Quinze-Vingts National Ophthalmology Hospital

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Quinze-Vingts National Ophthalmology Hospital
2003.11.27 Photo02 043 Paris XII Hopital des Quinze-Vingt reductwk.jpg
Geography
Location28 rue de Charenton, 75012 Paris, France
Coordinates 48°51′03″N2°22′16″E / 48.8509186°N 2.3712167°E / 48.8509186; 2.3712167
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The Quinze-Vingts National Ophthalmology Hospital, (Centre hospitalier national d’ophtalmologie des Quinze-Vingts), is France's national ophthalmology hospital located in Paris, in the 12th arrondissement. The hospital gave its name to the Quinze-Vingts quarter.

Paris Capital of France

Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, diplomacy, commerce, fashion, science, as well as the arts. The City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €709 billion in 2017. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, and ahead of Zürich, Hong Kong, Oslo and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong Kong, in 2018. The city is a major railway, highway, and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly. Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, and is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, but the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015.

12th arrondissement of Paris French municipal arrondissement in Île-de-France, France

The 12th arrondissement of Paris is one of the 20 arrondissements, or boroughs, of the capital city of France. In spoken French, this arrondissement is referred to as douzième ("twelfth").

A quarter is a section of an urban settlement.

Contents

History

The Hospice des Quinze-Vingts, an hospital for the blind, was founded in 1260 by Louis IX, king of France, also known as "Saint Louis". It was constructed on a piece of land called "Champ-Pourri", [1] an area lying a short distance west of the Louvre fortress, outside the fortified wall built by Philippe Augustus from 1190 to 1209. It became included within the city after the erection of the new fortified wall of Charles V built between 1356 and 1383. Within the new neighborhood thus formed west of the Louvre, it was located on rue Saint-Honoré at the corner of the rue Saint-Nicaise, (in the area between the Palais-Royal and Place du Carrousel, whose construction post-dated of several centuries that of the Quinze-Vingts).

Louis IX of France 13th-century King of France

Louis IX, commonly known as Saint Louis, was King of France, the ninth from the House of Capet, and is a canonized Catholic and Anglican saint. Louis was crowned in Reims at the age of 12, following the death of his father Louis VIII; his mother, Blanche of Castile, ruled the kingdom as regent until he reached maturity. During Louis' childhood, Blanche dealt with the opposition of rebellious vassals and obtained a definitive victory in the Albigensian Crusade which had started 20 years earlier.

Louvre Palace former royal palace, now hosting the Louvre Museum in Paris, France

The Louvre Palace is a former royal palace located on the Right Bank of the Seine in Paris, between the Tuileries Gardens and the church of Saint-Germain l'Auxerrois. Originally a fortress built in the medieval period, it became a royal palace in the fourteenth century under Charles V and was used from time to time by the kings of France as their main Paris residence. Its present structure has evolved in stages since the 16th century. In 1793 part of the Louvre became a public museum, now the Musée du Louvre, which has expanded to occupy most of the building.

Wall of Philip II Augustus

The Wall of Philip Augustus is the oldest city wall of Paris (France) whose plan is accurately known. Partially integrated into buildings, more traces of it remain than of the later fortifications which were destroyed and replaced by the Grands Boulevards.

The name Quinze-Vingts, which means three hundred (15 × 20 = 300), comes from the vigesimal (based on 20) numeral system used in the Middle Ages: it referred to the number of beds in the hospital, and was intended to house 300 poor, blind city-dwellers. [2]

Vigesimal Numeral system based on twenty

The vigesimal or base-20(base-score) numeral system is based on twenty.

In 1779, during the reign of king Louis XVI, the Cardinal de Rohan transferred the hospital to its current location, rue de Charenton, in the former barracks of the "Black Musketeers", (Mousquetaires noirs, named for the color of their horses), which had been disbanded in 1775. Rohan also changed the system of administration and increased the number of beds to eight hundred. [3]

Louis XVI of France King of France and Navarre

Louis XVI, born Louis-Auguste, was the last King of France before the fall of the monarchy during the French Revolution. He was referred to as citizen Louis Capet during the four months before he was guillotined. In 1765, at the death of his father, Louis, son and heir apparent of Louis XV, Louis-Auguste became the new Dauphin of France. Upon his grandfather's death on 10 May 1774, he assumed the title "King of France and Navarre", which he used until 4 September 1791, when he received the title of "King of the French" until the monarchy was abolished on 21 September 1792.

Cardinal de Rohan Catholic cardinal

Louis René Édouard de Rohan known as Cardinal de Rohan, prince de Rohan-Guéméné, was a French bishop of Strasbourg, politician, cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church, and cadet of the Rohan family. His parents were Hercule Mériadec, Prince of Guéméné and Louise Gabrielle Julie de Rohan. He was born in Paris.

In 1801, during the Consulate, the hospital was housing the Institute for the Young Blind founded by Valentin Haüy in 1784 [4] .

French Consulate former government of France

The Consulate was the top-level Government of France from the fall of the Directory in the coup of Brumaire on 10 November 1799 until the start of the Napoleonic Empire on 18 May 1804. By extension, the term The Consulate also refers to this period of French history.

Valentin Haüy founder of the first school for the blind

Valentin Haüy was the founder, in 1785, of the first school for the blind, the Institute for Blind Youth in Paris. In 1819, Louis Braille entered this school.

Between 1957 and 1968, large parts of the former barracks of Black Musketeers were demolished. What was left - entrance and chapel - was classified Monument historique (historical monument) on 26 December 1976. [5]

<i>Monument historique</i> protected French building as a Historical Monument (use « classified Historical Monument » and « inscribed Historical Monument »)

Monument historique is a designation given to some national heritage sites in France. It may also refer to the state procedure in France by which National Heritage protection is extended to a building, a specific part of a building, a collection of buildings, garden, bridge, or other structure, because of their importance to France's architectural and historical cultural heritage. Both public and privately owned structures may be listed in this way, as well as movable objects. As of 2012 there were 44,236 monuments listed.

Up to this day the Quinze-Vingts remains a hospital for eye diseases. It also houses the Vision Institute (Institut de la Vision), an ophthalmology research center that opened in 2008.

Bibliography

Zina Weygand, The Blind in French Society from the Middle Ages to the Century of Louis Braille, Stanford University Press, 2009

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References

  1. J-A Delaure et Gabriel Roux, Histoire de Paris, 1853, p. 132
  2. Dictionnaire universel, géographique, général, statistique, historique et politique de la France, Tome 4 (P-SAJ), Imprimeur Beaudouin, Paris, 1804, p. 51
  3. J-A Delaure et Gabriel Roux, Histoire de Paris, 1853, p. 133
  4. Press, Stanford University. "The Blind in French Society from the Middle Ages to the Century of Louis Braille | Zina Weygand Translated by Emily-Jane Cohen, with a Preface by Alain Corbin". www.sup.org. Retrieved 2019-07-27.
  5. Mérimée PA00086564 , Ministère français de la Culture. ‹See Tfd› (in French)