Rabwah

Last updated

Rabwah
Town
Chenab Nagar
Pakistan location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Rabwah
Location in Punjab, Pakistan
Coordinates: 31°45′10″N72°55′20″E / 31.75278°N 72.92222°E / 31.75278; 72.92222 Coordinates: 31°45′10″N72°55′20″E / 31.75278°N 72.92222°E / 31.75278; 72.92222
Country Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan
Province Punjab
District Chiniot District
Settled20 September 1948 [1]
Area
  Total24 km2 (9 sq mi)
Elevation
300 m (1,000 ft)
Population
(2003 [2] )
  Total70,000
  Density2,300/km2 (6,000/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+5 (PST)
  Summer (DST) UTC+6 (PDT)
Postal code
35460
Area code(s) 047

Rabwah (Urdu, Punjabi: ربوہ), official name Chenab Nagar (Urdu : چناب نگر), is a city in Chiniot, Punjab, Pakistan on the bank of Chenab River. It has been the headquarters of the Ahmadiyya Community since September 20, 1948 when the community relocated from Qadian, India to the newly-created state of Pakistan in 1947. [3] The Community leased the area of present-day Rabwah from the government to establish its home. [3]

Urdu National language and lingua franca of Pakistan; one of the official languages of India; standardized register of Hindustani

Urdu —or, more precisely, Modern Standard Urdu—is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language. It is the official national language and lingua franca of Pakistan. In India, it is one of the 22 official languages recognized in the Constitution of India, having official status in the six states of Jammu and Kashmir, Telangana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal, as well as the national capital territory of Delhi. It is a registered regional language of Nepal.

Punjabi language native language of Punjabi people

Punjabi is an Indo-Aryan language with more than 100 million native speakers around the world and especially in the Indian subcontinent. It is the native language of the Punjabi people, an ethnic group of the cultural region called the Punjab, which encompasses northwest India and eastern Pakistan.

Chiniot District District in Punjab, Pakistan

Chiniot District, became the 36th district of the Punjab province of Pakistan in February 2009. At an earlier time it was a tehsil of Jhang District.

Contents

History

Yadgar Mosque, the first mosque built in Rabwah. Yadgar Masjid.jpg
Yadgar Mosque, the first mosque built in Rabwah.

From a historical perspective, Rabwah is from where Muhammad Bin Qasim, after conquering Sindh and Multan, crossed the Chenab River and moved towards Kashmir. Here the Arabs fought against the Hindu Raja of Chandrod (which is probably the ancient name of Chiniot). More than 100 Arab soldiers lost their lives in the battle with mighty Hindu King and a "Graveyard of Martyrs" exists to this day in Chiniot. [4]

Sindh Province in Pakistan

Sindh is one of the four provinces of Pakistan, in the southeast of the country, and the historical home of the Sindhi people. Sindh is the third largest province of Pakistan by area, and second largest province by population after Punjab. Sindh is bordered by Balochistan province to the west, and Punjab province to the north. Sindh also borders the Indian states of Gujarat and Rajasthan to the east, and Arabian Sea to the south. Sindh's landscape consists mostly of alluvial plains flanking the Indus River, the Thar desert in the eastern portion of the province closest to the border with India, and the Kirthar Mountains in the western part of Sindh.

Multan City in Punjab

Multan is a city in Punjab, Pakistan. Located on the banks of the Chenab River, Multan is Pakistan's 7th largest city, and is the major cultural and economic centre of southern Punjab.

Kashmir former princely state, now a conflict territory between India and Pakistan

Kashmir is the northernmost geographical region of the Indian subcontinent. Until the mid-19th century, the term "Kashmir" denoted only the Kashmir Valley between the Great Himalayas and the Pir Panjal Range. Today, it denotes a larger area that includes the Indian-administered territory of Jammu and Kashmir, the Pakistani-administered territories of Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan, and Chinese-administered territories of Aksai Chin and the Trans-Karakoram Tract.

Before the establishment of Rabwah, the area was barren and was known as Chak Digiyaan. The land was leased by the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community following the migration of most of its members from Qadian and other parts of Indian Punjab, to newly created Pakistan. In June 1948, 1034 acres of land were leased from the government for PKR 12,000. [5] [6] The town was named Rabwah by then leader of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community, Mirza Basheer-ud-Din Mahmood Ahmad. [7] Rabwah is an Arabic word meaning an "elevated place". The formal inauguration of the settlement took place on 20 September 1948 after prayers and a sacrifice of five goats at the corners and centre of the area. [8] [9] The place where Mirza Basheer-ud-Din Mahmood Ahmad led first ever prayers became the first ever mosque of Rabwah, the Yadgaar (memorial) Mosque. The first settlements were in camps which were later replaced by buildings constructed of mud. The first ever building constructed using concrete was the Mahmood Mosque. Electricity was provisioned to the city in 1954.

