Qurabiya

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Qurabiya
Kurabiyes in the form of medialuna.jpg
Crescent shaped qurabiya
Alternative namesghraybeh, ghorayebah, gourabia; Greece: kourabiedes, kourabiethes, kurabie; Morocco: ghoriba, ghouribi, ghribi [1] [2]
Type Shortbread
Main ingredients Almond flour, sugar, egg white, vanilla

Qurabiya (also ghraybeh, ghorayebah, and numerous other spellings and pronunciations) is a shortbread-type biscuit, usually made with ground almonds. Versions are found in most countries of the former Ottoman Empire, with various different forms and recipes. [1] [2]

Shortbread food

Shortbread is a traditional Scottish biscuit usually made from one part white sugar, two parts butter, and three parts oat flour. Other ingredients like ground rice or cornflour are sometimes added to alter the texture. Modern recipes also often deviate from the original by splitting the sugar into equal parts granulated and icing sugar and many add a portion of salt.

Ottoman Empire Former empire in Asia, Europe and Africa

The Ottoman Empire, historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia in the town of Söğüt by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman I. After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, and with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire. The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror.

Contents

History

Cookies appear to have their origins in 7th century Persia, modern day Iran, shortly after the use of sugar became relatively common in the region. [3] A recipe for a shortbread cookie similar to ghorayebah but without almonds, called in Arabic khushkanānaj gharib (exotic cookie), is given in the earliest known Arab cookbook, the 10th-century Kitab al-Ṭabīḫ . [4] Kurabiye appears in the Ottoman cuisine in the 15th century. [5] [ dubious ]

Cookie Baked food that is small, flat and sweetened (biscuit)

A cookie is a baked or cooked food that is small, flat and sweet. It usually contains flour, sugar and some type of oil or fat. It may include other ingredients such as raisins, oats, chocolate chips, nuts, etc.

Abu Muhammad al-Muthaffar ibn Nasr ibn Sayyār al-Warrāq was an Arab author from Baghdad, he was the compiler of a tenth-century cookbook, Kitab al-Ṭabīḫ. This is the earliest known Arabic cookbook. It contains over 600 recipes, divided into 132 chapters.

Ottoman cuisine cuisine that developed in the former Ottoman Empire

Ottoman cuisine is the cuisine of the Ottoman Empire and its continuation in the cuisines of Turkey, Greece, the Balkans, and parts of the Caucasus and the Middle East.

There is some debate about the origin of the words. Some give no other origin for the Turkish word kurabiye than Turkish, while others have given Arabic or Persian. [5] Among others, linguist Sevan Nişanyan has given an Arabic origin, in his 2009 book of Turkish etymology, from ġurayb or ğarîb (exotic). [6] [7] However, as of 2019, Nişanyan's online dictionary now gives the earliest known recorded use in Turkish as the late 17th century, with an origin from the Persian gulābiya, a cookie made with rose water, from gulāb, related to flowers. He notes that the Syrian Arabic words ġurābiye/ġuraybiye likely derive from the Turkish. [8]

Sevan Nişanyan is a Turkish-Armenian linguist and travel writer.

Persian language Western Iranian language

Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi, is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. It is a pluricentric language primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and some other regions which historically were Persianate societies and considered part of Greater Iran. It is written right to left in the Persian alphabet, a modified variant of the Arabic script.

Rose water Rose-flavored water

Rose water is a flavoured water made by steeping rose petals in water. Additionally, it is the hydrosol portion of the distillate of rose petals, a by-product of the production of rose oil for use in perfume. It is used to flavour food, as a component in some cosmetic and medical preparations, and for religious purposes throughout Europe and Asia. Rose syrup is a syrup made from rose water, with sugar added.

