Rachele Mussolini

Last updated
Rachele Mussolini
Portrait - Rachele Guidi.jpg
Born
Rachele Guidi

(1890-04-11)11 April 1890
Died30 October 1979(1979-10-30) (aged 89)
Forlì, Italy
NationalityItalian
Spouse(s)
Benito Mussolini
(m. 1915;d. 1945)
Children

Rachele Mussolini (née Guidi; 11 April 1890 – 30 October 1979), also known (particularly in Italy) as Donna Rachele [1] (Italian for "Lady Rachael"), was the wife of Italian dictator Benito Mussolini.

Italians nation and ethnic group native to Italy

The Italians are a Romance ethnic group and nation native to the Italian peninsula and its neighbouring territories. Most Italians share a common culture, history, ancestry or language. Legally, all Italian nationals are citizens of the Italian Republic, regardless of ancestry or nation of residence and may be distinguished from people of Italian descent without Italian citizenship and from ethnic Italians living in territories adjacent to the Italian Peninsula without Italian citizenship. The majority of Italian nationals are speakers of Italian, or a regional variety thereof. However, around half also speak another regional or minority language native to Italy; although there is disagreement on the total number, according to UNESCO there are approximately 30 languages native to Italy.

Dictator in government, an absolutist or autocratic ruler who assumes sole power over the state

A dictator is a political leader who possesses absolute power. A state which is ruled by a dictator is called a dictatorship. The word originated as the title of a magistrate in the Roman Republic appointed by the Senate to rule the republic in times of emergency.

Benito Mussolini Duce and President of the Council of Ministers of Italy. Leader of the National Fascist Party and subsequent Republican Fascist Party

Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini was an Italian politician and journalist who was the leader of the National Fascist Party. He ruled Italy as Prime Minister from 1922 to 1943; he constitutionally led the country until 1925, when he dropped the pretense of democracy and established a dictatorship.

Contents

Biography

Early life

Rachele Mussolini was born Rachele Guidi in Predappio, Romagna, Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia). She was born into a peasant family and was the daughter of Agostino Guidi and wife Anna Lombardi. After the death of her father, her mother became the lover of the widowed Alessandro Mussolini.

Predappio Comune in Emilia-Romagna, Italy

Predappio a town and comune in the province of Forlì-Cesena, in the region of Emilia-Romagna in Italy, with a population of 6,297. The town is best known for being the birthplace of Benito Mussolini, dictator of Italy from 1922 to 1943. Mussolini is buried at Predappio, and his mausoleum is a local tourist destination, as well as a site of pilgrimage for Fascists.

Romagna Italian historical region that approximately corresponds to the south-eastern portion of present-day Emilia-Romagna

Romagna is an Italian historical region that approximately corresponds to the south-eastern portion of present-day Emilia-Romagna, North Italy. Traditionally, it is limited by the Apennines to the south-west, the Adriatic to the east, and the rivers Reno and Sillaro to the north and west. The region's major cities include Cesena, Faenza, Forlì, Imola, Ravenna, Rimini and City of San Marino. The region has been recently formally expanded with the transfer of seven comuni from the Marche region, which are a small number of comuni where Romagnolo dialect is spoken.

Alessandro Mussolini father of Benito Mussolini

Alessandro Mussolini was the father of Italian Fascist founder and leader Benito Mussolini. He was an Italian revolutionary socialist activist with Italian nationalist sympathies. Mussolini was a blacksmith by profession. Mussolini was married to Rosa Maltoni, a schoolteacher, who became the mother of Benito Mussolini. Mussolini exercised considerable influence over his son Benito's early political beliefs, even naming his son Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini after three leaders he admired: Benito Juárez, Amilcare Cipriani, and Andrea Costa.

Relationship, marriage and children

In 1910, Rachele Guidi moved in with Alessandro's son Benito Mussolini. In 1914, Mussolini married his first wife Ida Dalser. Though the records of this marriage were destroyed by Mussolini's government, an edict from the city of Milan ordering Mussolini to make maintenance payments to “his wife Ida Dalser” and their child was overlooked. [2] Shortly before his son Benito Albino Mussolini was born to Ida Dalser, Rachele Guidi and Benito Mussolini were married in a civil ceremony in Treviglio, Lombardy on 17 December 1915. In 1925, they renewed their vows in a religious service (after Mussolini's rise to power).

Ida Irene Dalser was the first wife of Italian fascist dictator Benito Mussolini.

