|Alternative names||ghraybe, ghorayeba, gourabia; Greece: kourabiedes, kourabiethes, kurabie; Morocco: ghoriba, ghouribi, ghribi; Turkey: kurabiye|
|Main ingredients||Almond flour, sugar, egg white, vanilla|
Qurabiya (also ghraybe, ghorayeba, and numerous other spellings and pronunciations) is a shortbread-type biscuit, usually made with ground almonds. Versions are found in most countries of the former Ottoman Empire, with various different forms and recipes.
Cookies appear to have their origins in 7th century Persia, modern day Iran, shortly after the use of sugar became relatively common in the region. [ dubious ]A recipe for a shortbread cookie similar to ghorayebah but without almonds, called in Arabic khushkanānaj gharib (exotic cookie), is given in the earliest known Arab cookbook, the 10th-century Kitab al-Ṭabīḫ . Kurabiye appears in the Ottoman cuisine in the 15th century.
There is some debate about the origin of the words. Some give no other origin for the Turkish word kurabiye than Turkish, while others have given Arabic or Persian.Among others, linguist Sevan Nişanyan has given an Arabic origin, in his 2009 book of Turkish etymology, from ġurayb or ğarîb (exotic). However, as of 2019, Nişanyan's online dictionary now gives the earliest known recorded use in Turkish as the late 17th century, with an origin from the Persian gulābiya, a cookie made with rose water, from gulāb, related to flowers. He notes that the Syrian Arabic words ġurābiye/ġuraybiye likely derive from the Turkish.
In Tabriz, they are made of almond flour, sugar, egg white, vanilla, margarine and pistachio. It is served with tea, customarily placed on top of the teacup to make it soft before eating.[ citation needed ]
Called ghoriba in Morocco and other parts of the Maghreb, the popular cookies often use semolina instead of white flour, giving a distinctive crunch.
The Greek version, called kourabiedes or kourabiethes : κουραμπιέδες) resembles a light shortbread, typically made with almonds. Kourabiedes are sometimes made with brandy, usually Metaxa, for flavouring, though vanilla, mastika or rose water are also popular. In some regions of Greece, Christmas kourabiedes are adorned with a single whole spice clove embedded in each biscuit. Kourabiedes are shaped either into crescents or balls, then baked till slightly golden. They are usually rolled in icing sugar while still hot, forming a rich butter-sugar coating. Kourabiedes are especially popular for special occasions, such as Christmas or baptisms.(Greek
Kurabii name of the Bulgarian cuisine and the many varieties of cookie, a popular sweet variety. Especially during the holiday season, and a variety of jams produced via the new year with powdered sugar cookies decorated with cute shapes are called maslenki.[ citation needed ]
The word kurabiye is used to refer to a variety of biscuits in Turkey, not necessarily local ones, although various types of local kurabiye are made; including acıbadem kurabiyesi and un kurabiyesi.
Halva are dense, sweet confections originating in the Middle East. It is also served in Central and South Asia, the Balkans, the Caucasus, Eastern Europe, Malta, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, and in the Jewish diaspora. Identical sweets exist in other countries, such as China, though these are not generally referred to as "halva".
Cheesecake is a sweet dessert consisting of one or more layers. The main, and thickest layer, consists of a mixture of soft, fresh cheese, eggs, and sugar. If there is a bottom layer, it often consists of a crust or base made from crushed cookies, graham crackers, pastry, or sometimes sponge cake. It may be baked or unbaked.
A macaroon is a small cake or cookie, typically made from ground almonds, coconut or other nuts, with sugar and sometimes flavorings, food coloring, glacé cherries, jam or a chocolate coating – or a combination of these or other ingredients. Some recipes call for sweetened condensed milk. Macaroons are sometimes baked on edible rice paper placed on a baking tray.
Horchata, or orxata, is a name given to various kinds of plant milk beverages of similar taste and appearance. It originated at least as far back as 13th-century Valencia, where it is known as horchata de chufa. In Spain it is made with soaked, ground, and sweetened tiger nuts, but in Mexico and other parts of the Americas the base is white rice. In West African countries such as Nigeria and Mali, it is known as kunnu aya. Different varieties can be served hot or cold, and it is even used as a flavour in other beverages, such as frappé coffee.
Shortcake is a sweet cake or biscuit.
Christmas cookies or Christmas biscuits are traditionally sugar cookies or biscuits cut into various shapes related to Christmas.
