Qufu

Last updated
Qufu
曲阜市
Kufow
Qufu south gate.JPG
Qufu's south gate
ChinaJiningQufu.png
Location in Jining
China Shandong location map.svg
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Qufu
Location in Shandong
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Red pog.svg
Qufu
Qufu (China)
Coordinates(Qufu municipal government): 35°34′55″N116°59′10″E / 35.5819°N 116.9862°E / 35.5819; 116.9862 Coordinates: 35°34′55″N116°59′10″E / 35.5819°N 116.9862°E / 35.5819; 116.9862
Country People's Republic of China
Province Shandong
Prefecture-level city Jining
Area
   County-level city 815 km2 (315 sq mi)
Elevation
65 m (214 ft)
Population
 (2017)
   County-level city 653,000
  Density800/km2 (2,100/sq mi)
   Urban
188,000
Time zone UTC+8 (China Standard)
Postal code
273100
Historical plan of the Temple of Confucius (1912). Confucius temple 1912.jpg
Historical plan of the Temple of Confucius (1912).

Within two years after the death of Confucius, his former house in Qufu was already consecrated as a temple by the Duke of Lu. In 205 BC, Emperor Liu Bang of the Han Dynasty was the first emperor to offer sacrifices to the memory of Confucius in Qufu. He set an example for many emperors and high officials to follow. Later, emperors would visit Qufu after their enthronement or on important occasions such as a successful war. In total, 12 different emperors paid 20 personal visits to Qufu to worship Confucius. About 100 others sent their deputies for 196 official visits. The original three-room house of Confucius was removed from the temple complex during a rebuilding undertaken in 611 AD. In 1012 and in 1094, during the Song Dynasty, the temple was extended into a design with three sections and four courtyards, around which eventually more than 400 rooms were arranged. Fire and vandalism destroyed the temple in 1214, during the Jin Dynasty. It was restored to its former extent by the year 1302 during the Yuan Dynasty. Shortly thereafter, in 1331, the temple was framed in an enclosure wall modelled on the Imperial palace. After another devastation by fire in 1499, the temple was finally restored to its present scale. In 1724, yet another fire destroyed the main hall and the sculptures it contained. The subsequent restoration was completed in 1730. Many of the replacement sculptures were again destroyed during the Cultural Revolution in 1966. In total, the Temple of Confucius has undergone 15 major renovations, 31 large repairs, and numerous small building measures.

The temple complex is the second largest historical building complex in China (after the Forbidden City)—it covers an area of 16,000 square metres (170,000 sq ft) and has a total of 460 rooms. Because the last major redesign following the fire in 1499 took place shortly after the building of the Forbidden City in the Ming Dynasty, the architecture of the Temple of Confucius resembles that of the Forbidden City in many ways. The main part of the temple consists of 9 courtyards arranged on a central axis, which is oriented in the north–south direction and is 1.3 kilometres (0.81 mi) in length. The first three courtyards have small gates and are planted with tall pine trees, they serve an introductory function. The first (southernmost) gate is named "Lingxing Gate" after a star in the Great Bear constellation, the name suggests that Confucius is a star from heaven. The buildings in the remaining courtyards form the heart of the complex. They are impressive structures with yellow roof-tiles (otherwise reserved for the emperor) and red-painted walls, they are surrounded by dark-green pine trees to create a color contrast with complementary colors. The main buildings are the Stele Pavilions (e.g., Jin and Yuan Dynasties, 1115–1368), the Kuiwen Hall (built in 1018, restored in 1504 during the Ming Dynasty and in 1985), the Xing Tan Pavilion (simplified Chinese : ; traditional Chinese : ; pinyin : Xìng Tán , Apricot Platform), the De Mu Tian Di Arch, the Dacheng Hall (built in the Qing Dynasty), and the Hall of Confucius' Wife. The Dacheng Hall (Chinese : 殿 ; pinyin : chéng diàn , Great Perfection Hall) is the architectural center of the present day complex. The hall covers an area of 54 by 34 metres (177 by 112 ft) and stands slightly less than 32 m (105 ft) tall.

It is supported by 28 richly decorated pillars, each 6 m (20 ft) high and 0.8 m (2 ft 7 in) in diameter and carved in one piece out of local rock. The ten columns on the front side of the hall are decorated with coiled dragons. It is said that these columns were covered during visits by the emperor in order not to arouse his envy. Dacheng Hall served as the principal place for offering sacrifices to the memory of Confucius. In the center of the courtyard in front of Dacheng Hall stands the "Apricot Platform", which commemorates Confucius teaching his students under an apricot tree. Each year at Qufu and at many other Confucian temples a ceremony is held on September 28 to commemorate Confucius' birthday.

Cemetery of Confucius (Kong Lin)

The tomb of Confucius. Confuciustombqufu.jpg
The tomb of Confucius.

