|Río de la Plata|
River Plate, La Plata River
|Etymology||Spanish for "river of silver"|
|Countries||Argentina and Uruguay|
|Source||Confluence of Paraná and Uruguay Rivers|
|Argentine Sea, Argentina|
|Length||290 km (180 mi) 4,876 km (3,030 mi) including the Paraná|
|Basin size||3,170,000 km2 (1,220,000 sq mi)|
|• average||22,000 m3/s (780,000 cu ft/s)|
|• left||Uruguay River, San Juan River, Santa Lucía River|
|• right||Paraná River, Luján River, Salado River|
The Río de la Plata (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈri.o ðe la ˈplata] ( listen ), lit. "river of silver"), called River Plate in British English and the Commonwealth and La Plata River (occasionally Plata River) in other English-speaking countries, is the estuary formed by the confluence of the Uruguay River and the Paraná River at Punta Gorda. It empties into the Atlantic Ocean and forms a funnel-shaped indentation on the southeastern coastline of South America. Depending on the geographer, the Río de la Plata may be considered a river, an estuary, a gulf, or a marginal sea. It is the widest river in the world, with a maximum width of 220 kilometres (140 mi).
The river is about 290 kilometres (180 mi) long and widens from about 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) at its source to about 220 kilometres (140 mi) at its mouth. It forms part of the border between Argentina and Uruguay, with the major ports and capital cities of Buenos Aires and Montevideo on its western and northern shores, respectively. The coasts of the river are the most densely-populated areas of Uruguay and Argentina.
The Río de la Plata begins at the confluence of the Uruguay and Paraná rivers at Punta Gorda and flows eastward into the South Atlantic Ocean. No clear physical boundary marks the river's eastern end; the International Hydrographic Organization defines the eastern boundary of the Río de la Plata as "a line joining Punta del Este, Uruguay and Cabo San Antonio, Argentina".
Though it is generally spoken of as a river, the Río de la Plata is considered by some geographers to be a large bay or marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean. 220 kilometres (140 mi) and a total surface area of about 35,000 square kilometres (14,000 sq mi).For those who regard it as a river, it is the widest in the world, with a maximum width of about
The upper river contains several islands, including Oyarvide Island and the Solís Islands in Argentine waters and Juncal Island, Islote el Matón, Martín García Island and Timoteo Domínguez Island in Uruguayan waters. Because of deposition of sediments from the heavy stream load carried down from the river's tributaries, the islands in the Río de la Plata generally grow over time.
A submerged shoal, the Barra del Indio, divides the Río de la Plata into an inner freshwater riverine portion and an outer brackish estuarine portion. 180 kilometres (110 mi) long and up to 80 kilometres (50 mi) wide, with a depth which varies from about 1 to 5 metres (3.3 to 16.4 ft); the depth of the outer estuary zone increases from 5 to 25 metres (16 to 82 ft). The river's discharge is strong enough to prevent saltwater from penetrating to the inner portion.The shoal is located approximately between Montevideo and Punta Piedras (the northwest end of Samborombón Bay). The inner fluvial zone is about
The Río de la Plata behaves as an estuary in which freshwater and seawater mix. The freshwater comes principally from the Paraná River (one of the world's longest rivers and La Plata's main tributary) as well as from the Uruguay River and other smaller streams. Currents in the Río de la Plata are dominated by tides reaching to its sources and beyond, into the Uruguay and Paraná rivers. 190 kilometres (120 mi). The tidal ranges in the Río de la Plata are small, but its great width allows for a tidal prism important enough to dominate the flow regime despite the huge discharge received from the tributary rivers.Both rivers are tidally influenced for about
The river is a salt wedge estuary in which saltwater, being more dense than freshwater, penetrates into the estuary in a layer below the freshwater, which floats on the surface. Salinity fronts, or haloclines, form at the bottom and on the surface, where fresh and brackish waters meet. The salinity fronts are also pycnoclines due to the water density discontinuities. They play an important role in the reproductive processes of fish species.
The Río de la Plata's drainage basin (sometimes called the Platine basin or Platine region) 3,170,000-square-kilometre (1,220,000 sq mi) hydrographical area that drains to the Río de la Plata. It includes areas of southeastern Bolivia, southern and central Brazil, the entire country of Paraguay, most of Uruguay, and northern Argentina. Making up about one fourth of the continent's surface, it is the second largest drainage basin in South America (after the Amazon basin) and one of the largest in the world.is the
The main rivers of the La Plata basin are the Paraná River, the Paraguay River (the Paraná's main tributary), and the Uruguay River.
