Queensland

Last updated

Queensland
Flag of Queensland.svg Coat of Arms of Queensland.svg
Flag Coat of arms
Slogan or nicknameSunshine State
Motto(s)Audax at Fidelis
(Bold but Faithful)
Queensland in Australia.svg
Location relative to other Australian states and territories
Coordinates 23°S143°E / 23°S 143°E / -23; 143 Coordinates: 23°S143°E / 23°S 143°E / -23; 143
Capital city Brisbane
Demonym Queenslander,
Banana Bender (colloquial)
Government Constitutional monarchy
 Governor Paul de Jersey
 Premier Annastacia Palaszczuk  (ALP)
Australian state  
 Crown colony,
Responsible government
6 June 1859
 Federation,
Statehood
1 January 1901
  Australia Act 3 March 1986
Area 
 • Total1,852,642 km² (2nd)
715,309 sq mi
 • Land1,730,620 km²
668,196 sq mi
 • Water121,991 km² (6.58%)
47,101 sq mi
Population
(December 2019) [1]
 
 • Population5,129,996 (3rd)
 • Density2.96/km² (5th)
7.7 /sq mi
Elevation 
 • Highest point Mount Bartle Frere
1,622 m (5,322 ft)
Gross state product
(2018–19)
 
 • Product ($m)$357,044 [2] (3rd)
 • Product per capita$70,662 (5th)
Time zone(s) UTC+10 (AEST)
Federal representation  
 House seats 30/151
 Senate seats 12/76
Abbreviations 
 • PostalQLD
 ISO 3166-2 AU-QLD
Emblems 
 Floral Cooktown orchid
(Dendrobium phalaenopsis) [3]
 Animal Koala
(Phascolarctos cinereus)
 Bird Brolga (Grus rubicunda)
 • Fish Barrier Reef anemonefish
(Amphiprion akindynos)
 • Mineral or gemstone Sapphire
 Colours Maroon
Website www.qld.gov.au

Queensland (locally /ˈkwnzlænd/ KWEENZ-land, [note 1] abbreviated as Qld, officially the State of Queensland) is a state of Australia. It is the second-largest and third-most populous Australian state. It is a federated state and a parliamentary constitutional monarchy. Situated in the north-east of the country, it is bordered by the Northern Territory, South Australia and New South Wales to the west, south-west and south respectively. To the east, Queensland is bordered by the Coral Sea and Pacific Ocean. To its north is the Torres Strait, separating the Australian mainland from Papua New Guinea. With an area of 1,852,642 square kilometres (715,309 sq mi), Queensland is the world's sixth-largest sub-national entity, and is larger than all but 15 countries. Due to its size, Queensland's geographical features and climates are diverse, including tropical rainforests, rivers, coral reefs, mountain ranges and sandy beaches in its tropical and sub-tropical coastal regions, as well as deserts and savanna in the semi-arid and desert climactic regions of its interior.

Contents

Queensland has a population of over 5.1 million, [5] concentrated along the coast and particularly in South East Queensland. The capital and largest city in the state is Brisbane, Australia's third-largest city. Ten of Australia's thirty largest cities are located in Queensland, with the largest outside Brisbane being the Gold Coast, the Sunshine Coast, Townsville, Cairns and Toowoomba. The state's population is diverse, with 28.9% of inhabitants being immigrants. [6] [7]

Queensland was first inhabited by Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders. [8] [9] Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon, the first European to land in Australia, explored the west coast of the Cape York Peninsula in 1606. In 1770, James Cook claimed the east coast of Australia for the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1788, Arthur Phillip founded the colony of New South Wales, which included all of what is now Queensland. Queensland was explored in subsequent decades, and the Moreton Bay Penal Settlement was established at Brisbane in 1824 by John Oxley. Queensland was separated from New South Wales on 6 June 1859 (now commemorated as Queensland Day), thereby establishing Queensland as a self-governing Crown colony with responsible government, named in honour of Queen Victoria. [10] Queensland was among the six colonies which became the founding states of Australia with Federation on 1 January 1901. Since the Bjelke-Petersen era of the late 20th century, Queensland has received a high level of internal migration from the other states and territories of Australia and remains a popular destination for interstate migration.

Queensland has the third-largest economy among Australian states, with strengths in mining, agriculture, transportation, international education, insurance and banking. Nicknamed the Sunshine State for its tropical and sub-tropical climates, Great Barrier Reef and numerous beaches, tourism is also important to the state's economy.

History

The history of Queensland spans thousands of years, encompassing both a lengthy indigenous presence, as well as the eventful times of post-European settlement. The north-eastern Australian region was explored by Dutch, Spanish and French navigators before being encountered by Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. The state has witnessed frontier warfare between European settlers and Indigenous inhabitants (which did not result in any settlement or treaty), as well as the exploitation of cheap Kanaka labour sourced from the South Pacific through a form of forced recruitment known at the time as "blackbirding". The Australian Labor Party has its origin as a formal organisation in Queensland and the town of Barcaldine is the symbolic birthplace of the party. [11] A rare record of early settler life in north Queensland can be seen in a set of ten photographic glass plates taken in the 1860s by Richard Daintree, in the collection of the National Museum of Australia. [12]

Indigenous history

The Aboriginal occupation of Queensland is thought to predate 50,000 BC, likely via boat or land bridge across Torres Strait, and became divided into over 90 different language groups.

During the last ice age Queensland's landscape became more arid and largely desolate, making food and other supplies scarce. This led to the world's first seed-grinding technology. Warming again made the land hospitable, which brought high rainfall along the eastern coast, stimulating the growth of the state's tropical rainforests. [13]

European colonisation

Captain James Cook claims the east coast of Australia for the Kingdom of Great Britain at Possession Island in 1770 Captain Cook at Possession Island.jpg
Captain James Cook claims the east coast of Australia for the Kingdom of Great Britain at Possession Island in 1770

In February 1606, Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon landed near the site of what is now Weipa, on the western shore of Cape York. This was the first recorded landing of a European in Australia, and it also marked the first reported contact between European and Aboriginal Australian people. [13] The region was also explored by French and Spanish explorers (commanded by Louis Antoine de Bougainville and Luís Vaez de Torres, respectively) prior to the arrival of Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. Cook claimed the east coast under instruction from King George III of the Kingdom of Great Britain on 22 August 1770 at Possession Island, naming Eastern Australia, including Queensland, 'New South Wales'. [14]

The Aboriginal population declined significantly after a smallpox epidemic during the late 18th century. [15] There has been controversy regarding the origins of smallpox in Australia; while many sources have claimed that it originated with European colonisation, this theory has been contradicted by scientific evidence. [16] [17] [18] There is circumstantial evidence that Macassan mariners visiting Arnhem Land introduced smallpox to Australia. [17] )

In 1823, John Oxley, a British explorer, sailed north from what is now Sydney to scout possible penal colony sites in Gladstone (then Port Curtis) and Moreton Bay. At Moreton Bay, he found the Brisbane River. He returned in 1824 and established a penal settlement at what is now Redcliffe. The settlement, initially known as Edenglassie, was then transferred to the current location of the Brisbane city centre. Edmund Lockyer discovered outcrops of coal along the banks of the upper Brisbane River in 1825. [19] In 1839 transportation of convicts was ceased, culminating in the closure of the Brisbane penal settlement. In 1842 free settlement, which had already commenced, was officially permitted. In 1847, the Port of Maryborough was opened as a wool port. While most early immigrants came from New South Wales, the first free immigrant ship to arrive in Moreton Bay from Europe was the Artemisia, in 1848. In 1857, Queensland's first lighthouse was built at Cape Moreton.