The Cemetery of Confucius ( ; Kǒng Lín ) lies to the north of the town of Qufu. The oldest graves found in this location date back to the Zhou Dynasty. The original tomb erected here in memory of Confucius on the bank of the Sishui River had the shape of an axe. In addition, it had a brick platform for sacrifices. The present-day tomb is a cone-shaped hill. Tombs for the descendants of Confucius and additional stela to commemorate him were soon added around Confucius' tomb.

Since Confucius' descendants were conferred noble titles and were given imperial princesses as wives, many of the tombs in the cemetery show the status symbols of noblemen. Tombstones came in use during the Han Dynasty, today, there are about 3,600 tombstones dating from the Song, Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties still standing in the cemetery.

In 1331 construction work began on the wall and gate of the cemetery. In total, the cemetery has undergone 13 renovations and extensions. Eventually, by the late 18th century, the perimeter wall reached a length of 7.5 km (4.7 mi), enclosing an area of 3.6 square kilometres (1.4 sq mi). In this space, the tombs of more than 100,000 descendants of Confucius, who have been buried there over a period of about 2000 years, can be found. The oldest graves date back to the Zhou Dynasty, the most recent of which belong to descendants in the 76th and 78th generation.

During the Cultural Revolution, the Kong family cemetery was branded a "reactionary" site and was subject to vandalism and desecration. The tombs of Confucius and his descendants were dug up, looted and flattened. Confucius statue was pulled down and paraded through the streets. According to statistics published after the Cultural Revolution, 100,000 volumes of classical texts were burned, 6,618 cultural artefacts were destroyed or damaged, one thousand stelae were smashed, 5,000 ancient pines were felled and over 2,000 graves were dug up during the period. [30] The corpse of the 76th Duke of Qufu was removed from its grave, hung naked from a tree in front of the palace and later incinerated. [31]

More than 10,000 mature trees give the cemetery a forest-like appearance. A road runs from the north gate of Qufu to the exterior gate of the cemetery in a straight line. It is 1,266 m (4,154 ft) in length and lined by cypresses and pine trees. Along this road lies the Yan Temple, dedicated to Confucius' favorite student.

Kong Family Mansion (Kong Fu)

Courtyard in the Kong family mansion Confuciusmansionqufu.jpg
Courtyard in the Kong family mansion

The direct descendants of Confucius lived in the Kong family Mansion ( ; Kǒng ) located to the east of the temple. They were in charge of tending to the temple and cemetery. In particular, they were in charge of conducting elaborate religious ceremonies on occasions such as plantings, harvests, honoring the dead, and birthdays. The Kong family was in control of the largest private rural estate in China. The first mansion was built in 1038 during the Song dynasty and was originally connected directly to the temple. During a rebuilding in 1377 directed by the first Ming dynasty Emperor, it was moved a short distance away from the temple. In 1503, it was expanded into three rows of buildings with 560 rooms and—like the Confucius Temple—9 courtyards. The mansion underwent a complete renovation in 1838 only to perish in a fire 47 years later in 1887. It was rebuilt two years later; the cost of both 19th-century renovations was covered by the Emperor. Today, the mansion comprises 152 buildings with 480 rooms, which cover an area of 12,470 square metres (134,200 sq ft). Its tallest structure is the four-story refuge tower ( ; nán Lóu ) that was designed as a shelter during an attack but was never used. The family mansion was inhabited by descendants of Confucius until 1937, when Confucius' descendant in the 76th and 77th generations fled to Chongqing during the Second Sino-Japanese War and later during the Chinese Civil War to Taiwan, where the head of the family still resides.

The layout of the mansion is traditionally Chinese, it separates official rooms in the front from the residential quarters in the rear. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of the buildings according to the seniority, gender, and status of their inhabitants reflects the Confucian principle of order and hierarchy: The most senior descendant of Confucius took up residence in the central of the three main buildings; his younger brother occupied the Yi Gun hall to the east.

Economy

Qufu's economy consists of a number different industries. Agriculture, specifically grain production, is a major industry for the city. The other main industries are food processing, textile, construction materials, chemical, coal mining, pharmacy, paper making and industrial machinery. [32] Qufu has also benefited greatly from tourism, holding a number of cultural festivals and exhibitions, largely centered around Confucius. [33]

Natural Resources

The city's main mineral deposits include coal, phosphorus, and limestone. [2]

Education

Qufu Normal University is located in Qufu city, and has an additional campus in Rizhao. [34] The university, founded in 1955, offers 87 undergraduate majors, 25 master's degrees, and 11 doctoral degrees. [34]

Religion

Qufu is a traditional centre of Confucianism, being the area where Confucius was born. The city is home to the holiest Temple of Confucius, to the Mausoleum of Confucius and to the Mansion of the Kong Family. The city also has a branch of the Holy Church of Confucius (孔圣堂; Kǒngshèngtáng) and hosts the headquarters of the Federation of Confucian Culture.