The Paraná River's main tributaries include the Paranaíba River, Grande River, Tietê River, Paranapanema River, Iguazu River, Paraguay River, and the Salado River, after which it ends in the large Paraná Delta. The Paraguay River flows through the Pantanal wetland, after which its main tributaries include the Pilcomayo River and the Bermejo River, before it ends in the Paraná. The Uruguay's main tributaries include the Pelotas River, Canoas River, Ibicuí River, and the Río Negro. Another significant tributary to the Río de la Plata is the Salado del Sur River.
The Río de la Plata was first explored by the Portuguese in 1512–13. km) to near the present city of Rosario. The area was also visited by Francis Drake's fleet in early 1578, in the early stages of his circumnavigation.The Spanish first explored it in 1516, when the navigator Juan Díaz de Solís traversed it during his search for a passage between the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans, calling it the Mar Dulce, or "freshwater sea." The Portuguese navigator Ferdinand Magellan briefly explored the estuary in 1520 before his expedition continued its circumnavigation, and in 1521 Cristóvão Jacques also explored the Plate River estuary and ascended the Parana River for the first time, entering it for about 23 leagues (around 140
Explorer Sebastian Cabot made a detailed study of the river and its tributaries and gave it its modern name. He explored the Paraná and Uruguay rivers between 1526 and 1529, ascending the Paraná as far as the present-day city of Asunción, and also explored up the Paraguay River. Cabot acquired silver trinkets trading with the Guaraní near today's Asunción, and these objects (together with legends of a "Sierra de la Plata" in the South American interior brought back by earlier explorers) inspired him to rename the river "Río de la Plata" ("River of Silver").
The first European colony was the city of Buenos Aires, founded by Pedro de Mendoza on 2 February 1536. This settlement, however, was quickly abandoned; the failure to establish a settlement on the estuary led to explorations upriver and the founding of Asunción in 1537. Buenos Aires was subsequently refounded by Juan de Garay on 11 June 1580.
During the colonial era, the Río de la Plata was made the center of the Governorate of the Río de la Plata. The Río de la Plata region, particularly Buenos Aires, was a significant site of trade throughout the 17th century. The Crown initially intended Buenos Aires to be a military establishment for the protection of the Potosí mines, but it soon became evident that a settlement large enough to provide military defense would attract trade. The primary export was silver from the mines of Potosí, and imports generally included European luxury goods, slaves, and sugar. This trade occurred outside of the fleet system authorized by the Spanish Crown, and therefore was generally considered "illicit." However, under the monarchy of the Spanish Habsburgs, the line between licit and illicit trade was quite blurry. Crown officials and military outposts in Buenos Aires often relied upon profits from illicit trade to support their administrative structures.
Under the Bourbon monarchy, the governorate was elevated to the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata in 1776. This occurred as a result of the Bourbon Reforms, which attempted to restore the decaying wealth of the Spanish Crown. The reforms elevated the status of trade along the Río de la Plata and expanded what constituted "legal" trade so that the Crown could tax trade what had previously been "contraband." However, the plan did not go as intended. Although trade along the Río de la Plata flourished, very little silver was actually remitted to the Crown. Then, Spanish war with Britain and the simultaneous eruption of revolts in the mining regions of Peru led to a shortage of silver, putting strain on the merchant class of Buenos Aires. This caused a schism between merchants who wanted to try to continue reviving the Spanish Empire through silver trade and those who wanted to move on from silver and prioritize agricultural exports, ultimately tearing at the fabric of the Río de la Plata region's relationship with the Spanish Empire.
In 1806 and 1807 the river was the scene of an important British invasion that aimed to occupy the area and was defeated by the local garrison and population.