Frontier War

Fighting between Burke and Wills's supply party and Indigenous Australians at Bulla in 1861 Bulla Queensland 1861.jpg
Fighting between Burke and Wills's supply party and Indigenous Australians at Bulla in 1861

A war, sometimes called a "war of extermination", [20] erupted between Aborigines and settlers in colonial Queensland.[ citation needed ] The Frontier War was notable for being the most bloody in Australia,[ citation needed ] perhaps due to Queensland's larger pre-contact indigenous population when compared to the other Australian colonies. About 1,500 European settlers and their allies (consisting of Chinese, Aboriginal and Melanesian assistants),[ citation needed ] were killed in frontier skirmishes during the nineteenth century.[ citation needed ] Casualties among the Aboriginal people may have exceeded 30,000.[ citation needed ] The "Native Police Force", employed by the Queensland government, was key in the oppression of the indigenous people. [21]

On 27 October 1857, Aboriginals retaliating against being poisoned and raped by members of the Fraser family, attacked the Hornet Bank pastoral station on the Dawson River killing eleven people. This was one of the largest massacres of British colonists by Indigenous Australians. [22] [23] [24] [25] The largest reported massacre of colonists by Aboriginals was in 1861 on the Nogoa River where 19 people were killed. [26] One author [27] estimates 24,000 Aboriginal men, women and children died at the hands of the Native Police in colonial Queensland between 1859 and 1897 alone.

Separation from New South Wales

A public meeting was held in 1851 to consider the proposed separation of Queensland from New South Wales. On 6 June 1859, Queen Victoria signed Letters Patent to form the separate colony of Queensland as a self-governing Crown colony with responsible government. Brisbane was selected as the capital city. On 10 December 1859, a proclamation was read by George Bowen, the first Governor of Queensland, formally establishing Queensland as a separate colony from New South Wales. [28] On 22 May 1860 the first Queensland election was held and Robert Herbert, Bowen's private secretary, was appointed as the first Premier of Queensland.

Late 19th century and Federation

Parade of troops in Brisbane, prior to departure for the Boer War in South Africa. StateLibQld 2 93580 Parade of troops in Queen Street, Brisbane, March, 1900.jpg
Parade of troops in Brisbane, prior to departure for the Boer War in South Africa.

In 1865, the first rail line in the state opened between Ipswich and Grandchester. Queensland's economy expanded rapidly in 1867 after James Nash discovered gold on the Mary River near the town of Gympie, sparking a gold rush. While still significant, they were on a much smaller scale than the gold rushes of Victoria and New South Wales.

Immigration to Australia and Queensland in particular began in the 1850s to support the state economy. During the period from the 1860s until the early 20th century, many labourers, known at the time as Kanakas, were brought to Queensland from neighbouring Pacific Island nations to work in the state's sugar cane fields. Some of these people had been kidnapped under a process known as blackbirding or press ganging, and their employment conditions constituted an allegedly-explotative form of indentured labour. Italian immigrants entered the sugar cane industry from the 1890s. [29]

During the 1890s, the six Australian colonies, including Queensland, held a series of referendums which culminate in the Federation of Australia on 1 January 1901. During this time, Queensland had a population of half a million people. Since that time Queensland has remained a federated state within Australia.

20th century

Returned World War II soldiers march in Queen Street, Brisbane, 1944 StateLibQld 1 114168 Returned World War Two soldiers march in Queen Street, Brisbane, 1944.jpg
Returned World War II soldiers march in Queen Street, Brisbane, 1944

Following Federation in 1901, the White Australia policy came into effect, which saw all foreign workers in Australia deported under the Pacific Island Labourers Act of 1901, which saw the Pacific Islander population of the state decrease rapidly. [30]

In 1905, women voted in state elections for the first time, and the University of Queensland was established in 1909. In 1911, The first alternative treatments for polio were pioneered in Queensland and remain in use across the world today.

World War I had a major impact on Queensland. Over 58,000 Queenslanders fought in World War I and over 10,000 of them died. [31]

Australia's first major airline, Qantas, was founded in 1920 to serve outback Queensland.

In 1922, Queensland abolished the Queensland Legislative Council, becoming the only Australian state with a unicameral parliament.

In 1935, cane toads were deliberately introduced to Queensland from Hawaii in an unsuccessful attempt to reduce the number of French's cane and greyback cane beetles that were destroying the roots of sugar cane plants, which are integral to Queensland's economy, and have remained an environmental pest since that time. In 1962, the first commercial production of oil in Queensland and Australia began at Moonie.

During World War II, Brisbane became central to the Allied campaign when the AMP Building (now called MacArthur Central) was used as the South West Pacific headquarters for General Douglas MacArthur, chief of the Allied Pacific forces, until his headquarters were moved to Hollandia in August 1944. [32] In 1942, during the war, Brisbane was the site of a violent clash between visiting US military personnel and Australian servicemen and civilians, which resulted in one death and hundreds of injuries. This incident became known colloquially as the Battle of Brisbane. [33]

The end of Word War II saw a wave of immigration from across Europe, with many more immigrants coming from southern and eastern Europe than in previous decades.

In the latter decades of the 20th century, the humid subtropical climate—regulated by the availability of air conditioning—saw Queensland become a popular destination for migrants from interstate. [34] Since that time, Queensland has continuously seen high levels of migration from the other states and territories of Australia.

The final end of the White Australia policy in 1973 saw the beginning of a wave of immigration from around the world, and most prominently from Asia, which continues to the present.

21st century

After three decades of record population growth, Queensland was impacted by major floods between late 2010 and early 2011, causing extensive damage and disruption across the state. [35] [36]

In 2020, Queensland was impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. Despite a low number and abrupt decline in cases from April 2020 onward, social distancing requirements were implemented from March 2020 including the closure of the state borders.

Geography and environment

Commonly designated regions of Queensland, with Central Queensland divided into Mackay and Fitzroy subregions Qld region map 2.PNG
Commonly designated regions of Queensland, with Central Queensland divided into Mackay and Fitzroy subregions
The Great Barrier Reef, which extends along most of Queensland's Coral Sea coastline La Gran Barrera 2.jpg
The Great Barrier Reef, which extends along most of Queensland's Coral Sea coastline
The Mossman River, flowing through the Daintree Rainforest in Far North Queensland Mossman River during the wet season.jpg
The Mossman River, flowing through the Daintree Rainforest in Far North Queensland
The McPherson Range at Lamington National Park in South East Queensland BinnaBurra5.JPG
The McPherson Range at Lamington National Park in South East Queensland
Beach from Indian Head on Fraser Island Indian Head view on Fraser Island (May 2016).jpg
Beach from Indian Head on Fraser Island

With a total area of 1,852,642 square kilometres (715,309 square miles), Queensland is an expansive state with a highly diverse range of climates and geographical features. If Queensland were an independent nation, it would be the world's 16th largest, being approximately the same size as Mexico, Indonesia and Mongolia.

