A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position; alternatively, a geographic position may be expressed in a combined three-dimensional Cartesian vector. A common choice of coordinates is latitude, longitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection.
|Federal State Unitary Enterprise|
|Successor||Rossiya Segodnya, Sputnik, ria.ru|
|Founded||June 1941 (as Sovinformburo)|
|Defunct||1 April 2014|
|Headquarters||Zubovsky Boulevard 4, Moscow, Russia|
|Owner||Rossiya Segodnya (previously wholly owned by federal government (as unitary enterprise))|
|Website||http://ria.ru/ (Russian version) http://sputniknews.com (English version)|
RIA Novosti (Russian : РИА Новости), sometimes RIA (Russian : РИА) for short, was Russia's international news agency until 2013 and continues to be the name of a state-operated domestic Russian-language news agency. Operating under the purview of the Russian Ministry of Communications and Mass Media, RIA Novosti is headquartered in Moscow and operated about 80 bureaus internationally. On 9 December 2013 President of Russia Vladimir Putin ordered RIA Novosti's liquidation and the creation of a Russian international news agency Rossiya Segodnya. Dmitry Kiselev, an anchorman of the Russia-1 channel was appointed to be the first president of the new information agency. RIA Novosti was scheduled to be closed down in 2014; starting in March 2014, staff were informed that they had the option of transferring their contracts to Rossiya Segodnya or accepting voluntary redundancy. On 10 November 2014, Rossiya Segodnya launched the Sputnik multimedia platform as the international replacement of RIA Novosti and Voice of Russia. Within Russia itself, however, Rossiya Segodnya continues to operate its Russian language news service under the name RIA Novosti with its ria.ru website.
Russian is an East Slavic language, which is official in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely used throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia. It was the de facto language of the Soviet Union until its dissolution on 25 December 1991. Although nearly three decades have passed since the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russian is used in official capacity or in public life in all the post-Soviet nation-states, as well as in Israel and Mongolia.
A news agency is an organization that gathers news reports and sells them to subscribing news organizations, such as newspapers, magazines and radio and television broadcasters. A news agency may also be referred to as a wire service, newswire, or news service.
Moscow is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits, 17 million within the urban area and 20 million within the metropolitan area. Moscow is one of Russia's federal cities.
The agency published news and analysis of social-political, economic, scientific and financial subjects on the Internet and via e-mail in the main European languages, as well as in Persian, Japanese and Arabic.It had a correspondent network in the Russian Federation, CIS and over 40 non-CIS countries. Its clients include the presidential administration, Russian government, Federation Council, State Duma, leading ministries and government departments, administrations of Russian regions, representatives of Russian and foreign business communities, diplomatic missions, and public organizations.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi, is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. It is a pluricentric language primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and some other regions which historically were Persianate societies and considered part of Greater Iran. It is written right to left in the Persian alphabet, a modified variant of the Arabic script.
Japanese is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language. It is a member of the Japonic language family, and its relation to other languages, such as Korean, is debated. Japanese has been grouped with language families such as Ainu, Austroasiatic, and the now-discredited Altaic, but none of these proposals has gained widespread acceptance.
The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) is a regional intergovernmental organization of 10 post-Soviet republics in Eurasia formed following the dissolution of the Soviet Union. It has an area of 20,368,759 km² and has an estimated population of 239,796,010. The CIS encourages cooperation in economical, political and military affairs and has certain powers to coordinate trade, finance, lawmaking and security. It has also promoted cooperation on cross-border crime prevention.
RIA Novosti was an award-winning news agency.The last editor-in-chief of RIA Novosti was Svetlana Mironyuk, the first woman appointed to the role in the agency's history. According to the organisation's Charter, enterprise's property was federally owned (because federal unitary enterprise) and was indivisible. According to the agency, it was partially government-subsidized (2.7–2.9 billion roubles in 2013 ), but maintained full editorial independence.
