Queen Maud Mountains

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Queen Maud Mountains
MountFridtjofNansenAntarctica.jpg
Photo of Mount Fridtjof Nansen in the Queen Maud Mountains taken by Roald Amundsen
Highest point
Peak Mount Kaplan [1] >
Elevation 4,230 m (13,880 ft)
Coordinates 84°33′00″S175°19′00″W / 84.55000°S 175.31667°W / -84.55000; -175.31667
Geography
Antarctica relief location map.jpg
Red triangle with thick white border.svg
Queen Maud Mountains
Location of Queen Maud mountains in Antarctica

The Queen Maud Mountains ( 86°00′S160°00′W / 86.000°S 160.000°W / -86.000; -160.000 ) are a major group of mountains, ranges and subordinate features of the Transantarctic Mountains, lying between the Beardmore and Reedy Glaciers and including the area from the head of the Ross Ice Shelf to the Antarctic Plateau in Antarctica. Captain Roald Amundsen and his South Pole party ascended Axel Heiberg Glacier near the central part of this group in November 1911, naming these mountains for the Norwegian queen Maud of Wales. [2]

Contents

Exploration and naming

Elevations bordering the Beardmore Glacier, at the western extremity of these mountains, were observed by the British expeditions led by Ernest Shackleton (1907–09) and Robert Falcon Scott (1910-13), but the mountains as a whole were mapped by several American expeditions led by Richard Evelyn Byrd (1930s and 1940s), and United States Antarctic Program (USARP) and New Zealand Antarctic Research Program (NZARP) expeditions from the 1950s through the 1970s. [2]

Appearance

The Sailing Directions for Antarctica (1960) describes the Queen Maud Range as follows: "From the Beardmore Glacier the horst trends east-southeastward an undetermined distance. The Prince Olaf Mountains stretch from the Beardmore Glacier to the Liv Glacier. [lower-alpha 1] Near 84°S175°E / 84°S 175°E / -84; 175 a large glacier trends southward. Eastward of 175°E. the escarpment is fronted for about 50 miles by high gneissic foothills which are fronted by an expansive piedmont inundating the lower heights. In about 84°30′S175°00′W / 84.500°S 175.000°W / -84.500; -175.000 the Shackleton Glacier (Wade Glacier), a vast straight-walled glacier about 12 miles wide, extends southward to the polar plateau. [4]

"At this point the scarp appears broken by a transverse fault which displaces the horst northward to Mount Wade (Mount Bush), a beacon sandstone massif rising to at least 14,000 feet above sea level, dominating the eastern flank of this remarkable valley glacier. [4] Eastward of Mount Wade stand the Fisher Mountains, which form the western flank of the Liv Glacier. [5] Bush Mountains, lying just eastward of the mouth of Shackleton Glacier, are a group of ragged foothills rising to a height of 4,000 feet. [6]

"Viewed from northward the Queen Maud Range presents a vast array of low-lying peaks which increase progressively in height to the southward where, about 15 miles from the shelf ice, stand great tabular mountain masses, 13,000 feet high, having a sharply defined fault-line scarp on the northern side. The northern foothills are dark-colored gneisses and schists with veins of granite and quartz. These foothills show marked glacierization with well-developed cirques and aretes. The high tabular mountains of the horst, are regular and even in outline, presenting broad domes with precipitous fronts to the north showing the granite structure capped by a series of horizontally bedded sandstone with intruded dolerite sills." [6]

Glaciers

The Queen Maud Mountains are crossed by several major glaciers that flow from the Antarctic Plateau to the Ross Ice Shelf, and divide the mountains.

Other glaciers with outlets on the Ross Ice Shelf include

These glaciers in turn are generally fed by smaller valley glaciers.

Mountain ranges

Beardmore–Shackleton

Inland from the east of the Beardmore Glacier USGS map of Plunket Point.jpg
Inland from the east of the Beardmore Glacier

Mountain groups or ranges between Beardmore Glacier and Shackleton Glacier include:

Shackleton–Liv

Inland mountains. Shackleton Glacier to the west, Liv Glacier to extreme east C85165s1 Ant.Map Liv Glacier.jpg
Inland mountains. Shackleton Glacier to the west, Liv Glacier to extreme east

Mountain groups or ranges between Shackleton Glacier and Liv Glacier include:

Liv–Amundsen

Mountain groups or ranges between Liv Glacier and Amundsen Glacier include:

Amundsen–Scott

Upper Amundsen Glacier (west), Scott (east) C86150s1 Ant.Map Nilsen Plateau.jpg
Upper Amundsen Glacier (west), Scott (east)

Mountain groups or ranges between Amundsen Glacier and Scott Glacier include:

