R-29RMU Sineva

Last updated
R-29RMU Sineva
Sineva ballistic missile launched from Verkhoturye submarine.jpg
Sineva launched on 12 December 2015
Place of originRussia
Service history
In service2007–present
Used by Russian Navy
Production history
Designer Makeyev Rocket Design Bureau
Manufacturer ZMZ/KMZ
Mass40.3 tonnes
Length14.8 meters
Diameter1.9 m
Warhead4 MIRV with a yield of 500 kiloton each or 10 MIRV with 100 kiloton yield [1] [2]

EngineThree-stage liquid-propellant rocket [3]
8,300 km (max range), [4] longest distance ever reached with least payload is 11,547 km (7,174 miles) [5]
Astroinertial, GLONASS
Accuracy250-500 meters [6] [7]

The R-29RMU Sineva (Russian : Синева, lit. "blueness"), code RSM-54, is a Russian liquid-fueled submarine-launched ballistic missile with GRAU index 3M27, designation SS-N-23A Skiff. [8] It can carry four warheads and is designed to be launched from Delta IV class submarines, which are armed with 16 missiles each. As of 2017, there are 96 launchers deployed on the submarines. [9]


The first full-range test was reportedly conducted on October 11, 2008; the reported range was 11,547 kilometers (7,174 miles). The R-29RMU entered service in 2007 and is expected to remain in service until at least 2030. [8] [10] [11]

Current plans call for the construction of approximately 100 such missiles. [12]

The Sineva missile has reportedly been modified into R-29RMU2 Layner missile as of 2012. [13]


At its height in 1984, the Soviet Navy conducted over 100 SSBN patrols. [14] The Russian Navy declined during the 1990s, with no SSBN patrols carried out in 2001–2002. [14] The development of the Sineva is part of a program tasked with "preventing the weakening of Russia's nuclear deterrent." [15]

The R-29RMU Sineva is seen as a rival to the solid propellant Bulava SLBM. Originally, the Russian Navy was slated to receive the Sineva missile in 2002, but the first test was conducted only in 2004. The missile was eventually commissioned in 2007. [11] The missile was reported to carry new nuclear warheads. [16]


Initial launch failures

Failed Sineva test launches took place during the strategic command exercise “Security-2004” (held 10–18 February 2004), which also included the launch of a Molniya communication satellite and an R-36 missile. The launch failures involving nuclear submarines Novomoskovsk and Karelia may have been caused by a military satellite blocking the launch signal; this incident did not lead to any serious consequences for the K-407 Novomoskovsk strategic nuclear submarine. March 1, 2004 saw then Russian president Vladimir Putin instructing the acting defence minister to carry out an investigation in order to determine the reason of the launch failures of the three RSM-54 missiles in mid-February.

Successful launches

17 March 2004 saw Novomoskovsk nuclear submarine of the Russian Northern Fleet perform a successful launch of the RSM-54 Sineva. The missile’s two warheads reportedly hit their targets. President Vladimir Putin and Defense Minister Sergei Ivanov observed a successful test launch of the Sineva missile from the SSBN Yekaterinburg.

Further successful launches were conducted by K-84 Yekaterinburg on 8 September 2006. The missile was launched from an ice-covered polar region toward the Chizha test site at the Kanin Peninsula. The three warheads were reported to have successfully reached their targets.

Another successful launch was performed on 4 March 2010 from the Barents Sea. This was followed by more launches on 6 August 2010, when a K-114 Tula fired two missiles towards the Kura Test Range. Two more launches were carried out on 20 May 2011 and 27 July 2011, both successful. [17] [18]

On 8 May 2014, Sineva has been successfully tested during a large nuclear exercise personally supervised by President Vladimir Putin. [19]

On 5 November 2014, Tula submarine hit targets at the Kura Test Range firing from the Barents Sea. [20]

The 27th underwater launch occurred on 12 December 2015; the Russian Ministry of Defence shared video on official YouTube site, [21] and major Russian news channels. [22]

Another successful launch was conducted on 12 October 2016 and one more on 24 August 2019. [23] 2 more launches took place on 17.10.2019 and 09.12.2020. [24]


Flag of Russia.svg  Russia

See also

Related Research Articles

Submarine-launched ballistic missile

A submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) is a ballistic missile capable of being launched from submarines. Modern variants usually deliver multiple independently targetable reentry vehicles (MIRVs) each of which carries a nuclear warhead and allows a single launched missile to strike several targets. Submarine-launched ballistic missiles operate in a different way from submarine-launched cruise missiles.

Ballistic missile submarine Submarine able to launch ballistic missiles

A ballistic missile submarine is a submarine capable of deploying submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs) with nuclear warheads. The United States Navy's hull classification symbols for ballistic missile submarines are SSB and SSBN – the SS denotes submarine, the B denotes ballistic missile, and the N denotes that the submarine is nuclear powered. These submarines became a major weapon system in the Cold War because of their nuclear deterrence capability. They can fire missiles thousands of kilometers from their targets, and acoustic quieting makes them difficult to detect, thus making them a survivable deterrent in the event of a first strike and a key element of the mutual assured destruction policy of nuclear deterrence.

