|Queen Maud Mountains|
Photo of Mount Fridtjof Nansen in the Queen Maud Mountains taken by Roald Admundsen
|Elevation||4,230 m (13,880 ft)|
The Queen Maud Mountains are a major group of mountains, ranges and subordinate features of the Transantarctic Mountains, lying between the Beardmore and Reedy Glaciers and including the area from the head of the Ross Ice Shelf to the Antarctic Plateau in Antarctica. Captain Roald Amundsen and his South Pole party ascended Axel Heiberg Glacier near the central part of this group in November 1911, naming these mountains for the Norwegian queen Maud of Wales.Despite the name, they are not located within Queen Maud Land.
A mountain is a large landform that rises above the surrounding land in a limited area, usually in the form of a peak. A mountain is generally steeper than a hill. Mountains are formed through tectonic forces or volcanism. These forces can locally raise the surface of the earth. Mountains erode slowly through the action of rivers, weather conditions, and glaciers. A few mountains are isolated summits, but most occur in huge mountain ranges.
A mountain range or hill range is a series of mountains or hills ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt is a group of mountain ranges with similarity in form, structure, and alignment that have arisen from the same cause, usually an orogeny. Mountain ranges are formed by a variety of geological processes, but most of the significant ones on Earth are the result of plate tectonics. Mountain ranges are also found on many planetary mass objects in the Solar System and are likely a feature of most terrestrial planets.
The Transantarctic Mountains comprise a mountain range of uplifted sedimentary rock in Antarctica which extend, with some interruptions, across the continent from Cape Adare in northern Victoria Land to Coats Land. These mountains divide East Antarctica and West Antarctica. They include a number of separately named mountain groups, which are often again subdivided into smaller ranges.
Elevations bordering the Beardmore Glacier, at the western extremity of these mountains, were observed by the British expeditions led by Ernest Shackleton (1907–09) and Robert Falcon Scott (1910-13), but the mountains as a whole were mapped by several American expeditions led by Richard Evelyn Byrd (1930s and 1940s), and United States Antarctic Program (USARP) and New Zealand Antarctic Research Program (NZARP) expeditions from the 1950s through the 1970s.
Sir Ernest Henry Shackleton was a British polar explorer who led three British expeditions to the Antarctic. He was one of the principal figures of the period known as the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration.
Captain Robert Falcon Scott, was a British Royal Navy officer and explorer who led two expeditions to the Antarctic regions: the Discovery Expedition of 1901–1904 and the ill-fated Terra Nova Expedition of 1910–1913. On the first expedition, he set a new southern record by marching to latitude 82°S and discovered the Antarctic Plateau, on which the South Pole is located. On the second venture, Scott led a party of five which reached the South Pole on 17 January 1912, less than five weeks after Roald Amundsen's Norwegian expedition. A planned meeting with supporting dog teams from the base camp failed, despite Scott's written instructions, and at a distance of 150 miles from their base camp and 12 miles from the next depot, Scott and his companions died. When Scott and his party's bodies were discovered, they had in their possession the first Antarctic fossils ever discovered. The fossils were determined to be from the Glossopteris tree and proved that Antarctica was once forested and joined to other continents.
The United States Antarctic Program is an organization of the United States government which has presence in the continent of Antarctica. Founded in 1959, the USAP manages all U.S. scientific research and related logistics in Antarctica as well as aboard ships in the Southern Ocean.
Geographical features include:
Graphite Peak is a peak, 3,260 metres (10,700 ft) high, standing at the northeast end of a ridge running 3 nautical miles (6 km) northeast from Mount Clarke, just south of the head of Falkenhof Glacier in Antarctica. It was so named by the New Zealand Geological Survey Antarctic Expedition (1961–62) because of the graphite found on the peak.
Mount Clarke is a mountain, 3,210 metres (10,530 ft) high, located 13 miles (21 km) due east of Mount Iveagh in the Queen Maud Mountains. It rises along the east margin of the Snakeskin Glacier, near the edge of the interior ice plateau. It was discovered and named by the Southern Journey Party of the British Antarctic Expedition, 1907–09, under Ernest Shackleton.
Mount Usher is a distinctive mountain overlooking the south side of Keltie Glacier about 4 miles (6.4 km) southwest of the mouth of Brandau Glacier in Antarctica. Discovered and named by the British Antarctic Expedition (1907–09). Identification of this feature varied on subsequent maps. The present description follows the H.E. Saunders map of 1961 which has now been generally accepted.
