests at the events included: their two eldest daughters Crown Princess Margareta and Princess Elena, their sons-in-law Prince Radu and Alexander Nixon and Princess Elena's two children: Prince Nicholas and Elisabeta-Karina; Michael's maternal cousins ex-King Constantine II of Greece, Queen Sofia of Spain, Prince Amedeo, Duke of Aosta and Princess Irene of Greece and Denmark who were the original attendants at their wedding in 1948; Queen Anne-Marie of Greece, King Simeon II of Bulgaria and his wife Queen Margarita, Crown Prince Alexander of Yugoslavia and his wife Crown Princess Katherine, Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza, Maximilian, Margrave of Baden and his wife Archduchess Valerie, [10] Prince Lorenz of Belgium, Archduke of Austria-Este, Princess Silvia, Duchess of Aosta, Princess Marie Astrid of Luxembourg, Prince Philip of Bourbon-Parma and his wife Princess Anette. [6] Attendees also included Representatives of Romania and of the Romanian Government, such as: Prime Minister Călin Popescu-Tăriceanu, Bogdan Olteanu, President of the Chamber of Deputies, Ionel Haiduc, President of the Romanian Academy, Patriarch Daniel and also members of the Diplomatic corps. [11]

Family

Anne and King Michael had five daughters, all of whom have been married and three of whom have children:

Anne was the younger sister of Prince Jacques of Bourbon-Parma and elder sister to Prince Michel of Bourbon-Parma who is married to Princess Maria Pia of Savoy (eldest child of King Umberto II of Italy and Queen Marie José), and Prince André of Bourbon-Parma.

As a granddaughter of Robert I, Duke of Parma she was first cousin to: King Boris III of Bulgaria; Robert Hugo, Duke of Parma; Infanta Alicia, Duchess of Calabria; Carlos Hugo, Duke of Parma; Crown Prince Otto of Austria; and Grand Duke Jean of Luxembourg.

Death

Flowers and candles in front of the fence of the former Royal Palace in Bucharest on 13 August 2016 Bucharest flowers for Queen Anna.jpg
Flowers and candles in front of the fence of the former Royal Palace in Bucharest on 13 August 2016

Anne died on 1 August 2016 in a hospital in Morges, Switzerland, at the age of 92. [14] [15] [16] Although the offer to confer a posthumous military medal on her was declined by her family, [17] Romania's President Klaus Iohannis offered condolences to King Michael and the royal family, issuing a statement which described the deceased as devoted to the country whose name she bore, "Her Majesty Queen Ana of Romania will remain forever in memory and in our hearts as one of the most important symbols of wisdom, dignity and, especially, as a model of moral conduct.". [18] The government of Romania declared that the 13 August 2016 shall be a national day of mourning, during which the Romanian flag when displayed is to fly at half-mast at all institutions and buildings, private, cultural and partisan as well as public, and television and radio broadcasts are to adapt their programming appropriately in memory of Anne of Romania, whose funeral will be conducted that day at the Curtea de Argeș Cathedral. [19] Two days later, on 5 August, President Nicolae Timofti of Moldova likewise decreed national mourning on 13 August in memory of Queen Anne, also calling for the republic to observe a moment of silence at 10 am on that day. [20] [21] [22]

Titles and honours

Royal standard of the Queen of Romania Royal standard of Romania (Queen, 1922 model).svg
Royal standard of the Queen of Romania

Titles

Dynastic honours

Foreign honours

Bibliography

Ancestry

Related Research Articles

Michael I of Romania King of Romania

Michael I was the last King of Romania, reigning from 20 July 1927 to 8 June 1930 and again from 6 September 1940 until his forced abdication on 30 December 1947.

Princess Christina of the Netherlands Dutch princess (1947 - 2019)

Princess Christina of the Netherlands was the youngest of four daughters of Queen Juliana of the Netherlands and Prince Bernhard of Lippe-Biesterfeld.

Queen Anne-Marie of Greece Queen consort of the Hellenes

Queen Anne-Marie of Greece, RE is the wife of King Constantine II, who reigned from 1964 until 1973.

Prince Michael of Greece and Denmark nobleman, novelist

Prince Michael of Greece and Denmark, is the author of several historical books and biographies of Greek and other European figures, in addition to working as a contributing writer to Architectural Digest.

Margareta of Romania Custodian of the Crown of Romania

Margareta, Custodian of the Crown of Romania is the eldest daughter of King Michael I and Queen Anne of Romania. She assumed her father's duties in March 2016, upon his retirement, and has claimed the headship of the House of Romania since his death on 5 December 2017. She also heads the Princess Margareta of Romania Foundation.