R-39 Rif SLBM

The R-39 Rif was a submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) that served with the Soviet Navy from its introduction in 1983 until 1991, after which it served with the Russian Navy until 2004. The missile had GRAU indices of 3M65, 3M20, and 3R65. It was carried on board Typhoon-class submarines.

Russian submarine <i>Novomoskovsk</i> (K-407)

K-407 Novomoskovsk is a Project 667BDRM Delfin-class ballistic missile submarine of the Russian Navy's Northern Fleet.

M45 (missile) SLBM

The M45 SLBM is a French Navy submarine-launched ballistic missile Forty-eight M45 are in commission in the Force océanique stratégique, the submarine nuclear deterrent component of the French Navy. The missiles, derived from the M4, were produced by Aérospatiale. Initially, an ICBM land-based version was considered, but these plans were discarded in 1996 to favour an all-naval deployment.

M51 (missile) SLBM

The M51 SLBM is a French submarine-launched ballistic missile, built by ArianeGroup, and deployed with the French Navy. Designed to replace the M45 SLBM, it was first deployed in 2010.

R-29 Vysota Р-29 Высота is a family of Soviet submarine-launched ballistic missiles, designed by Makeyev Rocket Design Bureau. All variants use astro-inertial guidance systems.

Delta-class submarine Class of russian nuclear powered, nuclear missile carrying submarines

The Delta class, Soviet designations Project 667B Murena, Project 667BD Murena-M, Project 667BDR Kalmar, Project 667BDRM Delfin, are a series of nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarines, designed and built in the Soviet Union, which formed the backbone of the Soviet and Russian strategic submarine fleet since their introduction in 1973. They carry nuclear ballistic missiles of the R-29 Vysota family, with the Delta I, Delta II, Delta III and Delta IV classes carrying the R-29, R-29D, R-29R and R-29RM respectively. The Delta I class carried 12 missiles, while the Delta II class which are lengthened versions of the Delta I class carry 16 missiles. The Delta III and Delta IV classes carry 16 missiles with multiple warheads and have improved electronics and noise reduction.

JL-2 Chinese SLBM

The JL-2 is a Chinese second-generation intercontinental-range submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) deployed on the People's Liberation Army Navy's (PLAN) Type 094 submarines. It succeeds the JL-1 SLBM deployed on the Type 092 submarine.

R-29RM Shtil SLBM

The R-29RM Shtil was a liquid propellant, submarine-launched ballistic missile in use by the Russian Navy. It had the alternate Russian designations RSM-54 and GRAU index 3M27. It was designed to be launched from the Delta IV submarine, each of which is capable of carrying 16 missiles. The R-29RM could carry four 100 kiloton warheads and had a range of about 8,500 kilometres (5,300 mi). They were replaced with the newer R-29RMU Sineva and later with the enhanced variant R-29RMU2 Layner.

RSM-56 Bulava SLBM

The RSM-56 Bulava is a submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) developed for the Russian Navy and deployed in 2013 on the new Borei class of ballistic missile nuclear submarines. It is intended as the future cornerstone of Russia's nuclear triad, and is the most expensive weapons project in the country. The weapon takes its name from bulava, a Russian word for mace.

Nuclear triad nuclear weapons launchable from strategic bombers, submarines and ICBMs

A nuclear triad is a three-pronged military force structure that consists of land-launched nuclear missiles, nuclear-missile-armed submarines, and strategic aircraft with nuclear bombs and missiles. Specifically, these components are land-based intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs), submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs), and strategic bombers. The purpose of having this three-branched nuclear capability is to significantly reduce the possibility that an enemy could destroy all of a nation's nuclear forces in a first-strike attack. This, in turn, ensures a credible threat of a second strike, and thus increases a nation's nuclear deterrence.


The Julang-1 was China's first generation nuclear submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM). According to a US Department of Defense report in 2011, the operational status of the JL-1 was "questionable".

R-39UTTH Bark, NATO reporting name SS-NX-28, was a Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. The missile was an upgraded version of the R-39 missile that was designed for the Typhoon class. The new missile was to be carried by the new Russian nuclear submarines of the Borei class. The third test launch of a prototype R-39M on 25 November 1998 resulted in a catastrophic failure of the SLBM's booster. The missile exploded roughly 200 meters after take-off from its ground-based launch facility. Having failed its first three test firings the project was ordered abandoned by the Russian Security Council. The missile was later replaced by the Bulava and Layner missile systems.

Operation Behemoth

Operation Behemoth-1, Behemoth-2 were military exercises held by the Soviet Northern Fleet in 1989 and 1991. Behemoth-2 was the first time ever when a ballistic missile submarine launched all of its missiles at once.