Regional variations

Iran

Iranian qurabiye from Tabriz Ghorabiyeh.JPG
Iranian qurabiye from Tabriz

In Tabriz, they are made of almond flour, sugar, egg white, vanilla, margarine and pistachio. It is served with tea, customarily placed on top of the teacup to make it soft before eating.[ citation needed ]

Tabriz City in Iran

Tabriz is the most populated city in northwestern Iran, one of the historical capitals of Iran and the present capital of East Azerbaijan province. It is the sixth most populous city in Iran. Located in the Quru River valley, in Iran's historic Azerbaijan region, between long ridges of volcanic cones in the Sahand and Eynali mountains, Tabriz's elevation ranges between 1,350 and 1,600 metres above sea level. The valley opens up into a plain that gently slopes down to the eastern shores of Lake Urmia, 60 kilometres to the west. With cold winters and temperate summers, Tabriz is considered a summer resort. It was named World Carpet Weaving City by the World Crafts Council in October 2015 and Exemplary Tourist City of 2018 by the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.

Egg white clear liquid contained within an egg

Egg white is the clear liquid contained within an egg. In chickens it is formed from the layers of secretions of the anterior section of the hen's oviduct during the passage of the egg. It forms around fertilized or unfertilized egg yolks. The primary natural purpose of egg white is to protect the yolk and provide additional nutrition for the growth of the embryo . Egg white consists primarily of about 90% water into which about 10% proteins are dissolved. Unlike the yolk, which is high in lipids (fats), egg white contains almost no fat, and carbohydrate content is less than 1%. Egg whites contain about 56% of the protein in the egg. Egg white has many uses in food and also many other uses.

Vanilla A flavoring extracted from orchids of the genus Vanilla

Vanilla is a flavoring derived from orchids of the genus Vanilla, primarily from the Mexican species, flat-leaved vanilla (V. planifolia). The word vanilla, derived from vainilla, the diminutive of the Spanish word vaina, is translated simply as "little pod". Pre-Columbian Mesoamerican people cultivated the vine of the vanilla orchid, called tlīlxochitl by the Aztecs. Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés is credited with introducing both vanilla and chocolate to Europe in the 1520s.

A Box of Qurabiya by Nobari Confectionary (Tehran, Iran) A Box of Qurabiya by Nobari Confectionary (Tehran, Iran).jpg
A Box of Qurabiya by Nobari Confectionary (Tehran, Iran)

Morocco

Called ghoriba in Morocco and other parts of the Maghreb, the popular cookies often use semolina instead of white flour, giving a distinctive crunch. [1] [2]

Maghreb Major region of North Africa

The Maghreb, also known as Northwest Africa or Northern Africa, Greater Arab Maghreb, Arab Maghreb or Greater Maghreb, or by some sources the Berber world, Barbary and Berbery, is a major region of North Africa that consists primarily of the countries Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Libya and Mauritania. It additionally includes the disputed territories of Western Sahara and the cities of Melilla and Ceuta. As of 2018, the region has a population of over 100 million people.

Semolina coarse, purified wheat middlings of durum wheat

Semolina is the coarse, purified wheat middlings of durum wheat mainly used in making upma, pasta, and couscous. The word semolina can also refer to sweet dessert made from semolina and milk. The term semolina is also used to designate coarse middlings from other varieties of wheat, and from other grains, such as rice and maize.

Greece

Kourabiedes Kourabiedes platter 2008 01 08.jpg
Kourabiedes

The Greek version, called kourabiedes or kourabiethes [1] [2] (Greek : κουραμπιέδες) resembles a light shortbread, typically made with almonds. Kourabiedes are sometimes made with brandy, usually Metaxa, for flavouring, though vanilla, mastika or rose water are also popular. In some regions of Greece, Christmas kourabiedes are adorned with a single whole spice clove embedded in each biscuit. [9] Kourabiedes are shaped either into crescents or balls, then baked till slightly golden. They are usually rolled in icing sugar while still hot, forming a rich butter-sugar coating. [10] Kourabiedes are especially popular for special occasions, such as Christmas or baptisms.

Greek language language spoken in Greece, Cyprus and Southern Albania

Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece, Cyprus and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning more than 3000 years of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary, were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin, Cyrillic, Armenian, Coptic, Gothic, and many other writing systems.