Anderson Heights form a roughly rectangular snow-covered tableland, 7 nautical miles (13 km) long and 6 nautical miles (11 km) wide, with an elevation somewhat over 2,400 metres (7,900 ft), located between Mount Bennett and Mount Butters in the east part of the Bush Mountains of Antarctica. It was discovered and photographed by U.S. Navy Operation Highjump (1946–47) on the flights of February 16, 1947, and named by the Advisory Committee on Antarctic Names for Lieutenant George H. Anderson, a U.S. Navy pilot of Flight 8 of that date from Little America to the South Pole and return.
Kosco Glacier is a glacier about 20 nautical miles (40 km) long, flowing from the Anderson Heights vicinity of the Bush Mountains of Antarctica northward to enter the Ross Ice Shelf between Wilson Portal and Mount Speed. It was discovered by the United States Antarctic Service, 1939–41, and was named by the Advisory Committee on Antarctic Names for Captain George F. Kosco, U.S. Navy, chief aerologist and chief scientist of U.S. Navy Operation Highjump, 1946–47.
McIntyre Promontory is a promontory having the ground plan of a sharp V pointed toward the north, with steep cliffs on either flank, forming a part of the Bush Mountains at the head of Ramsey Glacier in Antarctica. It was discovered and photographed by U.S. Navy Operation Highjump on Flight 8A of February 16, 1947, and named by the Advisory Committee on Antarctic Names for Captain Eugene C. McIntyre, United States Marine Corps, copilot on this flight.
Airdrop Peak is a twin-peaked mountain 890 metres (2,920 ft) high at the north end of Commonwealth Range, Antarctica. It is the first prominent feature in Ebony Ridge when approached from the northwest. When New Zealand surveyors were making observations from the higher of the two peaks on December 11, 1959, an R4D aircraft of U.S. Navy Squadron VX-6 flew overhead to drop a spare radio to the expedition whose original one had broken down. So named because of this incident by the New Zealand Alpine Club Antarctic Expedition, 1959–60.
The Beardmore Glacier in Antarctica is one of the largest valley glaciers in the world, being 200 km (125 mi) long and having a width of 40 km (25 mi). It descends about 2,200 m (7,200 ft) from the Antarctic Plateau to the Ross Ice Shelf and is bordered by the Commonwealth Range of the Queen Maud Mountains on the eastern side and the Queen Alexandra Range of the Central Transantarctic Mountains on the western.
Beetle Spur is a rock spur 2 nautical miles (4 km) north of Mount Patrick in the Commonwealth Range. It descends from a small summit peak on the range to the east side of Beardmore Glacier. The spur was probably first seen by Shackleton's Southern Party in 1908. The name is descriptive of the appearance of the spur when viewed from the west, and was suggested by John Gunner of the Ohio State University Geological Expedition, 1969–70, who collected geological samples at the spur.
Ashworth Glacier is an Antarctic glacier with sharply delineated sides, flowing west from Supporters Range into Mill Glacier, 5 kilometres (3 mi) north of Mount Iveagh. It was named by the Advisory Committee on Antarctic Names in 2007, after Allan C. Ashworth, Professor of Paleontology and Stratigraphy at North Dakota State University. He discovered the only yet known fly and beetle fossils in Antarctica in the nearby Dominion Range.
Browns Butte is a bare rock butte at the north side of the mouth of Koski Glacier in the Dominion Range. It was named by the Advisory Committee on Antarctic Names for Craig W. Brown, United States Antarctic Research Program meteorologist at South Pole Station, 1963.
The Davis Nunataks are a small cluster of rock nunataks 3 nautical miles (6 km) northwest of Mount Ward, the feature being a southern outlier of the main body of the Dominion Range. The group was named by the Advisory Committee on Antarctic Names for Ronald N. Davis, a United States Antarctic Research Program geomagnetist-seismologist at South Pole Station, winter 1963.
The Shackleton Range is a mountain range in Antarctica. Rising at Holmes Summit to 1,875 metres (6,152 ft), it extends in an east-west direction for about 160 kilometres (99 mi) between the Slessor and Recovery glaciers.
The Pensacola Mountains are a large group of mountain ranges of the Transantarctic Mountains System, located in the Queen Elizabeth Land region of Antarctica.
The Patuxent Range or macizo Armada Argentina is a major range of the Pensacola Mountains, comprising the Thomas Hills, Anderson Hills, Mackin Table and various nunataks and ridges bounded by the Foundation Ice Stream, Academy Glacier and the Patuxent Ice Stream. Discovered and partially photographed on January 13, 1956 in the course of a transcontinental nonstop plane flight by personnel of U.S. Navy Operation Deep Freeze I from McMurdo Sound to Weddell Sea and return.
The Axel Heiberg Glacier in Antarctica is a valley glacier, 48 km (30 mi) long, descending from the high elevations of the Antarctic Plateau into the Ross Ice Shelf between the Herbert Range and Mount Don Pedro Christophersen in the Queen Maud Mountains.