Svetlana Vasiliyevna Mironyuk is a Russian media executive, a graduate of Moscow State University. She was head and editor-in-chief of the RIA Novosti news agency, having been appointed chair of the board in 2003 and director general in 2004. She has overseen the organization's modernization. Before that, she was employed with the Media-Most holding owned by Vladimir Gusinsky.
A unitary enterprise is a government-owned corporation in Russia and some other post-Soviet states. Unitary enterprises are business entities that have no ownership rights to the assets that they use in their operations. This form is possible only for state and municipal enterprises, which respectively operate state or municipal property. The owners of the property of a unitary enterprise have no responsibility for its operation and vice versa.
Its Russian name was Federal State Unitary Enterprise Russian Agency of International Information «RIA Novosti» (Russian : Федеральное государственное унитарное предприятие Российское агентство международной информации «РИА Новости», Federal'noye Gosudarstvennoye Unitarnoye Predpyatye Rossiyskoye Agentsvo Mezhdunarodnoy Informatsii), FGUP RAMI «RIA Novosti» (Russian : ФГУП РАМИ «РИА Новости») for short. Its formal English name was Russian News & Information Agency "RIA Novosti". Early in 1990s it had the name state enterprise RIA «Novosti» (named after Soviet Press Agency «Novosti» and Information Agency «Novosti»). RIA means Russian Information Agency and Novosti means News in Russian. The common abbreviation in Russian is RIA.
RIA Novosti's history dates back to June 24, 1941, when by a resolution of the USSR Council of People’s Commissars and the Communist Party Central Committee, "On the Establishment and Tasks of the Soviet Information Bureau", the Soviet Information Bureau (Sovinformburo) was set up under the USSR Council of People's Commissars and the Central Committee. Its main task was to oversee work to cover international, military events and the events of the country's domestic life in periodicals and on the radio (from October 14, 1941, to March 3, 1942, was based in Kuibyshev – modern-day Samara).
he Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was the main office of the executive branch of government of the Soviet Union. During its history of existence, the government carried two names: Council of People's Commissars and Council of Ministers of the Soviet Union. To underlined the Soviet form of government sometimes the term of "council" is substituted with the Russian term "soviet". During the process of dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 it adopted westernized form of cabinet.
Soviet Information Bureau' was a leading Soviet news agency, operating from 1941 to 1961.
The bureau's main task was to compile reports on the situation on the frontline of the war, work on the home front, and the partisan movement for the radio, newspapers and magazines. Sovinformburo directed the activity of the All-Slavonic Committee, Anti-Nazi Committee of Soviet Women, Anti-Nazi Committee of the Soviet Youth, Anti-Nazi Committee of Soviet Scientists, and the Jewish Anti-Nazi Committee. In 1944, a special bureau on propaganda for foreign countries was set up as part of Sovinformburo.
Through 1,171 newspapers, 523 magazines and 18 radio stations in 23 countries, Soviet embassies abroad, friendship societies, trade unions, women's, youth and scientific organizations, Sovinformburo informed readers and listeners about the struggle of the Soviet people against Nazism and in the post-war years about the main areas of Soviet domestic and foreign policies.
Sovinformburo heads included A.S. Shcherbakov (1941–45), S. A. Lozovsky (1945–48) and Y.S. Khavinson, D.A. Polikarpov.
In 1961, the Novosti Press Agency (APN) succeeded Sovinformburo. It became the leading information and press body of Soviet public organizations. The constituent conference was held on February 21, 1961. The conference of representatives of Soviet public organizations adopted a decision to create a press agency of public organizations named Novosti. The agency's guiding body was the Council of the Agency’s Founders.
The APN founders were the USSR Journalists Union, USSR Writers Union, Union of Soviet Societies of Friendship and Cultural Relations with Foreign Countries, and the Znaniye Society. On April 3, 1961, the Agency charter was adopted. Under its charter, APN's aim was "to contribute to mutual understanding, trust and friendship among peoples in every possible way by broadly publishing accurate information about the USSR abroad and familiarizing the Soviet public with the life of the peoples of foreign countries." APN's motto was "Information for Peace, for the Friendship of Nations". APN had bureaus in over 120 countries. The Agency published 60 illustrated newspapers and magazines in 45 languages with a one-time circulation of 4.3 million copies. With the Union of Soviet Friendship Societies, APN published the newspaper, Moscow News, which in September 1990 became an independent publication. APN Publishing House put out over 200 books and booklets with a total annual circulation of 20 million copies. In 1989, a TV center opened in APN. Later, it was transformed into the TV-Novosti TV company.
