Rabaul

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Rabaul
Rabaul from Vulcanology Observatory.jpg
Rabaul from the Vulcanology Observatory, with the old town to the left and the new town to the right
Location map New Britain and Ireland.png
Red pog.svg
Rabaul
Coordinates: 4°12′S152°11′E / 4.200°S 152.183°E / -4.200; 152.183 Coordinates: 4°12′S152°11′E / 4.200°S 152.183°E / -4.200; 152.183
Country Papua New Guinea
Province East New Britain
LLG Rabaul Urban LLG
Established1878 [1]
Population
  Total3,885 (17,044 1990)
Languages
   Main languages Tok Pisin, Kuanua, English
   Traditional language Kuanua
Time zone UTC+10 (AEST)
Postcode
611
Climate Af

Rabaul is a township in East New Britain province, on the island of New Britain, in the country of Papua New Guinea. It lies about 600 kilometres to the east of the island of New Guinea. Rabaul was the provincial capital and most important settlement in the province until it was destroyed in 1994 by falling ash of a volcanic eruption in its harbor.

New Britain Island in Papua New Guinea

New Britain is the largest island in the Bismarck Archipelago of Papua New Guinea. It is separated from the island of New Guinea by the Dampier and Vitiaz Straits and from New Ireland by St. George's Channel. The main towns of New Britain are Rabaul/Kokopo and Kimbe. The island is roughly the size of Taiwan. While the island was part of German New Guinea, it was named Neupommern.

Papua New Guinea constitutional monarchy in Oceania

Papua New Guinea, officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea is a country in Oceania that occupies the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and its offshore islands in Melanesia, a region of the southwestern Pacific Ocean north of Australia. Its capital, located along its southeastern coast, is Port Moresby. The western half of New Guinea forms the Indonesian provinces of Papua and West Papua.

New Guinea Island in the Pacific Ocean

New Guinea is a large island separated by a shallow sea from the rest of the Australian continent. It is the world's second-largest island, after Greenland, covering a land area of 785,753 km2 (303,381 sq mi), and the largest wholly or partly within the Southern Hemisphere and Oceania.

Contents

During the eruption, ash was sent thousands of metres into the air and the subsequent rain of ash caused 80% of the buildings in Rabaul to collapse. After the eruption the capital was moved to Kokopo, about 20 kilometres (12 mi) away. Rabaul is continually threatened by volcanic activity because it is on the edge of Rabaul caldera, a flooded caldera of a large pyroclastic shield.

Kokopo Place in East New Britain, Papua New Guinea

Kokopo is the capital of East New Britain in Papua New Guinea. The capital was moved from Rabaul in 1994 when the volcanoes Tavurvur and Vulcan erupted. As a result, the population of the town increased more than sixfold from 3,150 in 1990 to 20,262 in 2000.

Rabaul caldera A large volcano on the tip of the Gazelle Peninsula in East New Britain, Papua New Guinea

The Rabaul caldera, or Rabaul Volcano, is a large volcano on the tip of the Gazelle Peninsula in East New Britain, Papua New Guinea, and derives its name from the town of Rabaul inside the caldera. The caldera has many sub-vents, Tavurvur being the most well known for its devastating eruptions over Rabaul. The outer flanks of the highest peak, a 688-metre-high asymmetrical pyroclastic shield, are formed by thick pyroclastic flow deposits. There is no sign of a pyroclastic shield along the rim of the caldera, making the location likely underwater, on the caldera's floor.

A caldera is a large cauldron-like hollow that forms shortly after the emptying of a magma chamber/reservoir in a volcanic eruption. When large volumes of magma are erupted over a short time, structural support for the rock above the magma chamber is lost. The ground surface then collapses downward into the emptied or partially emptied magma chamber, leaving a massive depression at the surface. Although sometimes described as a crater, the feature is actually a type of sinkhole, as it is formed through subsidence and collapse rather than an explosion or impact. Only seven caldera-forming collapses are known to have occurred since 1900, most recently at Bárðarbunga volcano, Iceland in 2014.