Brandy spirit produced by distilling wine

Brandy is a spirit produced by distilling wine. Brandy generally contains 35–60% alcohol by volume and is typically drunk as an after-dinner digestif. Some brandies are aged in wooden casks. Others are coloured with caramel colouring to imitate the effect of aging, and some are produced using a combination of both aging and colouring. Varieties of wine brandy can be found across the winemaking world. Among the most renowned are Cognac and Armagnac from southwestern France.

Metaxa is a brand of Greek amber spirit created by Spyros Metaxa in 1888. Its taste comes from Muscat wines from the island of Samos, aged wine distillates, and Mediterranean botanicals. The wine distillates and Muscat wines are aged separately, and then blended in Limousin oak casks.

Bulgaria

Kurabii name of the Bulgarian cuisine and the many varieties of cookie, a popular sweet variety. Especially during the holiday season, and a variety of jams produced via the new year with powdered sugar cookies decorated with cute shapes are called maslenki.[ citation needed ]

Turkey

Acibadem kurabiyesi Acibadem Kurabiyesi.jpg
Acıbadem kurabiyesi

In Turkey, Acıbadem kurabiyesi are widely available in bakeries.

See also

Related Research Articles

Halva Middle-eastern confectionary

Halva is any of various dense, sweet confections made in the Middle East, Central Asia and the Indian subcontinent. It is also served in the Caucasus, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, the Balkans, Eastern Europe, Malta and in the Jewish diaspora. In some Indian cultures, the dish is known as a soup-based sweet. Identical sweets exist in other countries, such as China, though these are not generally referred to as "halva". The first known written halvah recipe appeared in the early 13th century Arabic Kitab al-Tabikh [The Book of Dishes].

Macaroon

A macaroon is a small biscuit/cookie, typically made from ground almonds, coconut, and/or other nuts or even potato, with sugar and sometimes flavorings, food coloring, glace cherries, jam, and/or a chocolate coating. Some recipes call for sweetened condensed milk. Macaroons are often baked on edible rice paper placed on a baking tray.

Shortcake

Shortcake is a sweet cake or biscuit. The earliest recipe for shortcake is in an English cookbook from 1588.

Christmas cookie sweet pastries that are eaten during the Advent season

Christmas cookies or Christmas biscuits are traditionally sugar cookies or biscuits cut into various shapes related to Christmas.

Caramel shortbread

Caramel shortbread, also known as caramel shortcake, caramel squares, caramel slice, millionaire's shortbread, and millionaire's slice, is a biscuit confectionery item composed of a crunchy and rich rectangular shortbread biscuit base topped with a chewy and soft caramel filling and a shiny milk chocolate topping.

Shish kebab Turkish skewered meat dish

Shish kebab is a popular meal of skewered and grilled cubes of meat. It is similar to or synonymous with a dish called shashlik, which is found in the Caucasus region.

Maamoul food

Ma'amoul is an ancient Arab filled pastry or cookie made with dates, nuts such as pistachios or walnuts and occasionally almonds, or figs. They may be in the shape of balls, domed or flattened cookies. They can either be decorated by hand or be made in special wooden moulds. Ma'amoul with date fillings are often known as menenas, and are sometimes made in the form of date rolls rather than balls or cookies.

Acıbadem kurabiyesi Almond cookie

Acıbadem kurabiyesi is a traditional Turkish biscuit made of almonds, sugar and egg whites. The traditional recipes include a small amount of bitter almonds, which gives this cookie its name. However, because bitter almonds are not readily available, almond extract is typically used as a substitute. These biscuits are part of the stock-in trade of almost every bakery in Turkey, and are seldom made at home.

Kanafeh food

Kanafeh is a traditional Levantine dessert made with thin noodle-like pastry, or alternatively fine semolina dough, soaked in sweet, sugar-based syrup, and typically layered with cheese, or with other ingredients such as clotted cream or nuts, depending on the region. It is popular in the Arab world, particularly the Levant and Egypt, Yemen and especially in Palestine. In addition, variants are found in Turkey, Greece, and the Balkans, as well as in the Caucasus.

Kourabiedes

Kourabiedes or Kourabiethes – also known as "Greek Wedding Cookies" – are Greek biscuits or cookie popular in Greece, Cyprus, and Greek communities in Anatolia, as well as across the Greek diaspora in the United States, Australia, United Kingdom, Canada, South Africa and nations.