The APN heads included Boris Burkov (1961–70), Ivan Udaltsov (1970–75), Lev Tolkunov (1975–83), Pavel Naumov (1983–86), Valentin Falin (1986–88), Albert Vlasov (1988–90).
By a decree of USSR President Mikhail Gorbachev, "On the Establishment of the Information Agency Novosti," the Information Agency Novosti (IAN) succeeded APN on July 27, 1990. "To provide information support for the USSR's state domestic and foreign policies and proceeding from the interests of the democratization of the mass media," the Novosti Press Agency was renamed the Information Agency Novosti (IAN). IAN's tasks remained the same – preparing and publishing printed, TV and radio materials in the USSR and abroad; studying public opinion on Soviet foreign and domestic policies in the USSR and abroad." A computer databank was created in the Agency. Initially, it contained over 250,000 documents. In 1991, the Infonews hotline started operating in the Agency. IAN had bureaus in 120 countries. It published 13 illustrated magazines and newspapers. The chairman of the IAN Board was Albert Ivanovich Vlasov.
The Russian Information Agency Novosti was created in September 1991 on the basis of IAN and the Russian Information Agency. By a Presidential decree of the Russian president dated August 22, 1991, RIA Novosti was placed within the competence of the Press and Information Ministry. RIA Novosti had about 80 bureaus and news offices abroad, over 1,500 subscribers in CIS countries and about a hundred in non-CIS countries. A Presidential decree of the Russian president of September 15, 1993 "On the Russian Information Agency Novosti", transformed RIA Novosti to a state news-analytical agency. RIA Novosti's radio channel – RIA-Radio worked in 1996. In August 1997, the TV channel Kultura was set up on the basis of the RIA TV channel under the sponsorship of the VGTRK TV and radio broadcasting company. By a decree of the Russian president, "On Improving the Work of the State Electronic Media," the VGTRK information holding was created in May 1998, which RIA Novosti joined.
In May 1998, the agency was renamed the Russian Information Agency Vesti. As a mass media body, it retained the name of RIA Novosti.In 2005, RIA Novosti launched RT (originally Russia Today) a global multilingual television news network, which is a government-funded but autonomous, non-profit organization. RIA Novosti asserts that it "merely participated in establishing the channel" which retained "complete legal, editorial and operational independence."
On 9 December 2013 Russian President Vladimir Putin signed the liquidation of RIA Novosti and merging it with the international radio service Voice of Russia to create Rossiya Segodnya.Dmitry Kiselyov, a former anchorman of the Channel One Russia is appointed as the president of the new information agency. According to her interview, the editor-in-chief of the TV network RT, Margarita Simonyan was completely unaware about the reorganization of the information agency and got the information from listening to competitor radio station Kommersant-FM. However, Rossiya Segodnya will not in any way be related to the television channel RT, which was known as Russia Today before its rebranding in 2009.
Censorship and the issue of Media freedom in Russia have been main themes since the era of the telegraph. Radio was a major new technology in the 1920s, when the Communists had recently come to power. Soviet authorities realized that the "ham" operator was highly individualistic and encouraged private initiative– too much so for the totalitarian regime. Criminal penalties were imposed but the working solution was to avoid broadcasting over the air. Instead radio programs were transmitted by copper wire, using a hub and spoke system, to loudspeakers in approved listening stations, such as the "Red" corner of a factory. Due to the enormous size of the country Russia today leads in the number of TV broadcast stations and repeaters. There were few channels in the Soviet time, but in the past two decades many new state-run and private-owned radio stations and TV channels appeared.