Rabaul was planned and built around the harbor area known as Simpsonhafen (Simpson Harbour) during the German New Guinea administration which controlled the region between 1884 and formally through 1919. From 1910 Rabaul was the headquarters of German New Guinea until captured by the British Empire during the early days of World War I. It became the capital of the Australian mandated Territory of New Guinea until 1937 when it was first destroyed by a volcano.

German New Guinea colonial protectorate from 1884–1914

German New Guinea consisted of the northeastern part of the island of New Guinea and several nearby island groups and was the first part of the German colonial empire. The mainland part of the territory, called Kaiser-Wilhelmsland, became a German protectorate in 1884. Other island groups were added subsequently. New Pomerania, the Bismarck Archipelago, and the northern Solomon Islands were declared a German protectorate in 1885; the Caroline Islands, Palau, and the Mariana Islands were bought from Spain in 1899; the protectorate of the Marshall Islands was bought from Spain in 1885 for $4.5 million by the 1885 Hispano-German Protocol of Rome; and Nauru was annexed to the Marshall Islands protectorate in 1888.

British Empire States and dominions ruled by the United Kingdom

The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. It originated with the overseas possessions and trading posts established by England between the late 16th and early 18th centuries. At its height, it was the largest empire in history and, for over a century, was the foremost global power. By 1913, the British Empire held sway over 412 million people, 23% of the world population at the time, and by 1920, it covered 35,500,000 km2 (13,700,000 sq mi), 24% of the Earth's total land area. As a result, its political, legal, linguistic and cultural legacy is widespread. At the peak of its power, the phrase "the empire on which the sun never sets" was often used to describe the British Empire, because its expanse around the globe meant that the sun was always shining on at least one of its territories.

World War I 1914–1918 global war originating in Europe

World War I, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history. It is also one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the resulting 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide.

During World War II it was captured by Japan in 1942, and became its main base of military and naval activity in the South Pacific. Settlements and military installations around the edge of the caldera are often collectively called Rabaul, although the old town of Rabaul was reduced to practical insignificance by the volcanic eruption in 1937.

World War II 1939–1945 global war

World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China. It included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, and the only use of nuclear weapons in war.

Oceania Geographic region comprising Australasia, Melanesia, Micronesia and Polynesia

Oceania is a geographic region which includes Australasia, Melanesia, Micronesia and Polynesia. Spanning the eastern and western hemispheres, Oceania has a land area of 8,525,989 square kilometres (3,291,903 sq mi) and has a population of 40 million. Situated in the southeast of the Asia-Pacific region, Oceania, when compared to continental regions, is the smallest in land area and the second smallest in population after Antarctica.

As a tourist destination, Rabaul is popular for its volcanoes, scuba diving and for snorkeling sites, spectacular harbour and other scenery, World War II history, flora and fauna, and the cultural life of the Tolai people. Before the 1994 eruption, Rabaul was a popular commercial and recreational boating destination; fewer private small craft visit now, but 10 to 12 cruise ships visit Rabaul each year, including the Queen Elizabeth carrying up to 2000 passengers. Tourism is a major industry in Rabaul and East New Britain generally.

Scuba diving Using bottled air to swim underwater

Scuba diving is a mode of underwater diving where the diver uses a self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (scuba), which is completely independent of surface supply, to breathe underwater. Scuba divers carry their own source of breathing gas, usually compressed air, allowing them greater independence and freedom of movement than surface-supplied divers, and longer underwater endurance than breath-hold divers. Although the use of compressed air is common, a new mixture called enriched air (Nitrox) has been gaining popularity due to its benefit of reduced nitrogen intake during repetitive dives. Open circuit scuba systems discharge the breathing gas into the environment as it is exhaled, and consist of one or more diving cylinders containing breathing gas at high pressure which is supplied to the diver through a regulator. They may include additional cylinders for range extension, decompression gas or emergency breathing gas. Closed-circuit or semi-closed circuit rebreather scuba systems allow recycling of exhaled gases. The volume of gas used is reduced compared to that of open circuit, so a smaller cylinder or cylinders may be used for an equivalent dive duration. Rebreathers extend the time spent underwater compared to open circuit for the same gas consumption; they produce fewer bubbles and less noise than open circuit scuba which makes them attractive to covert military divers to avoid detection, scientific divers to avoid disturbing marine animals, and media divers to avoid bubble interference.