Queensland's eastern coastline borders the Coral Sea, an arm of the Pacific Ocean. The state is bordered by the Torres Strait to the north, with Boigu Island off the coast of New Guinea representing the northern extreme of its territory. The triangular Cape York Peninsula, which points toward New Guinea, is the northernmost part of the state's mainland. West of the peninsula's tip, northern Queensland is bordered by the Gulf of Carpentaria. To the west, Queensland is bordered by the Northern Territory, at the 138th meridian east, and to the southwest by northeastern South Australia. The state's southern border with New South Wales is constituted in the east by the watershed from Point Danger to the Dumaresq River, and the Dumaresq, Macintyre and Barwon rivers. The west of the southern border is defined by the 29th parallel south (including some minor historical encroachments), until it reaches South Australia.

Like much of eastern Australia, the Great Dividing Range runs roughly parallel with, and inland from, the coast, and areas west of the range are more arid than the humid coastal regions. The Great Barrier Reef, which is the world's largest coral reef system, runs parallel to the state's Coral Sea coast between the Torres Strait and Fraser Island. Queensland's coastline includes the world's three largest sand islands: Fraser, Moreton and North Stradbroke.

The state contains six World Heritage-listed preservation areas: the Great Barrier Reef along the Coral Sea coast, Fraser Island on the Wide Bay–Burnett regions's coastline, the wet tropics in Far North Queensland including the Daintree Rainforest, Lamington National Park in South East Queensland, the Riversleigh fossil sites in North West Queensland, and the Gondwana Rainforests in South East Queensland.

Regions

The state is divided into several unofficial regions which are commonly used to refer to large areas of the state's vast geography. These include:

Climate

Koppen climate types in Queensland Queensland Koppen.svg
Köppen climate types in Queensland

Because of its size, there is significant variation in climate across the state. There is ample rainfall along the coastline, with a monsoonal wet season in the tropical north, and humid sub-tropical conditions along the southern coastline. Low rainfall and hot humid summers are typical for the inland and west. Elevated areas in the south-eastern inland can experience temperatures well below freezing in mid-winter providing frost and, rarely, snowfall. The climate of the coastal regions is influenced by warm ocean waters, keeping the region free from extremes of temperature and providing moisture for rainfall. [37]

There are six predominant climatic zones in Queensland, [38] based on temperature and humidity:

The annual mean climactic statistics [39] for selected Queensland cities are shown below:

CityMin. tempMax. tempNo. clear daysRainfall
Brisbane 15.7 °C (60.3 °F)25.5 °C (77.9 °F)113.11,149.1 mm (45.24 in) [40]
Mackay 19.0 °C (66.2 °F)26.4 °C (79.5 °F)123.01,570.7 mm (61.84 in) [41]
Cairns 21.0 °C (69.8 °F)29.2 °C (84.6 °F)89.71,982.2 mm (78.04 in) [42]
Townsville 19.8 °C (67.6 °F)28.9 °C (84.0 °F)120.91,136.7 mm (44.75 in) [43]

The coastal far north of the state is the wettest region in Australia, with Mount Bellenden Ker, south of Cairns, holding many Australian rainfall records with its annual average rainfall of over 8 metres. [44] Snow is rare in Queensland, although it does fall with some regularity along the far southern border with New South Wales, predominantly in the Stanthorpe district although on rare occasions further north and west. The most northerly snow ever recorded in Australia occurred near Mackay; however, this was exceptional. [45]

Natural disasters are often a threat in Queensland: severe tropical cyclones can impact the central and northern coastlines and cause severe damage, [46] with recent examples including Larry, Yasi, Ita and Debbie. Flooding from rain-bearing systems can also be severe and can occur anywhere in Queensland. One of the deadliest and most damaging floods in the history of the state occurred in early 2011. [47] Severe springtime thunderstorms generally affect the south-east and inland of the state and can bring damaging winds, torrential rain, large hail and even tornadoes. [48] The strongest tornado ever recorded in Australia occurred in Queensland near Bundaberg. [49] Droughts and bushfires can also occur; however, the latter are generally less severe than those that occur in southern states.

The highest official maximum temperature recorded in the state was 49.5 °C (121.1 °F) at Birdsville Police Station on 24 December 1972, [50] although the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Aqua satellite measured a ground surface temperature of 69.3 °C (156.7 °F). Queensland has the highest average maximums of any Australian state, and Stanthorpe, Hervey Bay, Mackay, Atherton, Weipa and Thursday Island are the only large population centres not to have recorded a temperature above 40 °C (104 °F). The lowest recorded minimum temperature is −10.6 °C (12.9 °F) at Stanthorpe on 23 June 1961 and at The Hermitage (near Warwick) on 12 July 1965. [51] Temperatures below 0 °C (32 °F) are, however, generally uncommon over the majority of populated Queensland.

Climate data for Queensland
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)49.0
(120.2)
47.2
(117.0)
46.7
(116.1)
41.7
(107.1)
39.3
(102.7)
36.0
(96.8)
36.1
(97.0)
38.5
(101.3)
42.4
(108.3)
45.1
(113.2)
48.7
(119.7)
49.5
(121.1)
49.5
(121.1)
Record low °C (°F)5.4
(41.7)
3.3
(37.9)
−0.2
(31.6)
−3.5
(25.7)
−6.8
(19.8)
−10.6
(12.9)
−10.6
(12.9)
−9.4
(15.1)
−5.6
(21.9)
−3.6
(25.5)
0.0
(32.0)
0.0
(32.0)
−10.6
(12.9)
Source 1: Bureau of Meteorology [52]
Source 2: Bureau of Meteorology [53]

Demographics

Brisbane, capital and most populous city of Queensland Skyline of Brisbane viewed from Kangaroo Point, Queensland, November 2019, 01.jpg
Brisbane, capital and most populous city of Queensland
Townsville, the largest city in North Queensland and one of the states many regional cities Castle Hill Townsville.jpg
Townsville, the largest city in North Queensland and one of the states many regional cities

In 2019, Queensland had an estimated population of 5,129,996. [1] Approximately half of the state's of the population live in Brisbane, and over 70% live in South East Queensland. Nonetheless, Queensland is the second most decentralised state in Australia after Tasmania. Since the 1980s, Queensland has consistently been the fastest-growing state in Australia, as it receives high levels of both international immigration and migration from interstate. There have however been short periods where Victoria and Western Australia have grown faster.

Cities

Ten of Australia's thirty largest cities are located in Queensland. In 2019, the largest cities in the state by population of their Greater Capital City Statistical Area or Significant Urban Area (metropolitan areas) as defined by the Australian Bureau of Statistics were: [57]

Ancestry and immigration

Country of Birth (2016) [6] [7]
Birthplace [N 2] Population
Australia 3,343,657
New Zealand 201,206
England 180,775
India 49,145
Mainland China 47,114
South Africa 40,131
Philippines 39,661
Germany 20,387
Vietnam 19,544
South Korea 18,327
United States 17,053
Papua New Guinea 16,120
Taiwan 15,592

Early settlers during the 19th century were largely English, Irish, Scottish and German, while there was a wave of immigration from southern and eastern Europe (most notably Italy) in the decades following the second world war. In the 21st century, Asia (most notably China and India) has been the primary source of immigration.

At the 2016 census, the most commonly nominated ancestries were: [N 3] [6] [7]

The 2016 census showed that 28.9% of Queensland's inhabitants were born overseas. Only 54.8% of inhabitants had both parents born in Australia, with the next most common birthplaces being New Zealand, England, India, Mainland China and South Africa. [6] [7] Brisbane has the 26th largest immigrant population among world metropolitan areas.