Conflict in the region intensified after the independence of the former Spanish and Portuguese colonies in the first quarter of the 19th century. Interests in the territories and the navigation rights over the Platine region played a major role in many armed conflicts throughout the century, including the Argentine civil wars, the Cisplatine and Platine wars, and the Paraguayan War. –1840 and 1845–1850.The river was blockaded by France and Britain in 1838
During the Cisplatine War, the Battle of Juncal (named after Juncal Island) took place in the waters of the Río de la Plata from 8–9 February 1827 between squadrons of the newly independent United Provinces of the River Plate and the Brazilian Empire. The Argentines scored a decisive victory, capturing or destroying fifteen Brazilian vessels and losing none.
In the first naval battle of the Second World War the German pocket battleship Admiral Graf Spee was engaged by the Royal Navy (RN) cruisers HMS Exeter and Ajax, and the Royal New Zealand Navy cruiser Achilles, off the estuary of the River Plate in December 1939. The German ship retired up the estuary with a crippled fuel system and put into port at Montevideo. A few days later, rather than fight when believing himself outgunned, her captain scuttled her in the estuary. This engagement was part of the early Battle of the Atlantic.
The historical English name "River Plate" uses an obsolete sense of the word "plate", which was used extensively as a term for "silver" or "gold" from the 12th century onwards, especially in Early Modern English.The estuary has been known as the River Plate or Plate River in English since at least the time of Francis Drake. This English version of the name served as an inspiration for one of Argentina's most important football clubs, Club Atlético River Plate.
A more literal translation of the name is "Silver River", though this is virtually never used in practice.
The Río de la Plata is a habitat for the loggerhead sea turtle, green sea turtle, leatherback sea turtle, the rare La Plata dolphin, and many species of fish.
The geography of Argentina describes the geographic features of Argentina, a country located in Southern South America. Bordered by the Andes in the west and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east, neighbouring countries are Chile to the west, Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, and Brazil and Uruguay to the northeast.
The Argentine Confederation was the last predecessor state of modern Argentina; its name is still one of the official names of the country according to the Argentine Constitution, Article 35. It was the name of the country from 1831 to 1852, when the provinces were organized as a confederation without a head of state. The governor of Buenos Aires Province managed foreign relations during this time. Under his rule, the Argentine Confederation resisted attacks by Brazil, Bolivia, Uruguay, France and the UK, as well as other Argentine factions during the Argentine Civil Wars.
The Paraná River is a river in south Central South America, running through Brazil, Paraguay, and Argentina for some 4,880 kilometres (3,030 mi). It is second in length only to the Amazon River among South American rivers. The name Paraná is an abbreviation of the phrase "para rehe onáva", which comes from the Tupi language and means "like the sea". It merges first with the Paraguay River and then farther downstream with the Uruguay River to form the Río de la Plata and empties into the Atlantic Ocean.
The Paraguay River is a major river in south-central South America, running through Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay and Argentina. It flows about 2,695 kilometres (1,675 mi) from its headwaters in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso to its confluence with the Paraná River north of Corrientes and Resistencia.
The Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata was the last to be organized and also the shortest-lived of the Viceroyalties of the Spanish Empire in the Americas.
The Sierra de la Plata was a mythical source of silver in the interior of South America. The legend began in the early 16th century when castaways from the Juan Díaz de Solís expedition heard indigenous stories of a mountain of silver in an inland region ruled by the so-called White King. The first European to lead an expedition in search of it was the castaway Aleixo Garcia, who crossed nearly the entire continent to reach the Andean altiplano. On his way back to the coast, Garcia died in an ambush by indigenous tribespeople in Paraguay, but survivors brought precious metals back to corroborate their story.
Martín García Island is an island in the Río de la Plata. The island is in Uruguayan waters but in 1973 Uruguay and Argentina reached an agreement establishing Martín García as Argentine territory and a nature reserve. The island of 1.84 km2 (0.71 sq mi) has a permanent population of about 150 people, and falls within the jurisdiction of Buenos Aires Province. The island is accessible by air through Martín García Island Airport.
The Cisplatine War, also known as the Argentine-Brazilian War or in the Argentine and Uruguayan historiography as the Brazil War, was an armed conflict over an area known as Banda Oriental or the "Eastern Bank" in the 1820s between the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata and the Empire of Brazil in the aftermath of the United Provinces' independence from Spain.
