Sir Ralph Abercromby
Sir Ralph Abercromby, by John Hoppner
|Born||7 October 1734|
Menstrie, Clackmannanshire, Scotland
|Died||28 March 1801 66) (aged|
|Years of service||1756–1801|
|Battles/wars|| Seven Years' War |
|Relations||Brother: Alexander Abercromby, Lord Abercromby and General Sir Robert Abercromby|
|Other work|| Member of Parliament |
Governor of Trinidad
Lord Lieutenant of Clackmannanshire
Sir Ralph Abercromby KB (sometimes spelt Abercrombie) (7 October 1734 –28 March 1801) was a Scottish soldier and politician. He twice served as MP for Clackmannanshire, rose to the rank of lieutenant-general in the British Army, was appointed Governor of Trinidad, served as Commander-in-Chief, Ireland, and was noted for his services during the French Revolutionary Wars.
The Most Honourable Order of the Bath is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on 18 May 1725. The name derives from the elaborate medieval ceremony for appointing a knight, which involved bathing as one of its elements. The knights so created were known as "Knights of the Bath". George I "erected the Knights of the Bath into a regular Military Order". He did not revive the Order of the Bath, since it had never previously existed as an Order, in the sense of a body of knights who were governed by a set of statutes and whose numbers were replenished when vacancies occurred.
Clackmannanshire was a county constituency of the House of Commons of Great Britain from 1708 until 1800, and of the House of Commons of the United Kingdom from 1801 to 1832.
The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces. As of 2018, the British Army comprises just over 81,500 trained regular (full-time) personnel and just over 27,000 trained reserve (part-time) personnel.
Abercromby was the eldest son of Mary Dundas (d. 1767), daughter of Ralph Dundas of Manour, Perthshire and George Abercromby of Tullibody House, Clackmannanshire. He was brother of the advocate Alexander Abercromby, Lord Abercromby and General Robert Abercromby. He was born at Menstrie Castle in Clackmannanshire.
Perthshire, officially the County of Perth, is a historic county and registration county in central Scotland. Geographically it extends from Strathmore in the east, to the Pass of Drumochter in the north, Rannoch Moor and Ben Lui in the west, and Aberfoyle in the south; its borders the counties of Inverness-shire and Aberdeenshire to the north, Angus to the east, Fife, Kinross-shire, Clackmannanshire, Stirlingshire and Dunbartonshire to the south and Argyllshire to the west. It was a local government county from 1890 to 1930.
Tullibody is a town set in the Central Lowlands of Scotland. It lies north of the River Forth near to the foot of the Ochil Hills within the Forth Valley. The town is 1.8 miles (2.9 km) south-west of Alva, 1.8 miles (2.9 km) north-west of Alloa and 4.0 miles (6.4 km) east-northeast of Stirling. The town is part of the Clackmannanshire council area.
Alexander Abercromby, Lord Abercromby of Tullibody (1745–1795) was a Scottish advocate, judge and essayist.
Abercromby's education was begun by a private tutor, then continued at the school of Mr Moir in Alloa, then considered one of the best in Scotland despite its Jacobite leanings. After passing some time there, Ralph was sent to Rugby School, where he remained until he was 18. He then became a student at the University of Edinburgh. There he studied moral and natural philosophy and civil law, and was regarded by his professors as sound rather than brilliant.He completed his studies at Leipzig University in Germany, from 1754, taking more detailed studies in civil law with a view to a career as an advocate.
Alloa is a town in Clackmannanshire in the Central Lowlands of Scotland. It is on the north bank of the Forth at the spot where some say it ceases to be the River Forth and becomes the Firth of Forth. Geographically, Alloa is south of the Ochil Hills, 5.5 miles (8.9 km) east of Stirling and 7.9 miles (12.7 km) north of Falkirk; by water Alloa is 25 miles (40 km) from Granton.
Rugby School is a day and mostly boarding co-educational independent school in Rugby, Warwickshire, England. Founded in 1567 as a free grammar school for local boys, it is one of the oldest independent schools in Britain. Up to 1667, the school remained in comparative obscurity. Its re-establishment by Thomas Arnold during his time as Headmaster, from 1828 to 1841, was seen as the forerunner of the Victorian public school. It is one of the original seven Great Nine Public Schools defined by the Clarendon Commission of 1864. Rugby School was also the birthplace of Rugby football. In 1845, a committee of Rugby schoolboys, William Delafield Arnold, W. W. Shirley and Frederick Hutchins, wrote the "Laws of Football as Played At Rugby School", the first published set of laws for any code of football.