Russian submarine <i>Ekaterinburg</i> (K-84)

K-84 Ekaterinburg is a Project 667BDRM Delfin class nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine. The submarine was laid down on 17 February 1982 at the Russian Northern Machine-Building Enterprise (Sevmash). It was commissioned into the Soviet Navy on 30 December 1985. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, the submarine continued to serve in the Russian Navy. Initially known only by her hull number, in February 1999 she was renamed after the city of Yekaterinburg.

Russian submarine <i>Tula</i> (K-114)

K-114 Tula is a Project 667BDRM Delfin-class nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine (SSBN). As such, she carries a complement of R-29RM Shtil and R-29RMU Sineva nuclear submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBM) as her primary deterrent mission, along with anti-ship missiles and torpedoes, the latter for self-defense. Built in Severodvinsk during the late 1980s, she served with the Soviet Navy before being transferred to the Russian Navy following the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Tula underwent an extensive overhaul during 2000–2004 and was fitted with upgraded Shtil SLBMs, several of which were launched from her during her later operational life. She was sponsored by the city of Tula, and is homeported in Gadzhiyevo.

The R-29RMU2.1 Layner is a Russian liquid-fuelled submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) and the newest member of the R-29 missile family, developed by the Makeyev Rocket Design Bureau and produced by the Krasnoyarsk Machine-Building Plant. Derived from the R-29RMU Sineva SLBM, the Layner can carry twelve nuclear warheads, three times as many as Sineva. It was expected to enter service with the Russian Navy's Delta IV class submarines after a successful test programme that spanned from May to September 2011. The Russian Navy confirmed in 2014 that the system was now in use.

Chizha test range is a missile test range on the Kanin Peninsula in the Nenets Autonomous Okrug in northern Russia.


  1. "Tula" repaired and ready for battle" (in Russian). 28 December 2017. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  2. "SINEVA" (RSM-54 AND R-29RMU2)" (in Russian). 22 October 2010. Retrieved 2018-10-13.
  3. Archived 2017-07-18 at the Wayback Machine
  4. RIR (7 April 2014). "Russian submarines armed with new lethal ballistic missile".
  5. Pike, John. "R-29RMU / RSM-54 Sineva / SS-N-23 SKIFF". www.globalsecurity.org.
  6. "Проект 667БДРМ (NATO - "Delta IV")" [Project 667BRDM (NATO - "Delta IV")] (in Russian).
  7. "R-29RMU / R-29RGU / RSM-54 Sineva / SS-N-23 SKIFF". globalsecurity.org.
  8. 1 2 John Pike. "R-29RMU / RSM-54 Sineva / SS-N-23 SKIFF" . Retrieved 23 December 2014.
  9. Ballistic and Cruise Missile Threat (Report). Defense Intelligence Ballistic Missile Analysis Committee. June 2017. p. 25. NASIC-1031-0985-17. Retrieved 20 July 2017.
  10. "Does Russia need a "half-baked" missile and another new tank?" . Retrieved 23 December 2014.
  11. 1 2 John Pike. "R-29RMU / RSM-54 Sineva / SS-N-23 SKIFF". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 2011-12-31.
  12. Missile balistique Sineva: tir de test réussi, RIAN, 2010-03-04
  13. "Lenta.ru: Наука и техника: Срок службы подлодок проекта "Дельфин" продлят до 35 лет" . Retrieved 23 December 2014.
  14. 1 2 "the nuclear information project: Soviet/Russian nuclear submarine patrols". Nukestrat.com. Retrieved 2011-12-31.
  15. "BMD Focus: Sineva launch success". Spacedaily.com. Retrieved 2011-12-31.
  16. Podvig, Pavel (24 July 2007). "R-29RM Sineva missile officially accepted for service". Russian Strategic Nuclear Forces.
  17. "Нпсфхе: Блт Пняяхх Опнхгбек Сяоеьмши Гюосяй "Яхмебш"". Lenta.ru. Retrieved 31 December 2011.
  18. "Russia test fires Sineva missile in Barents Sea | Defense | RIA Novosti". En.rian.ru. 27 July 2011. Retrieved 31 December 2011.
  19. "Russia Conducts Large-Scale Nuclear Attack Exercise". Washington Free Beacon. 8 May 2014. Retrieved 23 December 2014.
  20. "АПЛ "Тула" успешно выполнила пуск баллистической ракеты "Синева"". РИА Новости. 5 November 2014. Retrieved 23 December 2014.
  21. "Пуск МБР"Синева" РПКСН "Верхотурье" из подводного положения "Синева"" . Retrieved 12 December 2015.
  22. "АПЛ "Верхотурье" успешно выполнила пуск баллистической ракеты "Синева"". РИА Новости. 12 December 2015. Retrieved 12 December 2015.
  23. Podvig, Pavel (12 October 2016). "Three ballistic missiles launched in one day". Russian Strategic Nuclear Forces.
  24. "Russia's top brass uploads video with missile launches in strategic nuclear forces' drills".

External sources