River Plate may refer to:
The Río de la Plata basin, more often called the River Plate basin in scholarly writings, sometimes called the Platine basin or Platine region, is the 3,170,000-square-kilometre (1,220,000 sq mi) hydrographical area in South America that drains to the Río de la Plata. It includes areas of southeastern Bolivia, southern and central Brazil, the entire country of Paraguay, most of Uruguay, and northern Argentina. Making up about one fourth of the continent's surface, it is the second largest drainage basin in South America and one of the largest in the world.
The Humid Pampas is an extensive ecoregion of flat, fertile grassland of loessic origin in Argentina. It has a precipitation average of 900 mm per year, in contrast with the Dry Pampas to the west, which average less than 700 mm.
The Paraná Delta is the delta of the Paraná River in Argentina and it consists of several islands known as the Islas del Paraná. The Paraná flows north–south and becomes an alluvial basin between the Argentine provinces of Entre Ríos, Santa Fe and Buenos Aires then emptying into the Río de la Plata.
Sudestada is the Argentinian name for a climatic phenomenon common to the Río de la Plata and its surrounding region. The phenomenon consists of a sudden rotation of cold southern winds to the south-east. This change, while moderating the cold temperatures, loads the air masses with oceanic humidity, bringing heavy rain and rough seas in the coastal regions. The air circulation also increases the intensity of the winds. The Sudestada is most likely to happen between July and October.
Hernando Arias de Saavedra, commonly known as Hernandarias, was a soldier and politician of criollo ancestry. He was the first person born in the Americas to become a governor of a European colony in the New World, serving two terms as governor of Governorate of the Río de la Plata, 1597–1599 and 1602–1609, and one of the Governorate of Paraguay 1615–1617.
The 1888 Río de la Plata earthquake occurred on 5 June measuring 5.5 on the Richter magnitude scale, and shook the upper Río de la Plata at 3:20 UTC-3. The epicentre was located 15 kilometres (9 mi) southwest of Colonia del Sacramento (Uruguay) and 42 kilometres (26 mi) east of Buenos Aires (Argentina), with a hypocentre at a depth of 30 kilometres (19 mi).
Long before Spanish conquistadors discovered Paraguay for King Charles V in 1524, semi-nomadic Chaco Indian tribes populated Paraguay's rugged landscape. Although few relics or physical landmarks remain from these tribes, the fact that nearly 90 percent of Paraguayans still understand the indigenous Guarani language is testament to Paraguay's Indian lineage. The Spanish conquistadors arrived in 1524 and founded Asunción in 1537. Paraguay's colonial experience differed from that of neighboring countries, such as Bolivia and Argentina, because it did not have gold and other mineral deposits that the Spanish were searching for. Because of its lack of mineral wealth and its remoteness, Paraguay remained underpopulated and economically underdeveloped. Early governor Domingo Martínez de Irala took an Indian wife and a series of Indian concubines and encouraged other male settlers to do likewise. Intermarriage fused Indian culture with that of the Europeans, creating the mestizo class that dominates Paraguay today. From the beginning, however, Indians retained their Guaraní language, even as Spanish influence was accepted, and embraced, in other aspects of society.
The Platine War was fought between the Argentine Confederation and an alliance consisting of the Empire of Brazil, Uruguay, and the Argentine provinces of Entre Ríos and Corrientes. The war was part of a long-running dispute between Argentina and Brazil for influence over Uruguay and Paraguay, and hegemony over the Platine region. The conflict took place in Uruguay and northeastern Argentina, and on the Río de la Plata. Uruguay's internal troubles, including the longrunning Uruguayan Civil War, were heavily influential factors leading to the Platine War.
The Battle of San Nicolás was a naval engagement on 2 March 1811 on the Paraná River between the Spanish royalists from Montevideo, and the first flotilla created by the revolutionary government of Buenos Aires. It was the first engagement between the two fleets in the Río de la Plata region since the revolution, and a royalist victory.
The Paraná River is the second longest river in South America. Rising in Brazil, the river winds from the coastal mountains through tributaries and travels near Iguazu Falls 4,800 kilometres (3,000 mi) into Paraguay, Argentina and the Rio de la Plata at Uruguay. The river allowed for transport and exploration of the continent. It also was the scene of some terrible wars, including naval.
Sancti Spiritu was a fortification established in 1527 near the Paraná River by the explorer Sebastian Cabot. It was the first European settlement in the territory of modern Argentina and was destroyed by Amerindians two years later.
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|Wikisource has the text of a 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article about Río de la Plata .|