Treviglio Comune in Lombardy, Italy

Treviglio is a town and comune in the province of Bergamo, in Lombardy, Northern Italy. It lies 20 kilometres south of the province capital, in the lower territory called "Bassa Bergamasca".

Lombardy Region of Italy

Lombardy is one of the twenty administrative regions of Italy, in the northwest of the country, with an area of 23,844 square kilometres (9,206 sq mi). About 10 million people, forming one-sixth of Italy's population, live in Lombardy and about a fifth of Italy's GDP is produced in the region, making it the most populous and richest region in the country and one of the richest regions in Europe. Milan, Lombardy's capital, is the second-largest city and the largest metropolitan area in Italy.

Rachele Mussolini bore five children by Benito Mussolini and she was willing to ignore his various mistresses. Rachele and Benito Mussolini had two daughters, Edda (1910–1995) and Anna Maria (1929–1968), and three sons Vittorio (1916–1997), Bruno (1918–1941), and Romano (1927–2006).

Edda Mussolini Benito Mussolinis daughter

Edda Mussolini was the child of Benito Mussolini, Italy's fascist dictator from 1922 to 1943. Upon her marriage to fascist propagandist and foreign minister Galeazzo Ciano, she became Edda Ciano, Countess of Cortellazzo and Buccari. Her husband was executed in January 1944 for dissenting from Mussolini's rule. She strongly denied her involvement in the National Fascist Party regime and had an affair with a Communist after her father's execution by the Italian partisans in April 1945.

Vittorio Mussolini was an Italian film critic and producer. He was also the second son of Italian dictator Benito Mussolini. However, he was the first officially acknowledged son of Mussolini, with his second wife Rachele; his older half-brother was never officially acknowledged by Mussolini's fascist regime.

Bruno Mussolini Son of Benito Mussolini

Bruno Mussolini was the son of Italian dictator Benito Mussolini and Mussolini's wife Rachele.

Lifestyle during husband's regime

During the reign of Mussolini's Fascist regime, Rachele Mussolini was portrayed as the model Fascist housewife and mother. She remained loyal to Mussolini until the end. But, on 28 April 1945, she was not with Mussolini when he and his mistress, Claretta Petacci, were captured and executed by Italian partisans. Rachele Mussolini did try to flee from Italy after World War II but, in April 1945, she was arrested in Como, close to Switzerland by Italian partisans. She was turned over to the United States Army and kept on Ischia Island, but was released after several months.

National Fascist Party Italian political party, created by Benito Mussolini as the political expression of fascism

The National Fascist Party was an Italian political party, created by Benito Mussolini as the political expression of fascism. The party ruled Italy from 1922 when Fascists took power with the March on Rome to 1943, when Mussolini was deposed by the Grand Council of Fascism.

Clara Petacci mistress of the Italian dictator Benito Mussolini

Clara Petacci, known as Claretta Petacci, was a mistress of the Italian dictator Benito Mussolini, and was executed with him by partisans.

The death of Benito Mussolini, the deposed Italian fascist dictator, occurred on 28 April 1945, in the final days of World War II in Europe, when he was summarily executed by Italian partisans in the small village of Giulino di Mezzegra in northern Italy. The official version of events is that Mussolini was shot by Walter Audisio, a communist partisan who used the nom de guerre of "Colonel Valerio". However, since the end of the war, the circumstances of Mussolini's death, and the identity of his killer, have been subjects of continuing confusion, dispute and controversy in Italy.

Final years

In her later life, Rachele Mussolini ran a restaurant in her native village of Predappio, where she served pasta dishes. She eventually received a pension from the Italian Republic in 1975. It turned out that Mussolini had not received a salary from the state, and therefore she could not receive a pension. After her husband's execution, she begged to have his body for private burial, in vain.

Italy republic in Southern Europe

Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a country in Europe. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Switzerland, Austria, Slovenia and the enclaved microstates San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301,340 km2 (116,350 sq mi) and has a largely temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe.

Publications

With Albert Zarca she wrote a biography of her husband, translated into English as Mussolini: An Intimate Biography. [3]

See also

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References

  1. "Rachele Mussolini Dies, Fascist Dictator's Widow". Washington Post. 31 October 1979.
  2. Owen, Richard (13 January 2005). "Power-mad Mussolini sacrificed wife and son". The Times. Archived from the original on 29 June 2011.
  3. Mussolini, Rachele; Zarca, Albert (1974). Mussolini: an intimate biography. Morrow. ISBN   978-0-688-00266-4.