Snorkeling Swimming while breathing through a snorkel

Snorkeling is the practice of swimming on or through a body of water while equipped with a diving mask, a shaped breathing tube called a snorkel, and usually swimfins. In cooler waters, a wetsuit may also be worn. Use of this equipment allows the snorkeler to observe underwater attractions for extended periods with relatively little effort and to breathe while face-down at the surface.

The Tolai are the indigenous people of the Gazelle Peninsula and the Duke of York Islands of East New Britain in the New Guinea Islands region of Papua New Guinea. They are ethnically close kin to the peoples of adjacent New Ireland and tribes like the Tanga people and are thought to have migrated to the Gazelle Peninsula in relatively recent times, displacing the Baining people who were driven westwards.

History

Rabaul's proximity to its volcanoes has always been a source of concern. In 1878 before it was established as a town, an eruption formed a volcano in the harbour.

Volcano A rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface

A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.

For older eruptions, see Rabaul caldera.

Colonial period and aftermath

1890s photo of Parkinson family, Rabaul. 1890s photo of Parkinson family, Rabaul.jpg
1890s photo of Parkinson family, Rabaul.
Queen Emma's living room in Rabaul in 1914 when German New Guinea was seized and occupied by Australia. Queen Emma's living room in Rabaul 1914.jpg
Queen Emma's living room in Rabaul in 1914 when German New Guinea was seized and occupied by Australia.
Robert Louis Stevenson's piano in Queen Emma's Rabaul living room in 1914. Robert Lous Stevenson's piano on Queen Emma's Rabaul living room.jpg
Robert Louis Stevenson's piano in Queen Emma's Rabaul living room in 1914.

In 1910 the German colonial government during the administration of Governor Albert Hahl moved offices, the district court, a hospital and customs and postal facilities from Herbertshöhe (today’s Kokopo) to Simpsonhafen. That settlement was thus substantially enlarged with official buildings and housing and renamed Rabaul, meaning mangrove in Kuanua (the local language) as the new town was partially built on a reclaimed mangrove swamp. [2]

At the outset of World War I, at the behest of Great Britain, Australia — as one of the Dominions of the British Empire — defeated the German military garrison in Rabaul and occupied the territory with the volunteer Australian Naval and Military Expeditionary Force. Following Germany's defeat at the end of the war, the occupied territory was delegated in 1920 to Australia as a League of Nations Mandate (Class C). [3] Rabaul became the capital of the Territory of New Guinea. Visits to and stays in Rabaul during this period were amply described in books by many authors, including Margaret Mead.

Gunantambu, the famous house of “Queen” Emma Forsayth and her husband, contained furniture previously owned by Robert Louis Stevenson and left to her family in Samoa. [4] Destroyed in the 1937 volcano eruption, its remains became a tourist attraction after World War II and remained so until the 1994 further volcanic destruction of Rabaul.

Rabaul (Tavurvur) volcano: 1937 eruption

Rabaul volcanoes 2011 Rabaul volcanos 2011.jpg
Rabaul volcanoes 2011

"Rabaul volcano is one of the most active and most dangerous volcanoes in Papua New Guinea." [5] Having erupted and entirely destroyed Rabaul in 1937, five years before the occupation by Japan, "Rabaul exploded violently [again] in 1994 and devastated the...[city]. Since then, the young cone Tavurvur located inside the caldera has been the site of near persistent activity in form of strombolian to vulcanian ash eruptions. The caldera has an elliptical form (14 x 9 km) and is surrounded by a steep volcanic ridge several hundred meters high." [5]

Under the Australian administration, Rabaul developed into a regional base. Then in 1937, catastrophic volcanic eruptions destroyed the town after the two volcanoes, Tavurvur and Vulcan, exploded. 507 people were killed, and there was widespread damage. Following this, the Australian administration for the Territory of New Guinea decided to move the territorial headquarters to the safer location of Lae. All long-term steps to re-establish the territorial headquarters at Rabaul were forestalled during World War II.