Caramel shortbread, also known as caramel shortcake, caramel squares, caramel slice, millionaire's shortbread, and millionaire's slice, is a biscuit confectionery item composed of a crunchy and rich rectangular shortbread biscuit base topped with a chewy and soft caramel filling and a shiny milk chocolate topping.
Shish kebab is a popular meal of skewered and grilled cubes of meat. It is similar to or synonymous with a dish called shashlik, which is found in the Caucasus region.
Ma'amoul is an Arab filled pastry or cookie made with dates, nuts such as pistachios or walnuts and occasionally almonds, or figs. They may be in the shape of balls, domed or flattened cookies. They can either be decorated by hand or be made in special wooden moulds. Ma'amoul with date fillings are often known as menenas, and are sometimes made in the form of date rolls rather than balls or cookies.
Acıbadem kurabiyesi is a traditional Turkish biscuit made of almonds, sugar and egg whites. The traditional recipes include a small amount of bitter almonds, which gives this cookie its name. However, because bitter almonds are not readily available, almond extract is typically used as a substitute. These biscuits are part of the stock-in trade of almost every bakery in Turkey, and are seldom made at home.
Kanafeh is a traditional Middle Eastern dessert made with thin noodle-like pastry, or alternatively fine semolina dough, soaked in sweet, sugar-based syrup, and typically layered with cheese, or with other ingredients such as clotted cream or nuts, depending on the region. It is popular in the Arab world, particularly the Levant and Egypt, and especially among Palestinians. In addition, variants are found in Turkey, Greece, and the Balkans, as well as in the South Caucasus.
Russian tea cake is a kind of pastry, often eaten around Christmas in the United States. It is a form of jumble, a pastry common in England during the Middle Ages. Similar varieties are known as Mexican wedding cakes , Italian wedding cookies, Kourabiedes, or Greek wedding cookies, butterballs, and occasionally snowball cookies or “pecan Susans” for their powdery white spherical appearance when appearing around the winter holidays.
Kourabiedes or Kourabiethes are almond biscuits or cookies popular in Greece, Cyprus, and Greek communities in Anatolia, as well as across the Greek diaspora. They are related to numerous other biscuits known as qurabiya or similar names found in Ottoman and Persian cuisine.
Baklava is a rich, sweet dessert pastry made of layers of filo filled with chopped nuts and sweetened and held together with syrup or frosting or honey. It is characteristic of the cuisines of the Levant and the broader Middle East, along with Greece, the South Caucasus, Balkans, the Maghreb and Central Asia.
A sandwich cookie, also known as a sandwich biscuit, is a type of cookie consisting of two cookies between which is a filling. Many types of fillings are used, such as cream, ganache, buttercream, chocolate, cream cheese, jam, peanut butter, lemon curd, or ice cream.
Butter cookies, known as Brysselkex, Sablés, and Danish biscuits, are unleavened cookies consisting of butter, flour, and sugar. They are often categorized as a "crisp cookie" due to their texture, caused in part because of the quantity of butter and sugar. It is generally necessary to chill the dough to enable proper manipulation and handling. Butter cookies at their most basic have no flavoring, but they are often flavored with vanilla, chocolate, and coconut, and/or topped with sugar crystals. They also come in a variety of shapes such as circles, squares, ovals, rings, and pretzel-like forms, and with a variety of appearances, including marbled, checkered or plain. Using piping bags, twisted shapes can be made. In some parts of the world, such as Europe and North America, butter cookies are often served around Christmas time. Butter cookies are also a very popular gift in China, especially during Chinese New Year.
A ghoriba is a type of cookie prepared in the Maghreb and other parts of the Arab world. It is a round, shortbread cookie made with flour, sugar, butter, and usually almonds. It is often served with Arabic coffee or Maghrebi mint tea. Ghoriba sometimes pronounce as Ghurayba, has been around in the Greater Syria area, Iraq and other Arab countries since ancient times. They are similar to polvorones from Andalusia and qurabiya from Iran.
An almond biscuit, or almond cookie, is a type of biscuit that is made with almonds. They are a common biscuit in many different cuisines, and take many forms.
The sandie, sometimes referred to as sablé, is a type of sugar cookie or shortbread cookie. The pecan sandie is a common variety of the cookie. The Keebler Company has registered the brand name, Sandies, which it uses for a line of shortbread cookies.