Qurabiya

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Qurabiya
Kurabiyes in the form of medialuna.jpg
Crescent shaped qurabiya
Alternative namesghraybe, ghorayeba, gourabia; Greece: kourabiedes, kourabiethes, kurabie; Morocco: ghoriba, ghouribi, ghribi; [1] [2] Turkey: kurabiye
Type Shortbread
Main ingredients Almond flour, sugar, egg white, vanilla

Qurabiya (also ghraybe, ghorayeba, and numerous other spellings and pronunciations) is a shortbread-type biscuit, usually made with ground almonds. Versions are found in most countries of the former Ottoman Empire, with various different forms and recipes. [1] [2]

Contents

History

Cookies appear to have their origins in 7th century Persia, modern day Iran, shortly after the use of sugar became relatively common in the region. [3] A recipe for a shortbread cookie similar to ghorayebah but without almonds, called in Arabic khushkanānaj gharib (exotic cookie), is given in the earliest known Arab cookbook, the 10th-century Kitab al-Ṭabīḫ . [4] Kurabiye appears in the Ottoman cuisine in the 15th century. [5] [ dubious ]

There is some debate about the origin of the words. Some give no other origin for the Turkish word kurabiye than Turkish, while others have given Arabic or Persian. [5] Among others, linguist Sevan Nişanyan has given an Arabic origin, in his 2009 book of Turkish etymology, from ġurayb or ğarîb (exotic). [6] [7] However, as of 2019, Nişanyan's online dictionary now gives the earliest known recorded use in Turkish as the late 17th century, with an origin from the Persian gulābiya, a cookie made with rose water, from gulāb, related to flowers. He notes that the Syrian Arabic words ġurābiye/ġuraybiye likely derive from the Turkish. [8]

Regional variations

Iran

Iranian qurabiye from Tabriz Ghorabiyeh.JPG
Iranian qurabiye from Tabriz

In Tabriz, they are made of almond flour, sugar, egg white, vanilla, margarine and pistachio. It is served with tea, customarily placed on top of the teacup to make it soft before eating.[ citation needed ]

A Box of Qurabiya by Nobari Confectionary (Tehran, Iran) A Box of Qurabiya by Nobari Confectionary (Tehran, Iran).jpg
A Box of Qurabiya by Nobari Confectionary (Tehran, Iran)

Morocco

Called ghoriba in Morocco and other parts of the Maghreb, the popular cookies often use semolina instead of white flour, giving a distinctive crunch. [1] [2]

Greece

Kourabiedes Kourabiedes platter 2008 01 08.jpg
Kourabiedes

The Greek version, called kourabiedes or kourabiethes [1] [2] (Greek : κουραμπιέδες) resembles a light shortbread, typically made with almonds. Kourabiedes are sometimes made with brandy, usually Metaxa, for flavouring, though vanilla, mastika or rose water are also popular. In some regions of Greece, Christmas kourabiedes are adorned with a single whole spice clove embedded in each biscuit. [9] Kourabiedes are shaped either into crescents or balls, then baked till slightly golden. They are usually rolled in icing sugar while still hot, forming a rich butter-sugar coating. [10] Kourabiedes are especially popular for special occasions, such as Christmas or baptisms. [11]

Bulgaria

Kurabii name of the Bulgarian cuisine and the many varieties of cookie, a popular sweet variety. Especially during the holiday season, and a variety of jams produced via the new year with powdered sugar cookies decorated with cute shapes are called maslenki.[ citation needed ]

Turkey

Acibadem kurabiyesi Acibadem Kurabiyesi.jpg
Acıbadem kurabiyesi

The word kurabiye is used to refer to a variety of biscuits in Turkey, not necessarily local ones, although various types of local kurabiye are made; including acıbadem kurabiyesi and un kurabiyesi.

See also

Related Research Articles

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Macaroon type of cookie

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Horchata drink

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Shortcake type of dessert

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Acıbadem kurabiyesi Almond cookie

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Kanafeh traditional Middle-Eastern dessert

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Russian tea cake

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Kourabiedes Greek biscuits

Kourabiedes or Kourabiethes are almond biscuits or cookies popular in Greece, Cyprus, and Greek communities in Anatolia, as well as across the Greek diaspora. They are related to numerous other biscuits known as qurabiya or similar names found in Ottoman and Persian cuisine.

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Sandwich cookie

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Butter cookie food

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Ghoriba shortbread cookie

A ghoriba is a type of cookie prepared in the Maghreb and other parts of the Arab world. It is a round, shortbread cookie made with flour, sugar, butter, and usually almonds. It is often served with Arabic coffee or Maghrebi mint tea. Ghoriba sometimes pronounce as Ghurayba, has been around in the Greater Syria area, Iraq and other Arab countries since ancient times. They are similar to polvorones from Andalusia and qurabiya from Iran.

An almond biscuit, or almond cookie, is a type of biscuit that is made with almonds. They are a common biscuit in many different cuisines, and take many forms.

Sandie (cookie) type of sugar cookie; shortbread cookie

The sandie, sometimes referred to as sablé, is a type of sugar cookie or shortbread cookie. The pecan sandie is a common variety of the cookie. The Keebler Company has registered the brand name, Sandies, which it uses for a line of shortbread cookies.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 Davidson, Alan (21 August 2014). The Oxford Companion to Food. OUP Oxford. ISBN   9780191040726 via Google Books.
  2. 1 2 3 4 Marks, Gil (17 November 2010). Encyclopedia of Jewish Food. HMH. ISBN   9780544186316 via Google Books.
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  4. Nasrallah, Nawal (26 November 2007). Annals of the Caliphs' Kitchens: Ibn Sayyār al-Warrāq's Tenth-Century Baghdadi Cookbook. BRILL. pp. 418, 569. ISBN   9789047423058 via Google Books.
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  9. Sam Sotiropoulos (2009-12-23). "Greek Food Recipes and Reflections, Toronto, Ontario, Canada". Greekgourmand.blogspot.com. Retrieved 2014-03-16.
  10. "Irene's Kourabiedes (Kourabiethes) (Greek Butter Cookies)". Thursdayfordinner.com. Retrieved 2015-02-27.
  11. Sourligas, Christos (22 October 2019). My Big Fat Greek Cookbook: Classic Mediterranean Soul Food Recipes. Simon and Schuster. ISBN   9781510749849 via Google Books.