World War II

Aircraft of the USAAF 3rd Bomb Group attack Japanese ships in Simpson Harbour, 2 November 1943. The heavy cruiser Haguro is in the foreground. She had been damaged during the Battle of Empress Augusta Bay the previous night. The burning transport at right appears to be one of the Hakone Maru class, of which Hakone Maru, Hakozaki Maru and Hakusan Maru were still afloat at the time. The ship in the left distance, partially hidden by smoke, appears to be the submarine tender Chogei or Jingei. Japanese cruiser Haguro at Rabaul.jpg
Aircraft of the USAAF 3rd Bomb Group attack Japanese ships in Simpson Harbour, 2 November 1943. The heavy cruiser Haguro is in the foreground. She had been damaged during the Battle of Empress Augusta Bay the previous night. The burning transport at right appears to be one of the Hakone Maru class, of which Hakone Maru, Hakozaki Maru and Hakusan Maru were still afloat at the time. The ship in the left distance, partially hidden by smoke, appears to be the submarine tender Chōgei or Jingei.
Lieutenant General Harukichi Hyakutake in front of HQ Rabaul Lieutenant General Harukichi Hyakutake in front of HQ Rabaul.jpg
Lieutenant General Harukichi Hyakutake in front of HQ Rabaul
World War II Japanese landing barges in tunnels near Rabaul Japanese boats in Rabaul tunnel.jpg
World War II Japanese landing barges in tunnels near Rabaul

By the time the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor it was apparent they would soon attack Rabaul. So, by December 1941, women and children (except for Chinese and the local indigenous) were evacuated. In January 1942 Rabaul was heavily bombed, on 23 January the Battle of Rabaul began and Rabaul was captured shortly thereafter [6] by thousands of Japanese naval landing forces .

During their occupation the Japanese developed Rabaul into a much more powerful base than the Australians had planned after the 1937 volcanic eruptions, with long term consequences for the town in the post-war period. The Japanese army dug many kilometres of tunnels as shelter from Allied air attacks, such as the bombing of Rabaul (November 1943). They also expanded the facilities by constructing army barracks and support structures. By 1943 there were about 110,000 Japanese troops based in Rabaul.

On 18 April 1943, the United States executed Operation Vengeance, in which Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto, the architect of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, was shot down and killed by a United States P-38 Lightning over south Bougainville. Yamamoto had taken off from Rabaul on an inspection tour, and United States Navy cryptographers had intercepted and then decrypted Japanese communications giving his flight itinerary. Because of the need to keep secret the American ability to decrypt Japanese radio traffic, the sensitive information went up the chain of command for a decision as to what actions the units in the field should take; ultimately President Franklin D. Roosevelt was said to have approved the action based on these intercepts, although this is not documented. [7] Sixteen United States Army Air Forces P-38 Lightning fighters took off from Guadalcanal and intercepted and destroyed the two bombers of the Yamamoto flight and damaged some of the escorting Japanese fighters, for the loss of one P-38.

Instead of capturing Rabaul during their advance towards the Japanese Home islands, the Allied forces decided to bypass it by establishing a ring of airfields and naval bases on the islands around it. Cut off from re-supply and under continual air attacks as part of Operation Cartwheel, the base became useless. The Pacification of Rabaul took until the end of the war and was only completed following the Japanese surrender in August 1945.[ citation needed ]

Rabaul and Simpson Harbour post-World War II Rabaul and Simpson Harbaour post-World War II.jpg
Rabaul and Simpson Harbour post-World War II

Post-World War II until 1994

After the Second World War, western New Guinea (renamed Papua) was returned to pre-war owner the Netherlands, and eastern New Guinea was returned to pre-war administrator Australia, and Rabaul flourished as the principal city and port of the archipelago, with one of the finest harbors in the world." [8] By 1990 Rabaul's population was 17,044. [9] However, Rabaul did not resume its pre-1937 role as capital, which Port Moresby became for the whole of the two territories.

Rabaul's magnificent harbor and central position meant it became a trading hub for the lively, and politically and economically developing New Guinea Islands region (East and West New Britain, New Ireland, Manus Island, and Bougainville). It retained that role when Papua New Guinea became independent from Australia in 1975.

1994 eruption

Aftermath of the 1994 volcanic eruption in Rabaul. Aftermath of volcano eruption, Rabaul, PNG, 1994 (10665662006).jpg
Aftermath of the 1994 volcanic eruption in Rabaul.