Princess Elena of Romania Romanian Royal

Princess Elena of Romania is the second daughter of King Michael I and Queen Anne of Romania.

Helen of Greece and Denmark Queen Mother of Romania, Righteous Among the Nations

Helen of Greece and Denmark, was the queen mother of Romania during the reign of her son King Michael (1940–1947). She was noted for her humanitarian efforts to save Romanian Jews during World War II, which led to her being awarded by the State of Israel with the honorific of Righteous Among the Nations in 1993.

Princess Katherine of Greece and Denmark Lady Katherine Brandram

Princess Katherine of Greece and Denmark, styled in the UK as Lady Katherine Brandram from 1947 till her death, was the third daughter and youngest child of King Constantine I of Greece and Sophia of Prussia.

Princess Maria Pia of Bourbon-Parma Italian Princess

Princess Maria Pia of Bourbon-Parma is the eldest daughter of Umberto II of Italy and Marie-José of Belgium. She is the older sister of Princess Maria Gabriella of Savoy, Vittorio Emanuele, Prince of Naples, and Princess Maria Beatrice of Savoy.

Princess Margaret of Denmark Princess René of Bourbon-Parma

Princess Margaret of Denmark was a Danish princess by birth and a princess of Bourbon-Parma as the wife of Prince René of Bourbon-Parma. She was the youngest grandchild of Christian IX of Denmark and Queen Louise.

Nicholas Medforth-Mills member of the Romanian royal family

Nicholas Michael de Roumanie Medforth-Mills, formerly Prince Nicholas of Romania, is the eldest child and only son of Princess Elena of Romania and Robin Medforth-Mills. As a grandson of Michael I, the former king of Romania, he was third in line to the defunct throne of Romania according to a new family statute enacted in 2007, that also conferred the title of a "prince of Romania" on him which was abrogated in 2015. The statute and the titles it confers have no standing in present Romanian law.

Irina Walker Romanian princess

Irina Walker is the third daughter of King Michael I and Queen Anne of Romania.

The royal descendants of Victoriaand of Christian IX currently occupy the thrones of Belgium, Denmark, Luxembourg, Norway, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom. At the outbreak of the First World War their grandchildren occupied the thrones of Denmark, Greece, Norway, Germany, Romania, Russia, Spain and the United Kingdom. For this, Queen Victoria was nicknamed "the grandmother of Europe" while King Christian IX was nicknamed "Father-in-law of Europe". Of the remaining kingdoms of Europe today, only Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands descends neither from Queen Victoria nor King Christian IX.

Order of Saints Olga and Sophia

The Royal Family Order of Saints Olga and Sophia was an order of the Greek royal family. Reserved for women, it was the third highest honour of the modern Greek state and the Crown after the Order of the Redeemer and the male-only Order of Saints George and Constantine. It was instituted in January 1936 by King George II in the memory of his grandmother and his mother.

Prince René of Bourbon-Parma seventh surviving son of Robert I, Duke of Parma

Prince René of Bourbon-Parma was the seventh surviving son of Robert I, Duke of Parma, and his second wife, Infanta Maria Antonia of Portugal. In 1921, he married Princess Margaret of Denmark. They had four children including Queen Anne of Romania, the wife of Michael I, former King of Romania.

Wedding of Princess Elizabeth and Philip Mountbatten November 1947 wedding of British heir presumptive Princess Elizabeth and former Greek prince Philip Mountbatten

The wedding of Princess Elizabeth, elder daughter of King George VI and heir presumptive to the British throne, and Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, a former Greek and Danish prince, took place on 20 November 1947 at Westminster Abbey in London. Philip had been made Duke of Edinburgh, Earl of Merioneth and Baron Greenwich on the morning of the wedding.

Prince Michel of Bourbon-Parma French military officer, race driver & businessman (1926-2018)

Prince Michel of Bourbon-Parma was a French businessman, soldier and racing car driver, who was a member of deposed sovereign ducal House of Bourbon-Parma.

Princess Marie of Romania Romanian Royal

Princess Maria of Romania, also formerly a Princess of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen is the fifth and youngest daughter of King Michael I and Queen Anne of Romania.

Olympia von und zu Arco-Zinneberg 21st-century European aristocrat

Olympia Bonaparte, Princess Napoléon is the consort of Jean-Christophe, Prince Napoléon, the disputed head of the House of Bonaparte and, in the view of Bonapartists, the pretender to the abolished French imperial throne.

The wedding of Constantine II, King of the Hellenes, and Princess Anne-Marie of Denmark took place on Friday, 18 September 1964 at the Metropolitan Cathedral of Athens. Constantine II, King of the Hellenes was the only son of Paul, King of the Hellenes and Frederica of Hanover, while Princess Anne-Marie was the youngest daughter of Frederick IX, King of Denmark and Ingrid of Sweden.