Scott–Reedy

Scott Glacier to west of map C86135s1 Ant.Map Mount Blackburn.jpg
Scott Glacier to west of map

Mountain groups or ranges between Scott Glacier and Reedy Glacier include:

Other features

See also

Notes

  1. In fact, the Prince Olav Mountains stretch from Shackleton Glacier to Liv Glacier. [3]

Related Research Articles

The Beardmore Glacier in Antarctica is one of the largest valley glaciers in the world, being 200 km (125 mi) long and having a width of 40 km (25 mi). It descends about 2,200 m (7,200 ft) from the Antarctic Plateau to the Ross Ice Shelf and is bordered by the Commonwealth Range of the Queen Maud Mountains on the eastern side and the Queen Alexandra Range of the Central Transantarctic Mountains on the western. Its mouth is east of the Lennox-King Glacier. It is northwest of the Ramsey Glacier.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Transantarctic Mountains</span> Mountain range in Antarctica

The Transantarctic Mountains comprise a mountain range of uplifted rock in Antarctica which extends, with some interruptions, across the continent from Cape Adare in northern Victoria Land to Coats Land. These mountains divide East Antarctica and West Antarctica. They include a number of separately named mountain groups, which are often again subdivided into smaller ranges.

The Reedy Glacier is a major glacier in Antarctica, over 100 nautical miles long and 6 to 12 nautical miles wide, descending from the polar plateau to the Ross Ice Shelf between the Michigan Plateau and Wisconsin Range in the Transantarctic Mountains. It marks the limits of the Queen Maud Mountains on the west and the Horlick Mountains on the east.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Axel Heiberg Glacier</span> Glacier in Antarctica

The Axel Heiberg Glacier in Antarctica is a valley glacier, 30 nautical miles long, descending from the high elevations of the Antarctic Plateau into the Ross Ice Shelf between the Herbert Range and Mount Don Pedro Christophersen in the Queen Maud Mountains.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Leverett Glacier</span> Glacier in Marie Byrd Land, Antarctica

The Leverett Glacier is about 50 nautical miles (90 km) long and 3 to 4 nautical miles wide, flowing from the Antarctic Plateau to the south end of the Ross Ice Shelf through the Queen Maud Mountains. It is an important part of the South Pole Traverse from McMurdo Station to the Admundson–Scott South Pole Station, providing a route for tractors to climb from the ice shelf through the Transantarctic Mountains to the polar plateau.

The Commonwealth Range is a north-south trending range of rugged mountains, 60 nautical miles long, located within the Queen Maud Mountains on the Dufek Coast of the continent of Antarctica. The range borders the eastern side of Beardmore Glacier from Keltie Glacier to the Ross Ice Shelf.

The Keltie Glacier is a large Antarctic glacier, 30 nautical miles (56 km) long, draining from Pain Névé southwest around the southern extremity of the Commonwealth Range, and then northwest to enter Beardmore Glacier at Ranfurly Point. It was discovered by the British Antarctic Expedition, 1907–09, under Ernest Shackleton, who named it for Sir John Scott Keltie, Secretary of the Royal Geographical Society, 1892–1915.

The Amundsen Glacier is a major Antarctic glacier, about 7 to 11 km wide and 150 km (80 nmi) long. It originates on the Antarctic Plateau where it drains the area to the south and west of Nilsen Plateau, then descends through the Queen Maud Mountains to enter the Ross Ice Shelf just west of the MacDonald Nunataks.

The Bush Mountains is a series of rugged elevations at the heads of the Ramsey and Kosco glaciers in Antarctica. The Bush Mountains extend from Mount Weir in the west to Anderson Heights overlooking Shackleton Glacier in the east.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Shackleton Glacier</span> Glacier in Antarctica

Shackleton Glacier is a major Antarctic glacier, over 60 nautical miles long and from 5 to 10 nautical miles wide, descending from the Antarctic Plateau from the vicinity of Roberts Massif and flowing north through the Queen Maud Mountains to enter the Ross Ice Shelf between Mount Speed and Waldron Spurs. Discovered by the United States Antarctic Service (USAS) (1939–41) and named by the Advisory Committee on Antarctic Names (US-ACAN) for Sir Ernest Shackleton, British Antarctic explorer.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Herbert Range</span>

The Herbert Range is a range in the Queen Maud Mountains of Antarctica, extending from the edge of the Antarctic Plateau to the Ross Ice Shelf between the Axel Heiberg Glacier and Strom Glacier. Named by the New Zealand Antarctic Place-Names Committee (NZ-APC) for Walter W. Herbert, leader of the Southern Party of the New Zealand GSAE (1961–62) which explored the Axel Heiberg Glacier area.