4% of the population, or 186,482 people, identified as Indigenous Australians (Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders) in 2016. [N 6] [6] [7]

Language

At the 2016 census, 81.2% of inhabitants spoke only English at home, with the next most common languages being Mandarin (1.5%), Vietnamese (0.6%), Cantonese (0.5%), Spanish (0.4%) and Italian (0.4%). [6] [7]

Religion

At the 2016 census, the most commonly cited religious affiliations were 'No religion' (29.2%), Catholicism (21.7%) and Anglicanism (15.3%). [59]

Economy

Skyline of the Brisbane central business district. Brisbane is a global city and the state's largest economic hub. Skyline of Brisbane CBD seen from Paddington, Queensland in May 2020, 01.jpg
Skyline of the Brisbane central business district. Brisbane is a global city and the state's largest economic hub.
Gold mine at Ravenswood in North Queensland: Mining is one of the state's major industries Ravenswood, Queensland - Gold Mine 3.jpg
Gold mine at Ravenswood in North Queensland: Mining is one of the state's major industries
The Gold Coast, Queensland's second-largest city and a major tourist destination Gold Coast skyline.jpg
The Gold Coast, Queensland's second-largest city and a major tourist destination
Noosa Heads on the Sunshine Coast, Queensland's third largest city and a major tourist destination Noosa Heads beach, Queensland 02.jpg
Noosa Heads on the Sunshine Coast, Queensland's third largest city and a major tourist destination

In 2019, Queensland had a gross state product of A$357,044, the third-highest in the nation after New South Wales and Victoria. [60] The construction of sea ports and railways along Queensland's coast in the 19th century set up the foundations for the state's export-oriented mining and agricultural sectors. Since the 1980s, a sizeable influx of interstate and overseas migrants, large amounts of federal government investment, increased mining of vast mineral deposits and an expanding aerospace sector have contributed to the state's economic growth. [61]

Primary industries include: bananas, pineapples, peanuts, a wide variety of other tropical and temperate fruit and vegetables, grain crops, wineries, cattle raising, cotton, sugarcane, wool and a mining industry including bauxite, coal, silver, lead, zinc, gold and copper.

Secondary industries are mostly further processing of the above-mentioned primary produce. For example, bauxite is shipped by sea from Weipa and converted to alumina at Gladstone. [62] There is also copper refining and the refining of sugar cane to sugar at a number of mills along the eastern coastline.

Major tertiary industries are retail, tourism and international education. In 2018, there were 134,312 international students enrolled in the state, largely focused on Brisbane. Most of the state's international students are from Asia. [63]

Brisbane is categorised as a global city, and is among Asia-Pacific cities with largest GDPs. It has strengths in mining, banking, insurance, transportation, information technology, real estate and food. [64] Some of the largest companies headquartered in Brisbane, all among Australia's largest, include Suncorp Group, Virgin Australia, Aurizon, Bank of Queensland, Flight Centre, CUA, Sunsuper, QSuper, Domino's Pizza Enterprises, Star Entertainment Group, ALS, TechnologyOne, NEXTDC, Super Retail Group, New Hope Coal, Jumbo Interactive, National Storage, Collins Foods and Boeing Australia. [65]

Tourism

As a result of its many varied landscapes, warm climate and abundant natural beauty, tourism is Queensland's leading tertiary industry with millions of interstate and international visitors visiting the state each year. The industry generates $8.8 billion annually, accounting for 4.5% of Queensland's Gross State Product. It has an annual export of $4.0 billion annually. The sector directly employs about 5.7% of Queensland citizens. [66] Accommodation in Queensland caters for nearly 22% of the total expenditure, followed by restaurants/meals (15%), airfares (11%), fuel (11%) and shopping/gifts (11%). [67]

The most visited tourist destinations of Queensland include Brisbane (including Moreton and South Stradbroke islands, the Gold Coast, the Sunshine Coast, the Great Barrier Reef, Cairns, Port Douglas, the Daintree Rainforest, Fraser Island and the Whitsunday Islands. [68] [69] [70]

Brisbane is the third most popular destination in Australia following Sydney and Melbourne. [71] Major attractions in its metropolitan area include South Bank Parklands, the Queensland Cultural Centre (including the Queensland Museum, Queensland Art Gallery, Gallery of Modern Art, Queensland Performing Arts Centre and State Library of Queensland), City Hall, the Story Bridge, the Howard Smith Wharves, ANZAC Square, St John's Cathedral, Fortitude Valley (including James Street and Chinatown), West End, the Teneriffe woolstores precinct, the Brisbane River and its Riverwalk network, the City Botanic Gardens, Roma Street Parkland, New Farm Park (including the Brisbane Powerhouse), the Kangaroo Point Cliffs and park, the Lone Pine Koala Sanctuary, the Mount Coot-tha Reserve (including Mount Coot-tha Lookout and Mount Coot-tha Botanic Gardens), the D'Aguilar Range and National Park, as well as Moreton Bay (including Moreton, North Stradbroke and Bribie islands, and coastal suburbs such as Shorncliffe, Wynnum and those on the Redcliffe Peninsula).

The Gold Coast is home to numerous popular surf beaches such as those at Surfers Paradise and Burleigh Heads. It also includes the largest concentration of amusement parks in Australia, including Dreamworld, Movie World, Sea World, Wet 'n' Wild and WhiteWater World, as well as the Currumbin Wildlife Sanctuary. The Gold Coast's hinterland includes Lamington National Park in the McPherson Range.

The Sunshine Coast includes popular surfing and beach destinations including Noosa Heads and Mooloolaba. It is also home to UnderWater World and Steve Irwin's Australia Zoo. Its hinterland includes the Glass House Mountains National Park.

Cairns is renowned as the gateway to the Great Barrier Reef, Far North Queensland (including Port Douglas) and the Daintree Rainforest.

The Whitsunday Islands off the coast of North Queensland are a popular tourist destinations for their resort facilities, access to the Great Barrier Reef and natural beauty.

Politics and government

Parliament House, seat of the Queensland Parliament Parliament House, Brisbane, Queensland with Christmas tree in 2019, 05.jpg
Parliament House, seat of the Queensland Parliament
Government House, seat of the Governor Government House seen from street, Brisbane, Queensland, 2019, 01.jpg
Government House, seat of the Governor
Queen Elizabeth II Courts of Law, headquarters of the Supreme Court of Queensland and District Court of Queensland Queen Elizabeth II Courts of Law seen from Albert Street, Brisbane 02.jpg
Queen Elizabeth II Courts of Law, headquarters of the Supreme Court of Queensland and District Court of Queensland

One of the six founding states of Australia, Queensland has been a federated state subject to the Australian Constitution since 1 January 1901. It is sovereign, other than in the matters ceded in the Australian Constitution to the federal government. It is a parliamentary constitutional monarchy. The Constitution of Queensland sets out the operation of the state's government. The state'a constitution contains several entrenched provisions which cannot be changed in the absence of a referendum. There is also a statutory bill of rights, the Queensland Human Rights Act (2019). Queensland's system of government is influenced by the Westminster system and Australia's federal system of government.

The government is separated into three branches:

Executive authority is nominally vested in the Governor of Queensland (currently Paul de Jersey) who represents and is appointed by the Monarch of Australia (currently Elizabeth II) on the advice of the Premier of Queensland. The Premier, who is the state's Head of government, along with the Cabinet of Queensland (whose decisions are formalised by the Executive Council), exercise executive authority in practice. The Premier is appointed by the Governor and must have support of the Legislative Assembly of Queensland. The Premier is in practice a leading member of the Legislative Assembly and parliamentary leader of his or her political party, or coalition of parties, and members of Cabinet will be drawn from the same party or coalition. The current Premier and Deputy Premier are Annastacia Palaszczuk and Steven Miles of the Labor Party respectively. Government House at Paddington in Brisbane is the seat of the Governor, having replaced Old Government House at Gardens Point in Brisbane's CBD in the early 20th century. The executive branch simply referred to as the Queensland Government.