In 1983 and 1984 the town was ready for evacuation when the volcanoes started to heat up. Nothing happened until 19 September 1994, when again Tavurvur and Vulcan erupted, destroying the airport and covering most of the town with heavy ashfall. There were only 19 hours of warning, but the city and most nearby villages were evacuated before the eruption. Five people were killed—one of them by lightning from the eruptive column. The planning and evacuation drills helped keep the death toll low. Most of the buildings in the south-eastern half of Rabaul collapsed due to the weight of ash on their roofs.

The last eruption and continuing low and modest levels of activity, prompted moving the provincial capital to Kokopo, the former German Herbertshöhe. Nonetheless, Rabaul is slowly rebuilding in the danger zone. Vulcan has remained quiet since 1994, but eruptions from Tavurvur, small and large, occur intermittently, with the most recent of note being on 29 August 2014. A government vulcanological observatory was established on the northern ridge of Rabaul caldera in the 1950s. A team maintains its crucial watch over the town and the volcanoes today. It also has responsibility for monitoring other volcanoes on New Britain and nearby islands.

Transport

Rabaul Airport was destroyed in the 1994 eruption, and, since the approach involved flying over the Tavurvur crater, it was abandoned. The airport was in the direct path of the falling ash from the nearby vents. A new airport was built at Tokua, about 50 km farther away to the southeast. However, even it has been closed occasionally by ash thrown up by Tavurvur and driven by the northwest monsoon winds.

Rabaul has a large, nearly enclosed harbour, Simpson Harbour. Use of this harbour by the Imperial Japanese Navy was one of the motivations for the Japanese invasion in 1942.[ citation needed ]

Climate

Rabaul features a tropical rainforest climate, which is constantly hot, humid, overcast and oppressive. Rabaul experiences significant rainfall year round, and is classified as Af by Köppen and Geiger. The average annual temperature in Rabaul is 26.9 °C and rainfall there averages 2201 mm.

Climate data for Rabaul
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)31
(87)
31
(88)
31
(87)
31
(87)
31
(88)
31
(88)
31
(87)
31
(87)
32
(89)
32
(89)
31
(88)
31
(87)
31
(88)
Average low °C (°F)23
(74)
23
(74)
23
(74)
23
(74)
23
(74)
23
(74)
23
(74)
23
(74)
23
(74)
23
(74)
23
(74)
23
(74)
23
(74)
Average precipitation cm (inches)23
(9)
24
(9.3)
26
(10.1)
22
(8.5)
13
(5.1)
11
(4.5)
11
(4.3)
10
(4.1)
9.1
(3.6)
11
(4.5)
18
(7.1)
24
(9.5)
202
(79.7)
Source: Weatherbase [10]

See also

Notes

  1. History of Rabaul, retrieved 2009-11-05
  2. Schultz-Naumann, Joachim. Unter Kaisers Flagge. Deutschlands Schutzgebiete im Pazifik und in China einst und heute [Under the Kaiser’s Flag. Germany’s Protectorates in the Pacific and China, then and today]. Munich: Universitas Verlag. 1985, p. 96. ISBN   3-8004-1094-X
  3. Class C mandates were designed for populations considered incapable of self-government
  4. Noel Gash and June Whitaker, A Pictorial History of New Guinea. Milton, QLD, Australia: The Jacaranda Press, 1975, p.42..
  5. 1 2 Volcano Discovery. "Rabaul (Tavurvur) volcano." http://www.volcanodiscovery.com/rabaul-tavurvur.html Retrieved 26 December 2012.
  6. Gavin Sauter, New Guinea: The Last Unknown (Sydney: Angus and Robertson, 1963) p.174.
  7. Grant, Rebecca. "Magic and Lightning" Archived 6 July 2008 at the Wayback Machine in Air Force Magazine, March 2006
  8. "Rabaul." http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Rabaul.aspx Retrieved 1 September 2013.
  9. "Rabaul," Encyclopedia.com http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Rabaul.aspx Retrieved 6 July 2013.
  10. "Weatherbase: Historical Weather for Rabaul, Papua New Guinea". Weatherbase. 2011. Retrieved on November 24, 2011.