See also

Notes

  1. "China Urban Construction Statistical Yearbook 2017". Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development. 2019. Retrieved 2020-04-24.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 曲阜市概况地图_行政区划网(区划地名网) www.xzqh.org. xzqh.org (in Chinese). Retrieved 2020-05-13.
  3. 中国古今地名大词典[Dictionary of Chinese Place-names Ancient and Modern]. Shanghai: Shanghai Lexicographical Publishing House. 2005. p. 1154.
  4. 1 2 3 曲阜市历史沿革_行政区划网(区划地名网) www.xzqh.org. xzqh.org (in Chinese). Retrieved 2020-05-13.
  5. 1 2 Bo Chonglan et al. (2002), p. 109
  6. Thomas Jansen; Thoralf Klein; Christian Meyer (21 March 2014). Globalization and the Making of Religious Modernity in China: Transnational Religions, Local Agents, and the Study of Religion, 1800-Present. BRILL. pp. 187–188. ISBN   978-90-04-27151-7.
  7. "Nation observes Confucius anniversary". China Daily. 2006-09-29.
  8. "Confucius Anniversary Celebrated". China Daily. September 29, 2006.
  9. Thomas A. Wilson (2002). On Sacred Grounds: Culture, Society, Politics, and the Formation of the Cult of Confucius. Harvard University Asia Center. pp. 69, 315. ISBN   978-0-674-00961-5.
  10. Thomas Jansen; Thoralf Klein; Christian Meyer (21 March 2014). Globalization and the Making of Religious Modernity in China: Transnational Religions, Local Agents, and the Study of Religion, 1800-Present. BRILL. pp. 188–. ISBN   978-90-04-27151-7.
  11. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2016-05-03.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) p. 14.
  12. 1 2 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/248653434_The_Ritual_Formation_of_Confucian_Orthodoxy_and_the_Descendants_of_the_Sage p. 575.
  13. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2016-05-03.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) p. 5.
  14. "AAS Abstracts: China Session 45". Archived from the original on 2016-10-06. Retrieved 2016-07-24.
  15. Wilson, Thomas A.. 1996. "The Ritual Formation of Confucian Orthodoxy and the Descendants of the Sage". The Journal of Asian Studies 55 (3). [Cambridge University Press, Association for Asian Studies]: 559–84. doi:10.2307/2646446. https://www.jstor.org/stable/2646446 p. 575.
  16. "Cultural revolution in Current Events". Weekly Reader Corp. September 29, 2006. Archived from the original on April 17, 2008. Retrieved 2007-03-04.
  17. Wang Liang, "The Confucius Temple Tragedy of the Cultural Revolution," in Thomas A. Wilson, ed., On Sacred Grounds, (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2002)
  18. Sang Ye and Geremie R. Barmé (2009): The Fate of the Confucius Temple, the Kong Mansion and Kong Cemetery, China Archived 2010-11-21 at the Wayback Machine Heritage Quarterly, No. 20, December 2009
  19. Armstrong, Alexander (1896), In a mule litter to the tomb of Confucius, J. Nisbet
  20. 1 2 Legge, James (1867). Confucius and the Chinese classics. A. Roman. pp.  384, 388. - Rev. A. Williamson's account of his visit to Qufu in 1865
  21. Markham (1870), "Journey through Shantung", Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London , J. Murray, 40: 223
  22. Colby, Frank Moore; Williams, Talcott, eds. (1918), The New international encyclopædia, Volume 13 (2 ed.), Dodd, Mead and company, p. 276
  23. See e.g. the map (Fig. 3.1.2.2) in: Schinz, Alfred (1996), The magic square: cities in ancient China, Edition Axel Menges, p. 116, ISBN   3-930698-02-1
  24. 临沂高铁又有俩大动作:临沂-淮安高铁将打通. huochepiao.com. 2015-05-29.
  25. "Tourist monorail featuring Confucian culture under construction". Xinhua. 3 January 2018. Archived from the original on January 3, 2018. Retrieved 13 July 2021.
  26. "The way of Confucius and Mencius is difficult to climb to the sky (Confucius and Mencius Express-BYD Cloud Track)". inf.news. 13 July 2017. Retrieved 13 July 2021.
  27. Sang Ye and Geremie R. Barmé (December 20, 2009). "The Fate of the Confucius Temple, the Kong Mansion and Kong Cemetery". Chinese Heritage Quarterly. Retrieved 2017-02-16.
  28. Jeni Hung (April 5, 2003). "Children of confucius". The Spectator. Archived from the original on March 21, 2006. Retrieved 2007-03-04.
  29. "Qufu·China". www.qufu.gov.cn. Archived from the original on 8 December 2015. Retrieved 4 April 2018.
  30. "Shandong: Cradle of Confucian Culture". China Today. 2015-06-24. Retrieved 2020-05-13.
  31. 1 2 学校简介-曲阜师范大学. www.qfnu.edu.cn (in Chinese). Retrieved 2020-05-13.

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References

Qufu
Qufu (Chinese characters).svg
"Qufu" in Chinese characters