Russian News Agency TASS, abbr. TASS is a major news agency in Russia, founded in 1904. TASS is the largest Russian news agency and one of the largest news agencies worldwide, along with Reuters, the Associated Press (AP) and Agence France-Presse (AFP).
The Voice of Russia, commonly abbreviated VOR, was the Russian government's international radio broadcasting service from 1993 until 2014, when it was reorganised as Radio Sputnik. Its interval signal was a chime version of 'Majestic' chorus from the Great Gate of Kiev portion of Pictures at an Exhibition by Mussorgsky.
The Moscow News, which began publication in 1930, was Russia's oldest English-language newspaper. Many of its feature articles used to be translated from the Russian language Moskovskiye Novosti.
Moskovskiye Novosti was a Russian-language daily newspaper in Russia relaunched in 2011. The paper - by then a 'youth-oriented' free sheet handed out at more than 850 places around Moscow - on 23 January 2014 announced that it would cease publication on 1 February that year.
RT is a Russian international television network funded by the Russian government. It operates pay television channels directed to audiences outside of Russia, as well as providing Internet content in English, Spanish, French, German, Arabic and Russian.
Runet Prize is a national award of the Russian Federation. Its founder is Russian governmental agency FAPMC which oversees country's mass media.
The All-Russia State Television and Radio Broadcasting Company, in short VGTRK which operates a large number of television and radio channels in 53 of Russia's languages. The company was founded in 1990 and is based in Moscow.
The media of Russia refers to mass media outlets based in the Russian Federation. The media of Russia is diverse, with a wide range of broadcast and print outlets available to the consumers. Television, magazines, and newspapers are all operated by both state-owned and for-profit corporations which depend on advertising, subscription, and other sales-related revenues. The Constitution of Russia guarantees freedom of speech. As a country in transition, Russia's media system is under transformation.
Rossiya Segodnya is a news agency owned and operated by the Russian government, created by an Executive Order of the President of Russia on December 9, 2013. "Rossiya Segodnya" directly translates from Russian into English as "Russia Today", but should not be confused with the TV network RT, which was known as Russia Today prior to 2009. However, the station is still sometimes referred to as "Russia Today" or the "New Russia Today" in foreign media.
Mikhail Yuriyevich Lesin was a Russian political figure, media executive and an adviser to president Vladimir Putin. In 2006, he was awarded the Order "For Merit to the Fatherland", one of Russia's highest state decoration for civilians. Lesin was nicknamed the Bulldozer because of his ability to get virtually all Russian media outlets under the Kremlin's control.
Events in the year 2011 in Russia.
Margarita Simonovna Simonyan is the editor-in-chief of the English-language television news network RT and of the state-owned international news agency Rossiya Segodnya.
Events from the year 2012 in the Russia
Mark Hirst is Bureau Chief and Editor-in-Chief of Radio Sputnik/Sputnik News UK, formerly RIA Novosti,, Russia's largest news organisation. Hirst is a former broadcast journalist with STV News. He has also produced and appeared in a number of independently-made documentary films.
Dmitry Konstantinovich Kiselyov alternatively transliterated Kiselev, is a Russian journalist. In December 2013, he was appointed by Russian President Vladimir Putin to head the new official Russian government-owned international news agency Rossiya Segodnya. He also serves as deputy director of Russian state TV holding company VGTRK.
Andrey Alexeyevich Stenin was a Russian photojournalist contributing to several leading Russian and international news agencies including Rossiya Segodnya, RIA Novosti, Kommersant, ITAR-TASS, Associated Press, Reuters and Agence France-Presse. He was killed in August 2014 covering the war in Ukraine. Stenin was awarded Russia's Order of Courage posthumously.
Sputnik is a news agency, news website platform and radio broadcast service established by the Russian government-owned news agency Rossiya Segodnya. Headquartered in Moscow, Sputnik has regional editorial offices in Washington, Cairo, Beijing, Paris, Berlin, London and Edinburgh. Sputnik focuses on global politics and economics and is geared towards a non-Russian audience.
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