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Vulcan (volcano) Papua New Guinea Vulcano

Vulcan is a pumice cone in Papua New Guinea. It is a sub-vent of the Rabaul caldera and lies on the western rim of the Rabaul caldera. Its most recent eruption was in 1994, when it and another vent, Tavurvur, forced the city of Rabaul to be temporarily abandoned and the local administrative centres of East New Britain Province to be moved to a new capital, Kokopo. Today, the slopes of Vulcan are now forested, as a result of dormancy since 1994.

Tavurvur mountain

Tavurvur is an active stratovolcano near Rabaul, on the island of New Britain, in Papua New Guinea. It is a sub-vent of the Rabaul caldera and lies on the eastern rim of the larger feature. An eruption of the volcano largely destroyed the nearby town of Rabaul in 1994.

East New Britain Province Place in Papua New Guinea

East New Britain is a province of Papua New Guinea, consisting of the north-eastern part of the island of New Britain and the Duke of York Islands. The capital of the province is Kokopo, not far from the old capital of Rabaul, which was largely destroyed in a volcanic eruption in 1994. East New Britain covers a total land area of 15,816 square kilometres (6,107 sq mi), and the province's population was reported as 220,133 in the 2000 census, rising to 328,369 in the 2011 count. Provincial coastal waters extend over an area of 104,000 square metres. The province's only land border is with West New Britain Province to the west, and it also shares a maritime border with New Ireland Province to the east.

Karkar Island mountain

Karkar Island is an oval-shaped volcanic island located in the Bismarck Sea, about 30 kilometres off the north coast of mainland Papua New Guinea in Madang Province. The island is about 25 km in length and 19 km in width. In the centre is an active volcano with two nested calderas.

The Vitu Islands are a volcanic group with an area of 37 sq mi (96 km²) located in the Bismarck Sea off New Britain, in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. They are not technically part of the Bismarck Archipelago. Administratively they are part of Papua New Guinea. Formerly called the French Islands, the group is sometimes known as the Witu Islands.

Territory of New Guinea Australian administered territory est. 1920

The Territory of New Guinea was an Australian administered territory on the island of New Guinea from 1920 until 1975. In 1949, the Territory and the Territory of Papua were established in an administrative union by the name of the Territory of Papua and New Guinea. That administrative union was renamed as Papua New Guinea in 1971. Notwithstanding that it was part of an administrative union, the Territory of New Guinea at all times retained a distinct legal status and identity until the advent of the Independent State of Papua New Guinea.

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The Baining people are among the earliest and original inhabitants of the Gazelle Peninsula of East New Britain, Papua New Guinea. They currently inhabit the Baining Mountains into where they are thought to have been driven by the Tolai tribes who migrated to the coastal areas in comparatively recent times. Another factor that might have influenced their migration inland was major volcanic activity that took place over centuries.

Complex volcano A landform of more than one related volcanic centre

A complex volcano, also called a compound volcano, is mixed landform consisting of related volcanic centers and their associated lava flows and pyroclastic rock. They may form due to changes in eruptive habit or in the location of the principal vent area on a particular volcano. Stratovolcanoes can also form a large caldera that gets filled in by a lava dome, or else multiple small cinder cones, lava domes and craters may develop on the caldera's rim.

Gazelle Peninsula

The Gazelle Peninsula is a large peninsula in northeastern East New Britain, Papua New Guinea located on the island of New Britain within the Bismarck Archipelago, situated in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The Rabaul caldera is located on the northern tip of the peninsula. Upon the Gazelle Peninsula are the Baining Mountains, of which the highest point is Mount Sinewit. The Gazelle Peninsula houses Vulcan (volcano) Crater and Mount Tavurvur, both of which conducted volcanic activity in the 20th and 21st centuries and have provided extremely fertile soils. The body of the Gazelle Peninsula is about 80 kilometers. The southern isthmus upon which the Gazelle Peninsula is connected to the main body of East New Britain is reduced to about 32 kilometers.

Long Island (Papua New Guinea) Volcanic island north of New Guinea

Long Island is a volcanic island in Papua New Guinea. It is located north of the island of New Guinea, separated from it by the Vitiaz Strait.

Pyroclastic shield Shield volcano formed mostly of pyroclastic and highly explosive eruptions

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