Polvorón

A polvorón is a type of heavy, soft, and very crumbly Spanish shortbread made of flour, sugar, milk, and nuts. They are mostly produced in Andalusia, where there are about 70 factories that are part of a syndicate that produces polvorones and mantecados. Under the name mantecados, these sweets are a traditional preparation of other areas of the Iberian Peninsula as well.

Baklava sweet pastry made of filo and nuts

Baklava is a rich, sweet dessert pastry made of layers of filo filled with chopped nuts and sweetened and held together with syrup or honey. It is characteristic of the cuisines of the Levant and the broader Middle East, along with the Caucasus, Balkans, Maghreb, and Central Asia.

Sablé (biscuit)

Sablé is a French round shortbread cookie that originates in Sablé-sur-Sarthe, in Sarthe.

Sandbakelse

Sandbakelse or 'Sandbakkels' or 'Sandkaker' are a Norwegian sugar cookie. They are a Christmas tradition in many families.

Flour kurabiye Turkish kurabiye made with flour, sugar and butter

Flour kurabiye is a kind of Turkish cookie that is made from butter, sunflower oil, baking powder, and the namesake ingredient flour. Generally, vanilla powder is also added. Flour kurabiye is a variant of kurabiye.

Tahini cookie

Tahini cookie is a cookie made of tahini, flour, sugar and butter and usually topped with almonds or pine nuts.

Ghoriba

A ghoriba is a type of cookie prepared in the Maghreb and other parts of the Arab world. It is a round, shortbread cookie made with flour, sugar, butter, and usually almonds. It is often served with Arabic coffee or Maghrebi mint tea. Ghoriba sometimes pronounce as Ghurayba, has been around in the Greater Syria area, Iraq and other Arab countries since ancient times. They are similar to polvorones from Andalusia and qurabiya from Iran.

An almond biscuit, or almond cookie, is a type of biscuit that is made with almonds. They are a common biscuit in many different cuisines, and take many forms.

Sandie (cookie)

The sandie, sometimes referred to as sablé, is a type of sugar cookie or shortbread cookie. The pecan sandie is a common variety of the cookie. The Keebler Company manufactures and purveys the sandie as part of its product line.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 Davidson, Alan (21 August 2014). The Oxford Companion to Food. OUP Oxford. ISBN   9780191040726 via Google Books.
  2. 1 2 3 4 Marks, Gil (17 November 2010). Encyclopedia of Jewish Food. HMH. ISBN   9780544186316 via Google Books.
  3. "History of Cookies - Cookie History". Whatscookingamerica.net. Retrieved 2015-02-27.
  4. Nasrallah, Nawal (26 November 2007). Annals of the Caliphs' Kitchens: Ibn Sayyār al-Warrāq's Tenth-Century Baghdadi Cookbook. BRILL. pp. 418, 569. ISBN   9789047423058 via Google Books.
  5. 1 2 Muhammed bin Mahmûd-ı Şirvânî (2005). 15. yüzyıl Osmanlı mutfağı. Gökkubbe. p. 259. ISBN   978-975-6223-84-0.
  6. Nişanyan, Sevan (2009). Sözlerin soyağacı: çağdaş Türkçenin etimolojik sözlüğü. Everest Yayınları. ISBN   9789752896369 via Google Books.
  7. Salloum, Habeeb (25 June 2013). Sweet Delights from a Thousand and One Nights: The Story of Traditional Arab Sweets. I.B.Tauris. p. 128. ISBN   9780857733412 via Google Books.
  8. Nişanyan, Sevan. "Kurabiye". Nişanyan Sözlük. Retrieved 2019-01-04.
  9. Sam Sotiropoulos (2009-12-23). "Greek Food Recipes and Reflections, Toronto, Ontario, Canada". Greekgourmand.blogspot.com. Retrieved 2014-03-16.
  10. "Irene's Kourabiedes (Kourabiethes) (Greek Butter Cookies)". Thursdayfordinner.com. Retrieved 2015-02-27.