References

  1. 1 2 Eilers, Marlene. Queen Victoria's Descendants. Rosvall Royal Books, Falkoping, Sweden, 1997. p.74. ISBN   91-630-5964-9
  2. 1 2 3 Walter Curley (1973). Monarchs-in-Waiting. Cornwall, NY: Dodd, Mead & Co. p. 77. ISBN   0-396-06840-5.
  3. Romania Regala
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 "Queen Anne of Romania – obituary" . Retrieved 2 August 2016.
  5. Mutler, Alison. "Anne of Romania, wife of King Michael, dies at 92". Archived from the original on 1 August 2016. Retrieved 2 August 2016.
  6. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Eilers-Koenig, Marlene (2008). "The Marriage of King Michael and Queen Anne of Romania". European Royal History Journal. Arturo E. Beeche. 11.3 (LXIII): 3–10.
  7. "Aniversarea căsătoriei Majestăților Lor". Familiaregala.ro. Retrieved 9 March 2016.
  8. "Majestatile Lor Regele Mihai si Regina Ana au sarbatorit Nunta de Diamant". Familiaregala.ro. 14 June 2008. Retrieved 9 March 2016.
  9. "Lansarea volumului Nunta de Diamant". Familiaregala.ro. Retrieved 9 March 2016.
  10. "Vizita in Landul Baden-Württemberg". Familiaregala.ro. Retrieved 9 March 2016.
  11. "Majestatile Lor Regele Mihai si Regina Ana au sarbatorit Nunta de Diamant". Familiaregala.ro. Retrieved 9 March 2016.
  12. Biography
  13. Genealogy
  14. "A murit Regina Ana la vârsta de 92 de ani. Principesa va fi înmormântată la Curtea de Argeş, alături de ceilalţi regi ai României – FOTO, VIDEO". Mediafax.ro. Retrieved 1 August 2016.
  15. "Romania's ex-Queen Anne dies in hospital at 92". Reuters. 1 August 2016. Retrieved 1 August 2016.
  16. "Anne of Romania, wife of King Michael, dies at 92". The State. 1 August 2016. Retrieved 1 August 2016.[ permanent dead link ]
  17. The Romania Journal. President Iohannis intended to decorate Queen Anne post mortem, royal tradition doesn’t allow Archived 8 August 2016 at the Wayback Machine . 5 Augusts 2016. Retrieved 6 August 2016.
  18. Jurnalul.Iohannis: Regina Ana, unul dintre cele mai importante simboluri de înţelepciune, demnitate şi reper de conduită Archived 2 August 2016 at the Wayback Machine 1 August 2016. (Romanian). Retrieved 6 August 2016.
  19. Comunicat de presă – ședință de guvern. Guvernul a stabilit 13 august 2016, zi de doliu național. 3 August 2016. (Romanian). Retrieved 6 August 2016.
  20. Presidency of the Republic of Moldova website
  21. Moldovan president declares 13 August 2016 as national mourning day
  22. Degree 13 August 2016
  23. 1 2 "Familia Regala – Ordinului Coroana Romaniei". familiaregala.ro. "The King and Queen are entitled to the Order of the Romanian Crown, in the rank of Grand Cross."
  24. "Connaissance des Religions > Sommaires – 1985–1994". Cdr.religion.info. Retrieved 9 March 2016.
  25. La Vie Chevaleresque, December 1956, 21/22:p.73-74
  26. "Familia Regala – Comunicate si mesaje". Familiaregala.ro.
  27. Victor Eskenasy (23 April 2013) "Regele Mihai – 90 – File de istorie". Radio Europa Liberă.
  28. "Majestatea Sa Regele în vizită oficială la Ordinul Suveran de Malta" Archived 31 March 2018 at the Wayback Machine . Radioiasi.ro. 1 February 2012
  29. Radu, Prince of Hohenzollern-Veringen (2002) ANNE OF ROMANIA A War, An Exile, A Life Archived 19 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine . The Romanian Cultural Foundation Publishing House, Bucharest, ISBN   978-973-577-338-0. The ISBN printed in the document (973-577-338-8) is invalid, causing a checksum error.
Queen Anne of Romania
Cadet branch of the House of Bourbon
Born: 18 September 1923 Died: 13 August 2016
Titles in pretence
Vacant
Title last held by
Princess Marie of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and Edinburgh
 TITULAR 
Queen consort of Romania
10 June 1948 – 13 August 2016
Reason for succession failure:
Soviet occupation of Romania leads to Abolition of monarchy
Vacant
Title next held by
Radu Duda
as Prince consort (Titular)