Arabic Central Semitic language

Arabic is usually classified as a Central Semitic language, and linguists widely agree that the language first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries CE. It is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living in the area bounded by Mesopotamia in the east and the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai Peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic.

Mirza Basheer-ud-Din Mahmood Ahmad relocated to Rabwah on 19th of Sept 1949. By that time the population had reached 1,000. The first ever Jalsa Salana in Rabwah took place from 15 to 17 April 1949, attended by 17,000 people. [10]

Jalsa Salana

Jalsa Salana is the formal, annual gathering of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community initiated by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, founder of the community who claimed to be the Promised Messiah and Mahdi of the end days. Usually, the gathering spans over three days, beginning on Friday after the Friday Sermon. Typically, the flag hoisting ceremony is used to identify its commencement. Although there is a central, international Jalsa attended by Ahmadis from across the world, many of the countries hold their own national jalsa, sometimes attended by the Khalifatul Masih.

The Punjab Assembly passed a resolution on 17 November 1998 changing the name of Rabwah to ‘Nawan Qadian’ [11] , but on 14 February 1999, a new directive was issued, renaming Nawan Qadian to Chenab Nagar [12] . The other names considered were Chak Dhaggian, Mustafa Abad, and Siddiq Abad.

Punjab Legislative Assembly Unicameral legislature of the state of Punjab in India

The Punjab Legislative Assembly or the Punjab Vidhan Sabha is the unicameral legislature of the state of Punjab in India. At present, it consists of 117 members, directly elected from 117 single-seat constituencies. The tenure of the Legislative Assembly is five years unless dissolved sooner. The current Speaker of the Assembly is Rana KP Singh. The meeting place of the Legislative Assembly since 6 March 1961 is the Vidhan Bhavan in Chandigarh.

Demography

The city has a population of 70,000, of which 97 percent belong to the Ahmadiyya Community. The rest 3 percent includes Christians and Sunni Muslims. As the City has seen many migrations of Ahmadis fleeing persecution, it has a very diverse ethnic mixture. Most of the populace speaks Urdu and Punjabi while most of the students are also fluent in English.

English language West Germanic language

English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and eventually became a global lingua franca. It is named after the Angles, one of the Germanic tribes that migrated to the area of Great Britain that later took their name, as England. Both names derive from Anglia, a peninsula in the Baltic Sea. The language is closely related to Frisian and Low Saxon, and its vocabulary has been significantly influenced by other Germanic languages, particularly Norse, and to a greater extent by Latin and French.

Life for the residents of Rabwah

As the city is the only Ahmadi majority city in Pakistan, its residents face legal dicrimination due to Ordinance XX. They have been denied the right to hold peaceful religious gatherings since 1983. [13] :iii In 1989, a report was registered by Punjab police against the whole of the population of the city for the crime that they were displaying Quranic texts on their graves and buildings. [13] :35 [14]

Geography

Tilla Chenab beside Rabwah and between Rabwah and the Chenab River. Tilla Chenab.JPG
Tilla Chenab beside Rabwah and between Rabwah and the Chenab River.

Rabwah covers an area of about 24 km2 (9.3 sq mi). It is located in the temperate region of Central Punjab, approximately halfway between Faisalabad and Sargodha. The River Chenab surrounds the city on its Eastern and Southern sides. The area is higher than the surrounding plains due to the dry hills which dot the landscape, providing a natural barrier against floods. These hills are part of the Kirana Hills, also known locally as the Black Mountains, which reach from Sargodha to Jhang. [15] The area, which used to be arid and barren, has been transformed through more than fifty years of aggressive plantation into a lush green city.

Climate

According to the Köppen climate classification Rabwah experiences an arid climate (BWh). As it is located in the temperate area of northwestern Subcontinent it shares the weather of the subcontinent. Rabwah has hot summers and cold winters. The summer season is from April to October where May, is the hottest month, in which temperatures regularly reach 400C. The location in the centre of the dry plains is responsible for dust storms in the summer. Summer also brings the Indian Monsoon which increases the precipitation in the month of June and July to above 80 mm. The winter season is from November to February where January is the coldest month in which temperatures may fall to the freezing point. The winters also bring fog which can reduce the visibility to dangerously low levels.