The Sentinel Range is a major mountain range situated northward of Minnesota Glacier and forming the northern half of the Ellsworth Mountains in Antarctica. The range trends NNW-SSE for about 185 km (115 mi) and is 24 to 48 km wide. Many peaks rise over 4,000 m (13,100 ft) and Vinson Massif (4892 m) in the southern part of the range is the highest elevation on the continent.
The Britannia Range is an Antarctic mountain range bounded by the Hatherton and Darwin glaciers on the north and the Byrd Glacier on the south, westward of the Ross Ice Shelf. Discovered by the British National Antarctic Expedition (1901–04) under Scott.
The Churchill Mountains are a mountain range group of the Transantarctic Mountains System, located in the Ross Dependency region of Antarctica. They border on the western side of the Ross Ice Shelf, between Byrd Glacier and Nimrod Glacier.
The Commonwealth Range is a north-south trending range of rugged mountains, 144 kilometres (89 mi) long, located within the Queen Maud Mountains on the Dufek Coast of the continent of Antarctica. The range borders the eastern side of Beardmore Glacier from the Ross Ice Shelf to Keltie Glacier.
The Darwin Mountains is a group of mountains between the Darwin and Hatherton glaciers in Antarctica. Discovered by the British National Antarctic Expedition (1901–04) and named for Major Leonard Darwin, at that time Honorary Secretary of the Royal Geographical Society.
The Dominion Range is a broad mountain range, about 48 km (30 mi) long, forming a prominent salient at the juncture of the Beardmore and Mill glaciers in Antarctica. The range is part of the Queen Maud Mountains
The Herbert Range is a mountain range in the Queen Maud Mountains of Antarctica, extending from the edge of the polar plateau to the Ross Ice Shelf between the Axel Heiberg and Strom glaciers.
Bowers Mountains is a group of north-south trending mountains in Antarctica, about 145 km (90 mi) long and 56 km (35 mi) wide, bounded by the coast on the north and by the Rennick, Canham, Black and Lillie glaciers in other quadrants. The seaward end was first sighted in February 1911 from the Terra Nova, under Lt. Harry L.L. Pennell, RN, and was subsequently named "Bowers Hills" in honour of Henry Robertson Bowers who perished with Captain Robert Falcon Scott on their return from the South Pole in 1912. The mountain range is one of the most extensive topographical features within Victoria Land.
Convoy Range is a broad mountain range in Antarctica. Much of the range has a nearly flat plateau-like summit, extending south from the Fry Saddle and ending at Mackay Glacier. The range has steep cliffs on its east side, but it slopes gently into the Cambridge Glacier on the western side.
The Scott Glacier is a major glacier, 120 miles (190 km) long, that drains the East Antarctic Ice Sheet through the Queen Maud Mountains to the Ross Ice Shelf. The Scott Glacier is one of a series of major glaciers flowing across the Transantarctic Mountains, with the Amundsen Glacier to the west and the Leverett and Reedy glaciers to the east.
The Hays Mountains are a large group of mountains and peaks of the Queen Maud Mountains of Antarctica, surmounting the divide between the lower portions of Amundsen Glacier and Scott Glacier and extending from the vicinity of Mount Thorne on the northwest to Mount Dietz on the southeast. They were discovered by Rear Admiral Richard E. Byrd on the South Pole flight of November 28–29, 1929, and mapped in part by the Byrd Antarctic Expedition geological parties to this area in 1929 and 1934. They were named by Byrd for Will H. Hays, former head of the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America.
The Mühlig-Hofmann Mountains is a major group of associated mountain features extending east to west for 100 km (62 mi) between the Gjelsvik Mountains and the Orvin Mountains in Queen Maud Land, East Antarctica. With its summit at 3,148 metres (10,328 ft), the massive Jøkulkyrkja Mountain forms the highest point in the Mühlig-Hofmann Mountains.
Norway Glacier is an Antarctic tributary glacier about 10 nautical miles (18 km) long, descending the polar plateau just west of Mount Prestrud, and flowing northeast to enter Amundsen Glacier between Mount Bjaaland and Mount Hassel, in the Queen Maud Mountains. Named by Advisory Committee on Antarctic Names (US-ACAN) in association with the many features named in this area for members of Amundsen's Norwegian expedition of 1910-12.
The La Gorce Mountains are a group of mountains, spanning 20 nautical miles (37 km), standing between the tributary Robison Glacier and Klein Glacier at the east side of the upper reaches of the Scott Glacier, in the Queen Maud Mountains of Antarctica. They were discovered in December 1934 by the Byrd Antarctic Expedition geological party under Quin Blackburn, and named by Richard E. Byrd for John Oliver La Gorce, Vice President of the National Geographic Society.
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