The University of Edinburgh, founded in 1582, is the sixth oldest university in the English-speaking world and one of Scotland's ancient universities. The university has five main campuses in the city of Edinburgh, with many of the buildings in the historic Old Town belonging to the university. The university played an important role in leading Edinburgh to its reputation as a chief intellectual centre during the Age of Enlightenment, and helped give the city the nickname of the Athens of the North.
Abercromby was a Freemason. He was Initiated into Scottish Freemasonry in Lodge Canongate Kilwinning, No. 2, (Edinburgh, Scotland) on 25 May 1753.
Freemasonry or Masonry consists of fraternal organisations that trace their origins to the local fraternities of stonemasons that from the end of the fourteenth century regulated the qualifications of stonemasons and their interaction with authorities and clients. The degrees of Freemasonry retain the three grades of medieval craft guilds, those of Apprentice, Journeyman or fellow, and Master Mason. The candidate of these three degrees is progressively taught the meanings of the symbols of Freemasonry, and entrusted with grips, signs and words to signify to other members that he has been so initiated. The degrees are part allegorical morality play and part lecture. Three degrees are offered by Craft Freemasonry, and members of any of these degrees are known as Freemasons or Masons. There are additional degrees, which vary with locality and jurisdiction, and are usually administered by their own bodies.
On returning from the continent, Abercromby expressed a strong preference for the military profession, and a cornet's commission was accordingly obtained for him (March 1756) in the 3rd Dragoon Guards. He served with his regiment in the Seven Years' War, and thus, the opportunity afforded him of studying the methods of Frederick the Great, which moulded his military character and formed his tactical ideas.
The 3rd Dragoon Guards was a cavalry regiment in the British Army, first raised in 1685 as the Earl of Plymouth's Regiment of Horse. It was renamed as the 3rd Regiment of Dragoon Guards in 1751 and the 3rd Dragoon Guards in 1765. It saw service for two centuries, including the First World War, before being amalgamated into the 3rd/6th Dragoon Guards in 1922.
The Seven Years' War was a global war fought between 1756 and 1763. It involved all five European great powers of the time plus many of the middle powers and spanned five continents, affecting Europe, the Americas, West Africa, India, and the Philippines. The conflict split Europe into two coalitions: one was led by the Kingdom of Great Britain and included the Kingdom of Prussia, the Kingdom of Portugal, the Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg, and a few other small German states; while the other was led by the Kingdom of France and included the Austrian-led Holy Roman Empire, including the Electorate of Saxony and most of the smaller German states, the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Spain, and Sweden. The Dutch Republic, Denmark-Norway, the Italian States, and the Ottoman Empire did not participate. Meanwhile, in India, some regional polities within the increasingly fragmented Mughal Empire, with the support of the French, tried to crush a British attempt to conquer Bengal.
Abercromby rose through the intermediate grades to the rank of lieutenant-colonel of the regiment (1773) and brevet colonel in 1780, and in 1781, he became colonel of the newly raised King's Irish infantry. When that regiment was disbanded in 1783, he retired on half pay.He also entered Parliament as MP for Clackmannanshire (1774–1780).
In many of the world's military establishments, a brevet was a warrant giving a commissioned officer a higher rank title as a reward for gallantry or meritorious conduct but without conferring the authority, precedence, or pay of real rank. An officer so promoted was referred to as being brevetted. The promotion would be noted in the officer's title.
The 103rd Regiment of Foot was a British Army regiment raised in 1781. Ralph Abercromby was colonel, of the regiment throughout its existence. It served entirely in Ireland before being disbanded in 1784.
Abercromby was a strong supporter of the American cause in the American Revolutionary War, and remained in Ireland to avoid having to fight against the colonists.
When France declared war against Great Britain in 1793, Abercromby resumed his duties. He was appointed command of a brigade under the Duke of York for service in the Netherlands, where he commanded the advanced guard in the action at Le Cateau. During the 1794 withdrawal to Holland, he commanded the allied forces in the action at Boxtel and was wounded directing operations at Fort St Andries on the Waal. In 1795, he was appointed a Knight of the Bath for his services.
That same year, he was appointed to succeed Sir Charles Grey as commander-in-chief of the British forces in the West Indies. In 1796, Grenada was suddenly attacked and taken by a detachment of the army under his orders. Afterwards, Abercromby secured possession of the settlements of Demerara and Essequibo in South America, the islands of Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and Trinidad.A major assault on the port of San Juan, Puerto Rico, in April 1797 failed after fierce fighting where both sides suffered heavy losses.