Climate data for Rabwah (1961-1990)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)19
(66)
22
(72)
27
(81)
33
(91)
39
(102)
39
(102)
35
(95)
35
(95)
34
(93)
32
(90)
27
(81)
21
(70)
30
(87)
Average low °C (°F)8
(46)
11
(52)
16
(61)
20
(68)
25
(77)
28
(82)
27
(81)
27
(81)
25
(77)
20
(68)
14
(57)
9
(48)
19
(67)
Average precipitation mm (inches)18
(0.7)
35
(1.4)
24
(0.9)
13
(0.5)
17
(0.7)
48
(1.9)
82
(3.2)
87
(3.4)
43
(1.7)
9
(0.4)
11
(0.4)
12
(0.5)
399
(15.7)
Source: My Weather [16]

Neighborhoods

The planned city was originally divided into following Muhallas (Boroughs):[ citation needed ]

Later on, as the city expanded, these boroughs were split into sub-divisions. Also many new boroughs were established like Factory Area, Tahir Abad, Nasir Abad, Rahman Colony, Muslim Colony, Buyutul-Hamd, etc.

Notable places

Sports and recreational places

Many neighborhoods have their own playing areas for children. Popular sports include cricket, football and badminton, basketball [17] and rowing. There is an Olympic sized swimming pool in the city, [18] along with well-maintained tennis and squash courts.

Buyut-ul-hamd park is a small amusement park in Rabwah. The riverbank and many farmhouses in the surrounding areas are considered good picnic spots.

Commercial places

Transport

Cycling is the predominant mode of transportation in Rabwah, augmented by Motorcycles and Motorcycle rickshaws. From the city, there are bus services to Islamabad, Lahore, Faisalabad, Karachi and other major cities in Pakistan. Rabwah can be accessed from the M-2 (National Highway Motorway 2) while the nearest airports are in Faisalabad (48 kilometres (30 mi)) and Sargodha (59 kilometres (37 mi)).

Education

Rabwah has a high literacy rate with school enrollment of nearly hundred percent. This is reflected by numerous achievements by students from Rabwah. [19] There are numerous Government and Private Primary and Secondary Schools as well as Colleges.

Talim-ul-Islam College and School

Talim-ul-Islam College was founded in 1898 in Qadian by the Ahmadiyya Community and relocated to Rabwah in 1947. It was nationalized under the government of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto as part of his Nationalization Program. [20] An old students association of the College is active and publishes the Al Manar magazine. [21]

Jami'a Nusrat Girls College and School

This is an all Girls College and School founded by the Ahmadiyya Community which was later nationalized. [20]

Nusrat Jahan Schools

Nusrat Jahan College, Girls Campus NJC picture.jpg
Nusrat Jahan College, Girls Campus

These are a group of non-profit, private, educational institutions in Rabwah. They were established under and named after the Nusrat Jahan Scheme; a scheme launched by the community for the educational betterment of its members. Nusrat Jahan Schools include the Nusrat Jahan Academy Boys School, Nusrat Jahan Academy Girls School, Nusrat Jahan Boys College and Nusrat Jahan Girls College. These institutions offer programmes of primary, secondary, higher secondary and higher education. They are operated by Nazarat Taleem Sadr Anjuman Ahmadiyya Pakistan.

In 2011, the external examination board of all Nusrat Jahan Schools was changed from the Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education Faisalabad to the Aga Khan University Examination Board. [1]

Institute for special education

Nazarat Taleem has started a school for special children in Rabwah. It is a revolutionary project in which Nazarat Taleem has started delivering all the basic and necessary facilities for disable children in the separate school including special buses to pick and drop etc.

Other educational Institutions

Jamia Ahmadiyya

Jamia Ahmadiyya Missionary College Jamia Ahmadiyya, Rabwah.JPG
Jamia Ahmadiyya Missionary College

Jamia Ahmadiyya is an International Islamic Seminary and Educational institute with branches all over the world. It offers a seven-year theology degree, Shahid. It has both junior and senior campuses.

Madrasatul-Hifz

It has two campuses one for boys and one for girls. It is an institution for the memorization of the Quran. Interested students can join after completing their primary education and after completion of the 3-year course they continue their education from the eighth grade.