Legislative autority is exercised by the Queensland Parliament which uniquely for Australian states is unicameral, containing only one house, the Legislative Assembly. The Parliament was bicameral until 1922, when the Legislative Council was abolished by the Labor "suicide squad", so called because they were appointed for the purpose of voting to abolish their own offices. [72] Bills receive royal assent from the Governor before being passed into law. The Parliament's seat is at Parliament House at Gardens Point in Brisbane's CBD. Members of the Legislative Assemby represent 93 electoral districts. Elections in Queensland are held at the end of each fixed four-year parliamentary term, and are determined by instant-runoff voting.

The state's judiciary consists of the Supreme Court of Queensland and the District Court of Queensland, established by the Queensland Constitution, as well as the Magistrates Court of Queensland and other courts and tribuals established by legislation. Cases may be appealed to the High Court of Australia. As with all Australian states and territories, Queensland has a Common law legal system. The Supreme and District courts are headquartered at the Queen Elizabeth II Courts of Law in Brisbane's CBD.

The state's politics are traditionally regarded as being conservative relative to other states. [73] [74] [75] [76] [77] Historically, the lack of an upper house, a former gerrymander favouring rural electoral districts as well as the former system of optional preferential voting has meant that Queensland had a long tradition of domination by strong-willed, populist premiers, often accused of authoritarian tendencies, holding office for long periods. This tendency was exemplified by the government of the state's longest-serving Premier Joh Bjelke-Petersen.

Local government

Local government is the mechanism by which local government areas can manage their own affairs to the extent permitted by the Local Government Act 2009. Queensland is divided into 77 local government areas, which are created by the state government under legislation. [78] Each local government area has a council responsible for providing a range of local services and utilities. Local councils derive their income from both rates and charges on resident ratepayers, and grants and subsidies from the state and federal governments. [79]

Federal representation

Queensland – Federal parliamentary delegations [80]
Election
House of Representatives Senate
Coalition [N 7] Labor Other [N 8] Coalition Labor Other
2001 1971543
2004 2151741
2007 13151750
2010 2181651
2013 2262642
2016 2181543
2019 2361633

In the federal Parliament of Australia, Queensland accounts for 30 of the 151 electoral divisions in the House of Representatives (on the basis of population size) and 12 of the 76 seats in the Senate (on the basis of equality between the states).

The current partisan makeup of Queensland's House of Representatives delegation is 23 Liberal National, 6 Labor and 1 Katter's Australian Party.

The current partisan makeup of Queensland's Senate delegation is 6 Liberal National, 3 Labor, 2 One Nation and 1 Green.

Culture

Queensland is home to major art galleries including the Queensland Art Gallery and the Queensland Gallery of Modern Art as well as cultural institutions such as the Queensland Ballet, Opera Queensland, Queensland Theatre Company, and Queensland Symphony Orchestra, all based at the Queensland Cultural Centre in Brisbane. The state is the origin of musicians such as the Bee Gees, The Go-Betweens, The Veronicas, The Saints, Savage Garden, and Sheppard as well as writers such as David Malouf, Nick Earls and Li Cunxin.

Major annual cultural events include the Royal Queensland Exhibition (known locally as the Ekka), an agricultural exhibition held each August at the Brisbane Showgrounds as well as the Brisbane Festival, which includes one of the nation's largest annual fireworks displays called 'Riverfire', and which is held each September.

Sport

Cricket game at The Gabba, a 42,000-seat round stadium in Brisbane The Gabba Panorama.jpg
Cricket game at The Gabba, a 42,000-seat round stadium in Brisbane

The state of Queensland is represented in all of Australia's national sporting competitions and it is also host to a number of domestic and international sporting events. The most popular winter and summer team sports are Rugby league, Rugby union and cricket, respectively.

In the National Rugby League, the Brisbane Broncos, North Queensland Cowboys and Gold Coast Titans are based in the state. Rugby league's annual State of Origin series is a major event in the Queensland sporting calendar, with the Queensland Maroons representing the state.

The state is represented by the Queensland Reds in the Super Rugby (rugby union).

In cricket, the Queensland Bulls represent the state in the Sheffield Shield and the Ryobi One Day Cup, while the Brisbane Heat compete in the Big Bash League.

Queensland is also home to the Brisbane Lions and the Gold Coast Suns in the Australian Football League (Australian rules football), and the Brisbane Roar FC in the A-League (soccer). In netball the Queensland Firebirds went undefeated in the 2011 season as they went on to win the Grand Final. Other sports teams are the Brisbane Bullets and the Cairns Taipans, who compete in the National Basketball League.

Swimming is also a popular sport in Queensland, with many of Australian team members and international medalists hailing from the state.

Major sporting include hosted in Queensland:

Education

The Great Court at the University of Queensland in Brisbane, Queensland's oldest university University of Queensland.jpg
The Great Court at the University of Queensland in Brisbane, Queensland's oldest university

Queensland is home to numerous universities. The state's oldest university, the University of Queensland, was established in 1909 and frequently ranks among the world's top 50, [81] [82] [83] . Other major universities include Queensland University of Technology, Griffith University, the University of Southern Queensland, the University of the Sunshine Coast, James Cook University (which was the state's first university outside of South East Queensland), and Bond University (which was Australias' first private university).

International education is an important industry, with 134,312 international students enrolled in the state in 2018, largely focused on Brisbane. Most of the state's international students are from Asia. [63]

At the primary and secondary levels, Queensland is home to numerous state and private schools.

Infrastructure

Transport

Passenger train at Oxley railway station on the Ipswich/Rosweood line within the Queensland Rail City network NGR722 approaching Oxley railway station, Brisbane.jpg
Passenger train at Oxley railway station on the Ipswich/Rosweood line within the Queensland Rail City network
Cargo ships at the Port of Gladstone, Queensland's largest commodity seaport Port of Gladstone 1.jpg
Cargo ships at the Port of Gladstone, Queensland's largest commodity seaport

Queensland is served by a number of National Highways and, particularly in South East Queensland, a network of freeways such as the M1. The Department of Transport & Main Roads oversees the development and operation of main roads and public transport, including taxis and local aviation.

Principal rail services are provided by Queensland Rail and Pacific National, predominantly between the major centres east of the Great Dividing Range.

Major seaports include the Port of Brisbane, Australia's third busiest by value of goods, as well as those at Gladstone, Townsville and Bundaberg. There are large coal export facilities at Hay Point, Gladstone and Abbot Point. Major sugar export facilities are located at Lucinda and Mackay.

Brisbane Airport is the main international and domestic gateway serving the state, and is the third busiest in Australia. Other international airports include the Gold Coast Airport, Cairns International Airport and Townsville Airport. Regional airports with scheduled domestic flights include Toowoomba Wellcamp Airport, Great Barrier Reef Airport, Hervey Bay Airport, Bundaberg Airport, Mackay Airport, Mount Isa Airport, Proserpine / Whitsunday Coast Airport, Rockhampton Airport, and Sunshine Coast Airport.