Abercromby returned to Europe and, in reward for his services, was appointed colonel of the 2nd (Royal North British) Regiment of Dragoons. He was also made Lieutenant-Governor of the Isle of Wight, Governor of Fort George and Fort Augustus in the Scottish Highlands, and promoted to the rank of Lieutenant-general. He again entered Parliament as member for Clackmannanshire from 1796 to 1798. From 1797 to 1798, he was Commander-in-Chief of the forces in Ireland.
To quote the biographic entry in the 1888 Encyclopædia Britannica,
"There he laboured to maintain the discipline of the army, to suppress the rising rebellion, and to protect the people from military oppression, with the care worthy of a great general and an enlightened and beneficent statesman. When he was appointed to the command in Ireland, an invasion of that country by the French was confidently anticipated by the British government. He used his utmost efforts to restore the discipline of an army that was utterly disorganized; and, as a first step, he anxiously endeavoured to protect the people by re-establishing the supremacy of the civil power, and not allowing the military to be called out, except when it was indispensably necessary for the enforcement of the law and the maintenance of order.
Finding that (he) received no adequate support from the head of the Irish government, and that all his efforts were opposed and thwarted by those who presided in the councils of Ireland, he resigned the command. His departure from Ireland was deeply lamented by the reflecting portion of the people, and was speedily followed by those disastrous results which he had anticipated, and which he so ardently desired and had so wisely endeavoured to prevent."
After holding for a short period the office of commander-in-chief in Scotland, Abercromby, when the enterprise against the Dutch Batavian Republic was resolved upon in 1799, was again called to command under the Duke of York. The Anglo-Russian invasion of Holland in 1799 ended in disaster, but friend and foe alike confessed that the most decisive victory could not have more conspicuously proved the talents of this distinguished officer.
In 1801, Abercromby was sent with an army to recover Egypt from France. His experience in the Netherlands and the West Indies particularly fitted him for this new command, as was proved when he carried his army in health, in spirits, and with the requisite supplies to the destined scene of action despite great difficulties. The debarkation of the troops at Abukir, in the face of strenuous opposition, is justly ranked among the most daring and brilliant exploits of the British army.
In 1800 Abercromby commanded the expedition to the Mediterranean, and after some brilliant operations defeated the French in the Battle of Alexandria, 21 March 1801. During the action he was struck by a musket-ball in the thigh; but not until the battle was won and he saw the enemy retreating did he show any sign of pain. He was borne from the field in a hammock, cheered by the blessings of the soldiers as he passed, and conveyed on board the flag-ship HMS Foudroyant which was moored in the harbour. The ball could not be extracted; mortification ensued, and seven days later, on 28 March 1801, he died.
Abercromby's old friend and commander, the Duke of York, paid tribute to Abercromby's memory in general orders: "His steady observance of discipline, his ever-watchful attention to the health and wants of his troops, the persevering and unconquerable spirit which marked his military career, the splendour of his actions in the field and the heroism of his death, are worthy the imitation of all who desire, like him, a life of heroism and a death of glory."He was buried on St John's Bastion within Fort Saint Elmo in Valletta, Malta. The British military renamed it Abercrombie's Bastion in his honour. The adjacent curtain wall linking this bastion to the fortifications of Valletta, originally called Santa Ubaldesca Curtain, was also renamed Abercrombie's Curtain.
By a vote of the House of Commons, a monument was erected in Abercromby's honour in St Paul's Cathedral in London. His widow was created Baroness Abercromby of Tullibody and Aboukir Bay,and a pension of £2,000 a year was settled on her and her two successors in the title.
Abercromby Place in Edinburgh's New Town is named in his honour.
On 17 November 1767, Abercromby married Mary Anne, daughter of John Menzies and Ann, daughter of Patrick Campbell.They had seven children. Of four sons, all four entered Parliament, and two saw military service.
A public house in central Manchester, the 'Sir Ralph Abercromby', is named after him. There is also a 'General Abercrombie' pub with his portrait by John Hoppner as the sign off of the Blackfriars Bridge Road in London.
Three ships have been named HMS Abercrombie after the general but using the variant spelling of his name.
Abercrombie Street in Port of Spain, Trinidad honours his name.
Abercromby Primary School in Tullibody is named after him.
Abercromby Place in Edinburgh's New Town is named after him.