Darul Sana'a Vocational Institute

This is a Vocational Education Institute for teaching different technical skills to the students who are not pursuing other academics.

Khilafat library

The Khilafat library is open to all members of public and is the central library of Ahmadiyya community. It contains both religious and secular books on wide range of subjects. It was established on 18 January 1970. [23] [24]

Health

Tahir Heart Institute Tahir Heart Institute.JPG
Tahir Heart Institute

Fazl-e-Omar Hospital

The Fazl-e-Omar Hospital Complex is the main private hospital of the city and caters to the majority of population's needs. It is run by the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community. Founded in 1958 it has now become one of the finest medical facilities in the area providing hospital services not only to the local community but also to patients from towns and villages from further afield. With 150 beds and highly trained medical staff, Fazl-e-Omar Hospital aims to provide up-to-date medical care in major specialties such as medicine, surgery and pediatrics in a caring environment. Last year more than 140,000 patients were seen in the OPD.

The Begum Zubaida Bani Gynecology and Obstetrics Wing is a modern facility providing a wide range of obstetrical and gynecological services. [25]

The Tahir Heart Institute is named after the late fourth Caliph of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community, Mirza Tahir Ahmad. [26] It is one of the best equipped Heart Institutes in the region.

Noor ul Ain Blood & Eye Bank

It is a specialized center which manages eye donors from around the country and performs corneal transplants. A blood donation centre, pathology laboratory, and dental clinic are also housed in the same complex.

Tahir Homeopathic Research and Training Institute

Tahir Homeopathic Clinic and Research Institute operates free clinics round the year. Last year it dispensed free medicine to 44,000 patients. The Institute plans to open new clinics in other countries and to connect all such clinics operating in any country through the email system. Patient records and diagnosis are maintained on computers to facilitate follow-up. [27]

Newspapers and publications

Notable residents

Some of the notable residents of the city are:

Related Research Articles

Ahmadiyya Caliphate Ahmediye Halifeliği

The Ahmadiyya Caliphate is a non-political caliphate established on May 27, 1908 following the death of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, the founder of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community, who claimed to be the promised Messiah and Mahdi, the expected redeemer awaited by Muslims. It is believed by Ahmadis to be the re-establishment of the Rashidun Caliphate that commenced following the death of the Prophet Muhammad. The caliphs are entitled Khalīfatul Masīh, sometimes simply referred to as Khalifa. The caliph is the elected spiritual and organizational leader of the worldwide Ahmadiyya Muslim Community and is the successor of Ghulam Ahmad. He is believed by the Community to be divinely ordained and is also referred to by its members as Amir al-Mu'minin and Imam Jama'at. The 5th and current caliph is Mirza Masroor Ahmad.

Qadian town in Punjab, India

Qadian is a town and a municipal council in Gurdaspur District, north-east of Amritsar, situated 18 kilometres (11 mi) north-east of Batala city in the state of Punjab, India.

Nusrat Jehan Academy

Nusrat Jahan Schools are a group of non-profit, private, educational institutions in Rabwah (ربوہ), a town in district Chiniot (چنیوٹ), in the province of Punjab. They are owned by the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community and are operated by the Nazarat Taleem Sadr Anjuman AhmadiyyaPakistan. These schools were established under and named after the Nusrat Jahan Scheme; a scheme launched by the community for the educational betterment of its members. These institutions offer programmes of primary, secondary, higher secondary and undergraduate and postgraduate education. Majority of the students enrolled in these schools are Ahmadi Muslims, mostly the residents of Rabwah though these institutions are not exclusively for Ahmadi Muslims and also enroll non-Ahmadi students from Rabwah and its surrounding areas.

Talim-ul-Islam College

Talim-ul-Islam College is a government college located in Chenab Nagar, Pakistan. Founded in 1898 in Qadian, India by the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community, the college was the inspiration of the community's founder Mirza Ghulam Ahmad.

Mirza Tahir Ahmad caliph of the Ahmadiyya

Mirza Tahir Ahmad was the fourth caliph and the head of the worldwide Ahmadiyya Muslim Community. He was elected as the fourth successor of the founder of the community Mirza Ghulam Ahmad on 10 June 1982, the day after the death of his predecessor, Mirza Nasir Ahmad.