South East Queensland has an integrated public transport system operated by TransLink, which provides services bus, rail, light rail and Brisbane's ferry services through Queensland Rail and contracted operators. The region is divided into seven fare zones radiating outwards from the Brisbane central business district, which is the central hub for the system. The Queensland Rail City network consists of 152 train stations along 13 suburban rail lines and across the region, and predominately within Brisbane's metropolitan area. There is also a large bus network including Brisbane's large dedicated bus rapid transit network, the Brisbane busway network. Brisbane's popular ferry services include the CityCat, CityFerry and CityHopper services which have dedicated wharves along the Brisbane River. The G:link, Queensland's only light rail network, operates on the Gold Coast. [84]

Other utilities

Queensland Health operates and administers the state's public health system. There are sixteen regional Health and Hospital Services corresponding to geographical regions which are responsible for delivering public health services within their regions. Major public hospitals include the Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Princess Alexandra Hospital, the Mater Hospital, the Queen Elizabeth II Jubilee Hospital, and the Queensland Children's Hospital in Brisbane, as well as the Townsville University Hospital, Cairns Hospital, Cairns Hospital, Gold Coast Hospital and Gold Coast University Hospital in the regional cities. There are smaller public hospitals, as well as private hospitals, around the state.

See also

Notes

  1. In the UK and US, /ˈkwnzlənd/ KWEENZ-lənd is the preferred variant. [4]
  1. Pre-1971 figures may not include the Indigenous population.
  2. In accordance with the Australian Bureau of Statistics source, England, Scotland, Mainland China and the Special Administrative Regions of Hong Kong and Macau are listed separately
  3. As a percentage of 4,348,289 persons who nominated their ancestry at the 2016 census.
  4. The Australian Bureau of Statistics has stated that most who nominate "Australian" as their ancestry are part of the Anglo-Celtic group. [58]
  5. Of any ancestry. Includes those identifying as Aboriginal Australians or Torres Strait Islanders. Indigenous identification is separate to the ancestry question on the Australian Census and persons identifying as Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander may identify any ancestry.
  6. Of any ancestry. Includes those identifying as Aboriginal Australians or Torres Strait Islanders. Indigenous identification is separate to the ancestry question on the Australian Census and persons identifying as Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander may identify any ancestry.
  7. Includes the Liberal Party of Australia, National Party of Australia, Liberal National Party of Queensland and Country Liberal Party. In 2008, all Coalition parties in Queensland merged into the Liberal National Party of Queensland.
  8. Includes independents and minor parties.

Related Research Articles

Gold Coast, Queensland City in Queensland, Australia

The Gold Coast is a coastal city in the Australian state of Queensland, approximately 66 kilometres (41 mi) south-southeast of the state capital Brisbane and immediately north of the border with New South Wales. The Demonym for the Gold Coast is Gold Coaster. With an estimated population of 679,127, at June 2019, the Gold Coast is the sixth-largest city in Australia, making it the largest non-capital city, and Queensland's second-largest city.

Brisbane capital city of Queensland, Australia

Brisbane is the capital of and the most populous city in the Australian state of Queensland, and the third most populous city in Australia. Brisbane's metropolitan area has a population of over 2.5 million, and the South East Queensland metropolitan region, centred on Brisbane, encompasses a population of more than 3.6 million. The Brisbane central business district stands on the historic European settlement and is situated inside a peninsula of the Brisbane River, about 15 kilometres from its mouth at Moreton Bay, a bay of the Coral Sea. The metropolitan area extends in all directions along the hilly floodplain of the Brisbane River Valley between Moreton Bay and the Taylor and D'Aguilar mountain ranges. It sprawls across several of Australia's most populous local government areas (LGAs)—most centrally the City of Brisbane, which is by far the most populous LGA in the nation. The demonym of Brisbane is "Brisbanite", whilst common nicknames include "Brissy", "River City" and "Brisvegas".

Moreton Bay bay in Queensland, Australia

Moreton Bay is a bay located on the eastern coast of Australia 14 kilometres (8.7 mi) from central Brisbane, Queensland. It is one of Queensland's most important coastal resources. The waters of Moreton Bay are a popular destination for recreational anglers and are used by commercial operators who provide seafood to market.

Cairns City in Queensland, Australia

Cairns is a city in the Cairns Region, Queensland, Australia. It is on the east coast of Far North Queensland. The city is the 5th-most-populous in Queensland and ranks 14th overall in Australia.

Nambour, Queensland Suburb of Sunshine Coast, Queensland, Australia

Nambour is a town and locality in the Sunshine Coast Region, Queensland, Australia. At the 2016 census Nambour had a population of 11,187.

Coolangatta Suburb of Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia

Coolangatta is a coastal suburb and the southernmost suburb of City of Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia. It borders New South Wales. It is named after the schooner Coolangatta which was wrecked there in 1846. At the 2016 census, the suburb recorded a population of 5,948.

Weipa Town in Queensland, Australia

Weipa is a coastal mining town in the local government area of Weipa Town in Queensland, Australia. It is the largest town on the Cape York Peninsula. It exists because of the enormous bauxite deposits along the coast. The Port of Weipa is mainly involved in exports of bauxite. There are also shipments of live cattle from the port.

South East Queensland Region in Queensland, Australia

South East Queensland (SEQ) is a bio-geographical, political, and administrative region of the state of Queensland in Australia, which contains more than 3.6 million people out of the state's population of 5.1 million. The area covered by South East Queensland varies, depending on the definition of the region, though it tends to include Queensland's three largest cities: the capital city Brisbane; the Gold Coast; and the Sunshine Coast. Its most common use is for political purposes, and covers 22,420 square kilometres (8,660 sq mi) and incorporates 11 local government areas, extending 240 kilometres (150 mi) from Noosa in the north to the Gold Coast and New South Wales border in the south, and 140 kilometres (87 mi) west to Toowoomba.

Proserpine, Queensland Town in Queensland, Australia

Proserpine is a town and a locality in the Whitsunday Region, Queensland, Australia. Founded in the 1890s, it is the administrative/service centre and gateway to the Whitsunday Region by road, rail and air. At the 2016 census, Proserpine had a population of 3,562.

History of Queensland aspect of history

The history of Queensland encompasses both a long Aboriginal Australian presence as well as the more recent periods of European colonisation and as a state of Australia. Before being charted and claimed for the Kingdom of Great Britain by Lieutenant James Cook in 1770, the coast of north-eastern Australia was explored by Dutch and French navigators. Queensland separated from the Colony of New South Wales as a self-governing Crown colony in 1859. In 1901 it became one of the six founding states of Australia.

Albert River (South East Queensland) river in South East Queensland, Australia

The Albert River is a perennial river located in the South East region of Queensland, Australia. Its catchment lies within the Gold Coast and Scenic Rim Region local government areas and covers an area of 782 square kilometres (302 sq mi). The river provides potable water for the town of Beaudesert.

Far North Queensland Region in Queensland, Australia

Far North Queensland, which is often known simply as FNQ, is the northernmost part of the Australian state of Queensland. Its largest city is Cairns and it is dominated geographically by Cape York Peninsula, which stretches north to the Torres Strait, and west to the Gulf Country. The waters of Torres Strait include the only international border in the area contiguous with the Australian mainland, between Australia and Papua New Guinea.

Regions of Queensland geographic areas of Queensland, Australia

The Regions of Queensland refer to the geographic areas of the Australian state of Queensland. Due to its large size and decentralised population, the state is often divided into regions for statistical and administrative purposes. Each region varies somewhat in terms of its economy, population, climate, geography, flora and fauna. Cultural and official perceptions and definitions of the various regions differ somewhat depending on the government agency or popular group by which they are being applied.