Baron Abercromby, of Aboukir and of Tullibody in the County of Clackmannan, was a title in the peerage of the United Kingdom. It was created on 28 May 1801 for Mary, Lady Abercromby, in honour of her husband, the noted military commander Lieutenant-General Sir Ralph Abercromby, who died from wounds received in the Battle of Aboukir in 1801. The latter was the grandson of Alexander Abercromby, member of the Scottish Parliament for Clackmannanshire from 1703 to 1707, younger son of Sir Alexander Abercromby, 1st Baronet, of Birkenbog. Lady Abercromby was succeeded by her eldest son, George, the second baron. He represented Edinburgh and Clackmannan in the House of Commons. On his death the title passed to his son George, the third baron. He sat as Member of Parliament for Clackmannanshire, Stirling and Clackmannan and Kinross. He was succeeded by his eldest son, the fourth baron. He was deputy lieutenant of Stirlingshire in 1860. He was childless and was succeeded by his younger brother John, the fifth baron. He was president of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. On his death in 1924 without male issue the barony became extinct.
This is a list of people who have served as Lord Lieutenant of Clackmannanshire.
Sir Eyre Coote was an Irish-born British soldier and politician who served as Governor of Jamaica. He attained the rank of general in the British Army and was created a Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath (KCB) before being stripped of his rank and honours in 1816 after conduct unbecoming an officer and a gentleman.
General Sir Robert Abercromby, the youngest brother of Sir Ralph Abercromby, was a general in the army, appointed Knight of the Order of the Bath, a Governor of Bombay and Commander-in-Chief of the Bombay Army and then Commander-in-Chief, India.
George Abercromby, 2nd Baron Abercromby was a Scottish lawyer, politician and peer. The eldest son of Lt.-Gen. Sir Ralph Abercromby and Mary Abercromby, 1st Baroness Abercromby, he became, like his grandfather, a lawyer, and was called to the Bar in 1794. On his death in 1843 he was succeeded in the barony by his son.
Lieutenant-General Sir John Abercromby or Abercrombie GCB was a British Army officer and Member of Parliament (MP) for Clackmannanshire from 1815 to 1817.
George Ralph Campbell Abercromby, 3rd Baron Abercromby was a Scottish soldier, politician and peer. The son of George Abercromby, 2nd Baron Abercromby and Hon. Montague Dundas, on his death in 1852 he was succeeded in the barony by his eldest son.
Mary Anne Abercromby, 1st Baroness Abercromby was a Scottish socialite and suo jure peeress.
General John Hely-Hutchinson, 2nd Earl of Donoughmore, GCB was an Anglo-Irish politician, hereditary peer and soldier.
General Sir David Baird, 1st Baronet GCB was a British military leader.
Menstrie Castle is a three-storey manor house in the town of Menstrie, Clackmannanshire, near Stirling, central Scotland. From the early 17th century, it was home to Sir William Alexander, 1st Earl of Stirling, who was instrumental in founding the colony of Nova Scotia. It was later owned by the Holburn or Holborne family, who were created Baronets of Menstrie in 1706. The castle was restored in the 20th century, won a Civic Trust award, and now incorporates holiday accommodation, private flats, and a museum and cafe run by the National Trust for Scotland.
Colonel Alexander Campbell of Possil (1754–1849) entered the army as an ensign in the 42nd Regiment in April 1769, and obtained a lieutenancy in the 2nd Battalion Royals the following year in Menorca. He moved to the 62nd regiment later that year in Ireland and went with the regiment to Canada, where, as a captain of light infantry under General Carleton, he fought in the campaigns of 1776 and 1777 with General Burgoyne in the American War of Independence.
General Henry Edward Fox was a British Army general. He also served brief spells as Governor of Minorca and Governor of Gibraltar.
Colonel Alexander Abercromby, was a senior British Army officer during the Napoleonic Wars. He also served for a short time as a Member of Parliament for Clackmannanshire.
Scottish Command or Army Headquarters Scotland is a command of the British Army.
Lieutenant General Sir George Airey (1761–1833) was an English general.
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|Parliament of Great Britain|
| Member of Parliament for Clackmannanshire |
Charles Allan Cathcart
| Member of Parliament for Clackmannanshire |
Sir Robert Abercromby
José Maria Chacón
| Governor of Trinidad |
Sir Thomas Picton
|New regiment|| Colonel of the 103rd Regiment of Foot (King's Irish Infantry) |
Hon. Philip Sherard
| Colonel of the 69th (South Lincolnshire) Regiment of Foot |
Henry Watson Powell
| Colonel of the 6th (1st Warwickshire) Regiment of Foot |
The Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh
| Colonel of the 7th (The Princess Royal's) Dragoon Guards |
Sir William Medows
The Earl of Eglinton
| Colonel of the 2nd (Royal North British) Regiment of Dragoons |
The Earl of Carhampton
| Commander-in-Chief, Ireland |
| Governor of Carlisle |
The Lord Cathcart
| Lord Lieutenant of Clackmannanshire |
The Lord Cathcart