Mirza Nasir Ahmad caliph of the Ahmadiyya

Hāfiz Mirza Nasir Ahmad was the third caliph, head of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community. He was elected as the third successor of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad on 8 November 1965, the day after the death of his predecessor and father, Mirza Basheer-ud-Din Mahmood Ahmad.

Mirza Basheer-ud-Din Mahmood Ahmad caliph of the Ahmadiyya

Mirza Basheer-ud-Din Mahmood Ahmad, was the second caliph, leader of the worldwide Ahmadiyya Muslim Community and the eldest son of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad from his second wife, Nusrat Jahan Begum. He was elected as the second successor of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad on 14 March 1914 at the age of 25, the day after the death of his predecessor Hakim Nur-ud-Din.

Fazl Mosque, London listed building in Wandsworth, London, SW18

The Fazl Mosque, also known as The London Mosque, is the first purpose-built mosque in the British capital. It was inaugurated on 23 October 1926 in Southfields, Wandsworth. At a cost of £6,223, the construction of the mosque and the purchase of the land on which it sits, was financed entirely by the donations of Ahmadi Muslim women in Qadian, India. Since 1984, the Fazl Mosque has been the residence of the caliphs of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community, and therefore, its de facto international headquarters.

Mirza Masroor Ahmad Spiritual leader of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community

Mirza Masroor Ahmad is the current and fifth caliph, and leader of the worldwide Ahmadiyya Muslim Community. He was elected as the fifth successor of the founder of the movement—Mirza Ghulam Ahmad—on 22 April 2003, three days after the death of his predecessor Mirza Tahir Ahmad, the fourth Caliph of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community.

Ahmadiyya An Islamic religious movement

Ahmadiyya is an Islamic revival or messianic movement founded in Punjab, British India, in the late 19th century. It originated with the life and teachings of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (1835–1908), who claimed to have been divinely appointed as both the promised Mahdi and Messiah expected by Muslims to appear towards the end times and bring about, by peaceful means, the final triumph of Islam; as well as to embody, in this capacity, the expected eschatological figure of other major religious traditions. Adherents of the Ahmadiyya—a term adopted expressly in reference to Muhammad's alternative name Aḥmad—are known as Ahmadi Muslims or simply Ahmadis.

Lajna Imaillah organization

Lajna Ima’illah is the women's auxiliary organization of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community. It is for women above the age of 15. The organization was established in 1922 by Mirza Bashir-ud-Din Mahmud Ahmad, the second Caliph of the Community to give women a voice in the administrative affairs of the Community and a degree of independence. It is the largest of the auxiliary organizations within the Community.

Bahishti Maqbara, located originally in Qadian, India and then in Rabwah, Pakistan is a religious cemetery established by the Ahmadiyya Community as a directive from the community's founder Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, made known in his booklet Al-Wasiyyat. Mirza Ghulam Ahmad established it in his will after he saw an angel showing him the place of his burial.

Ahmadiyya in Pakistan

Between 0.22% and 2.2% of Pakistan's population is Ahmadi. Hence Pakistan is the home to the largest population of Ahmadis in the world. The city of Rabwah in Punjab, Pakistan used to be the global headquarters of the Ahmadiyya Community before they were moved to England. The Ahmadiyya population in Pakistan has often come under persecution and discrimination by the Sunni majority.

Timeline of Ahmadiyya history

The timeline of Ahmadiyya history began in 1889 when the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community was established in Qadian, a village of India. It is now a worldwide community consisting of members from over 200 nations.

Jamia Ahmadiyya

Jāmi’ah al-Ahmadīyyah is an International Islamic seminary and educational institute with campuses in Pakistan, United Kingdom, India, Ghana, Canada, Germany, Nigeria, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Malaysia, Tanzania, Sri Lanka, Sierra Leone, and Kenya. In addition, there are affiliated Mu'alameen centers in Pakistan and Madagascar. Founded in 1906 as a Section in Madrassa Talim ul Islam by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad of Qadian, the founder of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community, it is the main centre of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community for Islamic learning.

1974 Anti-Ahmadiyya riots was the single largest killing and looting of Ahmadi Muslims in Pakistan's history. The Islamist parties and some mainstream parties sided together to persecution of Ahmadis.