North Queensland Region in Queensland, Australia

North Queensland or the Northern Region is the northern part of the Australian state of Queensland that lies just south of Far North Queensland. Queensland is a massive state, larger than many countries, and the tropical northern part of it has been historically remote and undeveloped, resulting in a distinctive regional character and identity.

Moreton Bay Region Local government area in Queensland, Australia

The Moreton Bay Region is a local government area in the north of the Brisbane metropolitan area in South East Queensland, Australia. Established in 2008, it replaced three established local government areas, the City of Redcliffe and the Shires of Pine Rivers and Caboolture.

The economy of Queensland is the third largest economy within Australia. Queensland generated 19.5% of Australia's gross domestic product in the 2008-09 financial year. The economy is primarily built upon mining, agriculture, tourism and financial services. Queensland's main exports are coal, metals, meat and sugar.

2009 Australian dust storm

The 2009 Australian dust storm, also known as the Eastern Australian dust storm, was a dust storm that swept across the Australian states of New South Wales and Queensland from 22 to 24 September 2009. The capital, Canberra, experienced the dust storm on 22 September, and on 23 September the storm reached Sydney and Brisbane. Some of the thousands of tons of dirt and soil lifted in the dust storm were dumped in Sydney Harbour and the Tasman Sea.

Geography of Queensland Geography of Queensland in north-east of Australia

The geography of Queensland in the north-east of Australia, is varied. It includes tropical islands, sandy beaches, flat river plains that flood after monsoon rains, tracts of rough, elevated terrain, dry deserts, rich agricultural belts and densely populated urban areas.

Coomera, Queensland Town in Queensland, Australia

Coomera is a town and suburb in the City of Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia. In the 2016 census, Coomera had a population of 13,305 people.

Cyclone Peter

Cyclone Peter was the wettest tropical cyclone on record in Australia. The third system and first severe tropical cyclone of the 1978–79 season, Peter developed on 29 December from a weak low pressure area over the Gulf of Carpentaria. Peter moved southeastward and deepened while brushing Arnhem Land. Initially a tropical low, it strengthened into a Category 1 cyclone by 12:00 UTC on 29 December. Peter intensified further on 30 December and became a Category 2 cyclone. On the following day, the cyclone peaked with maximum sustained winds of 110 km/h (70 mph). Peter weakened to a Category 1 cyclone before making landfall near the mouth of the Edward River in Queensland. While crossing the Cape York Peninsula, the storm weakened slowly. After reaching Pacific Ocean near Cooktown, the storm decelerated and meandered offshore, but dissipated just offshore on 4 January.