The Prince Olav Mountains is a mountain group in the Queen Maud Mountains in Antarctica stretching from Shackleton Glacier to Liv Glacier at the head of the Ross Ice Shelf.

Quarles Range is a high and rugged range of the Queen Maud Mountains, extending from the polar plateau between Cooper Glacier and Bowman Glacier and terminating near the edge of Ross Ice Shelf.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Scott Glacier (Transantarctic Mountains)</span> Glacier in Antarctica

The Scott Glacier is a major glacier, 120 nautical miles long, that drains the East Antarctic Ice Sheet through the Queen Maud Mountains to the Ross Ice Shelf. The Scott Glacier is one of a series of major glaciers flowing across the Transantarctic Mountains, with the Amundsen Glacier to the west and the Leverett and Reedy glaciers to the east.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Liv Glacier</span> Glacier in Antarctica

Liv Glacier is a steep valley glacier, 40 nautical miles long, emerging from the Antarctic Plateau just southeast of Barnum Peak and draining north through the Queen Maud Mountains to enter Ross Ice Shelf between Mayer Crags and Duncan Mountains. It was discovered in 1911 by Roald Amundsen, who named it for the daughter of Fridtjof Nansen.

The Gabbro Hills are a group of rugged ridges and coastal hills which border the Antarctic Ross Ice Shelf between Barrett Glacier and Gough Glacier and extend south to Ropebrake Pass. They were so named by the Southern Party of the New Zealand Geological Survey Antarctic Expedition (NZGSAE) (1963–64) because of the prevalence of gabbro, a dark, plutonic rock, in the area.

The Duncan Mountains are a group of rugged coastal foothills, about 18 nautical miles long, extending from the mouth of Liv Glacier to the mouth of Strom Glacier at the head of the Ross Ice Shelf in Antarctica.

Gough Glacier is an Antarctic glacier about 25 nautical miles (50 km) long, flowing from the northern slopes of the Prince Olav Mountains and the base of the Lillie Range and trending northward to the Ross Ice Shelf, between the Gabbro Hills and the Bravo Hills. It was named by the Southern Party of the New Zealand Geological Survey Antarctic Expedition (1963–64) for A.L. Gough, surveyor of the party.

Ramsey Glacier is a glacier about 45 nautical miles long in Antarctica. It originates in the Bush Mountains near the edge of the polar plateau and flows north through the Queen Maud Mountains of Antarctica to the Ross Ice Shelf eastward of Den Hartog Peak.

The Lillie Range in Antarctica extends northward from the Prince Olav Mountains to the Ross Ice Shelf. Mounts Hall, Daniel, Krebs and Mason are in the range.

References

  1. Queen Maud Mountains Peakbagger.
  2. 1 2 Alberts 1995, p. 599.
  3. 1 2 Alberts 1995, p. 591.
  4. 1 2 Sailing Directions for Antarctica 1960, p. 257.
  5. Sailing Directions for Antarctica 1960, pp. 257–258.
  6. 1 2 Sailing Directions for Antarctica 1960, p. 258.
  7. 1 2 Beardmore Glacier Britannica.
  8. Alberts 1995, p. 53.
  9. Alberts 1995, p. 665.
  10. Alberts 1995, p. 438.
  11. Alberts 1995, p. 17.
  12. Alberts 1995, p. 657.
  13. Alberts 1995, p. 609.
  14. The Cloudmaker USGS.
  15. 1 2 Shackleton Glacier USGS.
  16. 1 2 Mount Goodale USGS.
  17. Nilsen Plateau USGS.
  18. Alberts 1995, p. 147.
  19. Alberts 1995, p. 663.
  20. Alberts 1995, p. 352.
  21. Alberts 1995, p. 724.
  22. Alberts 1995, p. 194.
  23. Alberts 1995, p. 49.
  24. Alberts 1995, p. 298.
  25. Alberts 1995, p. 107.
  26. Erb Range USGS.
  27. Alberts 1995, p. 265.
  28. Alberts 1995, pp. 433–434.
  29. Alberts 1995, p. 622.
  30. Alberts 1995, p. 166.
  31. Alberts 1995, p. 204.
  32. Alberts 1995, p. 329.
  33. 1 2 Alberts 1995, p. 598.
  34. Alberts 1995, p. 321.
  35. Alberts 1995, p. 482.
  36. Alberts 1995, p. 383.
  37. Alberts 1995, p. 527.
  38. Alberts 1995, p. 606.
  39. Alberts 1995, p. 798.
  40. Alberts 1995, p. 287.
  41. Alberts 1995, p. 412.
  42. Alberts 1995, p. 733.
  43. Alberts 1995, p. 314.
  44. Alberts 1995, p. 58.
  45. Alberts 1995, p. 113.
  46. Alberts 1995, p. 749.

Sources

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