The Daily Alfazl is one of the oldest dailies in the Indian Subcontinent. It is the Official Ahmadiyya organ. It was initiated by Mirza Basheer-ud-Din Mahmood Ahmad on June 18, 1913. Mahmud was then a young man of 24. The Daily has completed 100 years of its continuous publication.. The initial monetary responsibilities were fulfilled through donations by members of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community. The wife of Hakeem Noor-ud-Din, Khalifatul Masih I, ‘Ummi Nasir’ donated Rs. 500. The wife of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, Nusrat Jahan Begum donated Rs. 1000. Another notable Ahmadi, son in law of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, Nawab Muhammad Ali Khan donated Rs 1300.

Nazarat Taleem(Directorate of Education), launched in 1919, is a directorate within the Sadr Anjuman Ahmadiyya, in Pakistan, responsible for the task of formalizing education within schools and colleges of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community Pakistan.

References

  1. Tareekh e Ahmadiyyat, Volume 11, Page 429,430
  2. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 22 December 2010. Retrieved 24 August 2010.
  3. 1 2 "Establishment of Rabwah - Islam Ahmadiyya". Alislam.org. Retrieved 24 April 2017.
  4. Muhammad Bin Qasim Pakistan Men by Doctor Abdul Hameed Khan M.A. Ph.D Royal Pakistan Navy, page 21,22
  5. Tareekh-e-Ahmadiyyat, Volume 11, Page 410. Edition 2007. Published by Nazarat Nashro Ishaat, Qadian, India. The ISBN printed in the document (181-7912-118-6) is invalid.
  6. Silsila Ahmadiyya by Dr Mirza Sultan Ahmad volume 2 edition 2008 page no 236
  7. "Hazrat Mirza Bashiruddin Mahmud Ahmad - Islam Ahmadiyya". Alislam.org. 22 February 2000. Retrieved 24 April 2017.
  8. Tareekh-e-Ahmadiyyat, Volume 11, Page 429-435. Edition 2007. Published by Nazarat Nashro Ishaat, Qadian, India. The ISBN printed in the document (181-7912-118-6) is invalid.
  9. Silsila Ahmadiyya by Dr Mirza Sultan Ahmad volume 2 edition 2008 page no 242
  10. Silsila Ahmadiyya by Dr Mirza Sultan Ahmad volume 2 edition 2008 page no 244-248
  11. "Photographic image of papers" (JPG). Persecutionofahmadis.org. Retrieved 17 November 2017.
  12. "Photographic image of papers" (JPG). Persecutionofahmadis.org. Retrieved 17 November 2017.
  13. 1 2 Rabwah: A Place For Martyrs? Report of the Parliamentary Human Rights Group mission to Pakistan into internal flight for Ahmadis. Edited by Dr Jonathan Ensor
  14. "Police book whole town on religious grounds". Hrcpblog.wordpress.com. 9 July 2008. Retrieved 24 April 2017.
  15. [ dead link ]
  16. "Climatological Information for Chiniot", My Weather, web: My Weather.
  17. "Rabwah – Basketball a Love Story". Rabwah.net. Retrieved 24 April 2017.
  18. "In Ahmadis's desert city, Pakistan closes in". Reuters. 15 July 2017. Retrieved 24 April 2017.
  19. "11-year-old Sitara Akbar sets O-Levels world record". Pakistantoday.com.pk. Retrieved 24 April 2017.
  20. 1 2 "Nationalisation of Ahmadiyya educational institutions - Persecution of Ahmadiyya Muslim Community". Persecutionofahmadis.org. Retrieved 24 April 2017.
  21. "TI COLLEGE RABWAH". Ticollegerabwah.com. Retrieved 24 April 2017.
  22. "Advanced learning: The bright-eyed future - The Express Tribune". Tribune.com.pk. 6 December 2011. Retrieved 17 November 2017.
  23. "Khilafat Library | iRabwah". Irabwah.com. Retrieved 2017-04-25.
  24. خالد, مبشر احمد (September 2011). جماعت احمدیہ کا تعارف (Jamaat Ahmadiyya KaTaaruf) (PDF). Alislam.org. Zia ul Islam press Rabwah. pp. 253–258.
  25. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 11 September 2012. Retrieved 6 November 2012.
  26. "Welcome to Tahir Heart Institute". Tahirheart.org. Retrieved 24 April 2017.
  27. Tariq Commemorative Edition published by Majlis Khuddamul Ahmadiyya UK. 2004. Page 29
  28. "CTD raids headquarters of Ahmadis in Rabwa - The Express Tribune". Tribune.com.pk. 7 December 2016. Retrieved 17 November 2017.