References

  1. 1 2 "Australian Demographic Statistics, Dec 2019". 18 June 2020. Retrieved 18 June 2020. Estimated Resident Population – 31 December 2019
  2. "5220.0 – Australian National Accounts: State Accounts, 2018–19". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 15 November 2019. Archived from the original on 20 April 2020. Retrieved 20 November 2019.
  3. "Floral Emblem of Queensland". Australian National Botanic Gardens. Archived from the original on 8 March 2012. Retrieved 23 January 2013.
  4. Wells, John C. (2008), Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.), Longman, ISBN   9781405881180
  5. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 13 April 2020. Retrieved 28 May 2020.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  6. 1 2 3 4 5 6 "Archived copy". Australian Bureau of Statistics. Archived from the original on 22 June 2019. Retrieved 28 May 2020.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  7. 1 2 3 4 5 6 "2016 Census of Population and Housing: General Community Profile" (ZIP). Australian Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 31 May 2020.
  8. "How Old is Australia's Rock Art?". Aboriginal Art Online. Archived from the original on 4 May 2013. Retrieved 15 May 2013.
  9. Dortch, C.E.; Hesp, P.A. (1994). "Rottnest Island artifacts and palaeosols in the context of Greater Swan Region prehistory". Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia. 77: 23–32.
  10. "Pomona – Quinalow". Place Names of South East Queensland. Archived from the original on 13 October 2007. Retrieved 13 October 2007.
  11. Karl Bitar. "Labor History: Timeline: Foundations: Colonial Origins". Archived from the original on 27 November 2012. Retrieved 24 August 2010.
  12. "National Museum of Australia – Richard Daintree's glass plates". Archived from the original on 17 March 2011.
  13. 1 2 A History of Queensland by Raymond Evans, Cambridge University Press, 2007 ISBN   978-0-521-87692-6
  14. "European discovery and the colonisation of Australia". culture.gov.au. Archived from the original on 16 February 2011. Retrieved 24 February 2014.
  15. Cumpston, JHL (1914). The History of Small-Pox in Australia 1788–1908. Melbourne: Australian Government Printer.
  16. Fenner, F.; Henderson, D.A.; Arita, I.; Jezek, Z. & Ladnyi, I.D. (1988). Smallpox and Its Eradication (History of International Public Health, No. 6) (PDF). Geneva: World Health Organization. ISBN   978-92-4-156110-5. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 September 2007.
  17. 1 2 Campbell, Judy; 2002, Invisible Invaders: Smallpox and Other Diseases in Aboriginal Australia 1780–1880, Carlton, Melbourne University Press, pp60–2, 80–1, 194–6, 201, 216–7
  18. Willis, H.A. (2011). "Bringing Smallpox with the First Fleet". Quadrant. 55 (7–8): 2. ISSN   0033-5002.
  19. "New Hope Group". Archived from the original on 27 February 2014. Retrieved 25 February 2014.
  20. "Extermination of the Queenslands Blacks". Empire (5246). New South Wales, Australia. 12 September 1868. p. 3. Retrieved 12 September 2017 via National Library of Australia.
  21. "Welcome to Frontier". Abc.net.au. Archived from the original on 18 July 2006. Retrieved 4 August 2010.
  22. Australia. "Stories of the Dreaming – Australian Museum". Dreamtime.net.au. Archived from the original on 8 February 2009. Retrieved 4 August 2010.
  23. NSWV&P re 26 October 1857
  24. MBC 14 November 1857
  25. Book: Reid, Gordon: A Nest of Hornets: The Massacre of the Fraser family at Hornet Bank Station, Central Queensland, 1857, and related events, Melbourne 1982.
  26. "The Massacre by the Blacks at Nogoa". The Maitland Mercury And Hunter River General Advertiser. XVIII (2106). New South Wales, Australia. 19 November 1861. p. 2. Retrieved 12 September 2017 via National Library of Australia.
  27. R Evans, quoted in T Bottoms (2013) Conspiracy of Silence: Queensland's frontier killing times, Allen & Unwin, p.181
  28. "Q150 Timeline". Queensland Treasury. Archived from the original on 3 September 2011. Retrieved 28 October 2011.
  29. Rickard, John (2017). Australia: A Cultural History. p. 173. ISBN   978-1-921867-60-6.
  30. "Documenting Democracy". Foundingdocs.gov.au. Archived from the original on 26 October 2009. Retrieved 4 August 2010.
  31. "Queensland Registry of Births, Deaths and Marriages World War One commemorative death certificates | Queensland's World War 1 Centenary". blogs.slq.qld.gov.au. Archived from the original on 3 February 2016. Retrieved 20 January 2016.
  32. Peter Dunn (2 March 2005). "Hirings Section". Australia @ War. Archived from the original on 12 October 2007. Retrieved 7 January 2008.
  33. Peter Dunn (27 August 2005). "The Battle of Brisbane — 26 & 27 November 1942". Australia @ War. Archived from the original on 10 January 2008. Retrieved 7 January 2008.
  34. Lowe, Ian (2012). Bigger Or Better?: Australia's Population Debate. University of Queensland Press. ISBN   9780702248078.
  35. Berry, Petrina (13 January 2011). "Brisbane braces for flood peak as Queensland's flood crisis continues". The Courier-Mail. Archived from the original on 16 August 2011. Retrieved 14 January 2011.
  36. "Before and after photos of the floods in Brisbane". Abc.net.au. Archived from the original on 12 July 2011. Retrieved 4 November 2012.
  37. National Climate Centre. "Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology – Climate of Queensland". Bureau of Meteorology. Archived from the original on 17 March 2009. Retrieved 4 August 2010.
  38. "Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology – Australian climatic zones". Bom.gov.au. Retrieved 4 August 2010.[ dead link ]
  39. "Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology – Climate statistics for Australian locations". Bureau of Meteorology. 19 July 2010. Archived from the original on 24 February 2011. Retrieved 4 August 2010.
  40. "Brisbane Regional Office". Climate statistics for Australian locations. Bureau of Meteorology . Retrieved 26 September 2010.
  41. "Mackay M.O." Climate statistics for Australian locations. Bureau of Meteorology . Retrieved 26 September 2010.
  42. "Cairns Aero". Climate statistics for Australian locations. Bureau of Meteorology . Retrieved 20 October 2018.
  43. "Townsville Aero". Climate statistics for Australian locations. Bureau of Meteorology . Retrieved 26 September 2010.
  44. "Rainfall and Temperature Records". Climate Extremes. Bureau of Meteorology. 28 February 2013. Archived from the original on 13 March 2014. Retrieved 26 March 2014.
  45. "Queensland Snow Events". Weather Armidale. Archived from the original on 10 December 2013. Retrieved 16 May 2014.
  46. "Queensland Cyclones". Emergency Management Queensland. Archived from the original on 28 May 2014. Retrieved 4 June 2014.
  47. "Queensland Floods Summary". Bureau of Meteorology. Archived from the original on 6 June 2014. Retrieved 4 June 2014.
  48. "Queensland Severe Storms". Emergency Management Queensland. Archived from the original on 10 July 2014. Retrieved 4 June 2014.
  49. "Tornadoes". Bureau of Meteorology. Archived from the original on 17 March 2009. Retrieved 6 April 2008.
  50. "Rainfall and Temperature Records". Bureau of Meteorology (Australian Government). Archived from the original on 4 June 2013. Retrieved 13 June 2013.
  51. "Rainfall and Temperature Records: National" (PDF). Bureau of Meteorology. Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 November 2010. Retrieved 14 November 2009.
  52. "Official records for Queensland in February". Daily Extremes. Bureau of Meteorology. 30 June 2017. Archived from the original on 12 March 2018. Retrieved 8 July 2017.
  53. "Official records for Queensland in October". Daily Extremes. Bureau of Meteorology. 30 June 2017. Archived from the original on 12 March 2018. Retrieved 8 July 2017.
  54. "Historical tables, demography, 1823 to 2008 (Q150 release)". Queensland Government Statistician's Office. Archived from the original on 16 June 2019. Retrieved 22 June 2019.
  55. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 1 April 2019. Retrieved 22 June 2019.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  56. "Archived copy". Australian Bureau of Statistics. Archived from the original on 23 February 2020. Retrieved 28 May 2020.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  57. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 18 July 2019. Retrieved 28 May 2020.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  58. "Feature Article - Ethnic and Cultural Diversity in Australia (Feature Article)". Australian Bureau of Statistics. Archived from the original on 20 April 2016. Retrieved 28 May 2020.
  59. "Media Release - 2016 Census: Queensland". Australian Bureau of Statistics . 27 June 2017. Retrieved 1 April 2020.
  60. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 20 April 2020. Retrieved 28 May 2020.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  61. Tom Dusevic (17 December 2009). "Queensland falls back with the pack". The Australian. Archived from the original on 29 January 2012. Retrieved 10 January 2010.
  62. "Gladstone". Comalco.com. Rio Tinto Aluminium. Archived from the original on 17 August 2009. Retrieved 9 March 2016.
  63. 1 2 "International students studying in regional areas" (PDF). February 2019. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 March 2019. Retrieved 28 May 2020.
  64. "Brisbane business visitor numbers skyrocket". Brisbane Marketing Convention Bureau. e-Travel Blackboard. 3 January 2008. Archived from the original on 20 January 2011. Retrieved 13 January 2008.
  65. "Brisbane Top Companies". Business News Australia. 11 October 2019. Archived from the original on 23 April 2020. Retrieved 19 April 2020.
  66. "About TQ – Profile". Tourism Queensland. Archived from the original on 14 September 2009. Retrieved 6 January 2010.
  67. "Tourism related information and statistics". Discoverqueensland.com.au. Archived from the original on 20 February 2011. Retrieved 4 August 2010.
  68. "The Great Barrier Reef and beyond: a beginner's guide to Queensland's coast". Lonely Planet. 1 September 2015. Archived from the original on 21 October 2016. Retrieved 20 October 2016.
  69. Kristof Haines (19 August 2015). "Earth's Top Travel Destinations Revealed". Writer for AirportRentals.com. AirportRentals.com. Archived from the original on 21 October 2016. Retrieved 20 October 2016.
  70. TravelTreks (8 September 2016). "Australia's Top 50 Small Towns". www.DiscountMyFlights.com.au. Stapylton, Queensland, Australia. Archived from the original on 27 October 2016. Retrieved 20 October 2016.
  71. "International Market Tourism Facts" (PDF). Tourism Australia. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 March 2008.
  72. Wanna, John (2003). "Queensland". In Moon, Campbell; Sharman, Jeremy (eds.). Australian Politics and Government: The Commonwealth, the States and Territories. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. p. 47. ISBN   978-0-521-82507-8. Archived from the original on 2 January 2016. Retrieved 15 November 2011.
  73. Daly, Margo (2003). The Rough Guide To Australia. Rough Guides Ltd. p. 397. ISBN   978-1-84353-090-9.
  74. Penrith, Deborah (2008). Live & Work in Australia. Crimson Publishing. p. 478. ISBN   978-1-85458-418-2.
  75. "Why Labor struggles in Queensland". 23 August 2010. Archived from the original on 15 January 2013.
  76. George Megalogenis, "The Green and the Grey", Quarterly Essay, Vol. 40, 2010, p69.
  77. "Australia ready for first female leader". BBC News. 25 June 2010. Archived from the original on 25 April 2012.
  78. Local Government Act 1993 Archived 23 April 2011 at the Wayback Machine , s.34. (Reprint 11E, as in force at 22 November 2007.)
  79. "Rates and valuations". Queensland: Department of Local Government, Sport and Recreation. 26 July 2007. Archived from the original on 19 March 2008. Retrieved 5 April 2008.
  80. "Historical information on the Australian Parliament". Parliament of Australia. Archived from the original on 25 May 2019. Retrieved 24 May 2020.
  81. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 17 September 2012. Retrieved 28 May 2020.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  82. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 28 October 2014. Retrieved 28 May 2020.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  83. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 23 December 2017. Retrieved 28 May 2020.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  84. "Sharing the road with trams | Transport and motoring". Department of Transport and Main Roads. Queensland Government. Archived from the original on 9 November 2017. Retrieved 8 November 2017.