Ram Manohar Lohia

Last updated

Ram Manohar Lohia
Ram Manohar Lohia 1977 stamp of India.jpg
Lohia on a 1977 stamp of India
Born(1910-03-23)23 March 1910
Died12 October 1967(1967-10-12) (aged 57)
New Delhi, India
Alma mater
Political party
Website www.lohiatoday.com

Ram Manohar Lohia pronunciation (23 March 1910 – 12 October 1967) was an activist in the Indian independence movement and a socialist political leader. [1] During the last phase of British rule in India, he worked with the Congress Radio which was broadcast secretly from various places in Bombay until 1942. [2]


Early life

Dr Ram Manohar Lohia, Mani Ram Bagri, Madhu Limaye, S M Joshi Mani Ram Bagri1.jpg
Dr Ram Manohar Lohia, Mani Ram Bagri, Madhu Limaye, S M Joshi

Ram Manohar Lohia was born on 23 March 1910 in a Marwari Bania family [3] [4] [5] at Akbarpur in modern-day Uttar Pradesh. [6] [7] His mother died in 1912, when he was just two years old, and he was later brought up by his father Hiralal who never remarried. A lady belonging to the Barber community who was the family's domestic help, brought him up in his early years. In 1918 he accompanied his father to Bombay where he completed his high school education. He attended the Banaras Hindu University to complete his intermediate and work after standing first in his school's matriculation examinations in 1927. He then joined the Vidyasagar College, under the University of Calcutta and in 1929, earned his B.A. degree. [8] He decided to attend Frederick William University (today's Humboldt University of Berlin, Germany), choosing it over the educational institutes in Britain, to convey his dim view of British philosophy. He soon learnt German and received financial assistance based on his outstanding academic performance, studying national economy as his major subject as a doctoral student from 1929 to 1933. [9]

Lohia wrote his Ph.D. thesis paper on the topic of Salt Taxation in India , [9] focusing on Gandhi's socio-economic theory.

National movement

Lohia on a 1997 stamp of India Ram Manohar Lohia 1997 stamp of India.jpg
Lohia on a 1997 stamp of India
Statue of Lohia in Margao, Goa. Lohia Maidan.jpg
Statue of Lohia in Margao, Goa.

Lohia was one of the founders of the Congress Socialist Party and editor of its mouthpiece Congress Socialist. In 1936, he was selected by Jawaharlal Nehru as the secretary of the Foreign Department of the All India Congress Committee (A.I.C.C), the highest body of the Congress Party. By the time he quit that responsibility in 1938, Lohia started to develop his own political standpoint by critically examining positions held by the Gandhian leadership of the Congress [10] and the Communists who had poured into the CSP. [11] In June 1940, he was arrested and sentenced to a jail term of two years for delivering anti-war speeches. [12] Already released by the end of 1941, Lohia became one of the leading figures of the Central Directorate which clandestinely tried to organise the Quit India revolt, sparked by Gandhi in August 1942. Captured in May 1944, he was incarcerated and tortured in Lahore Fort. As one of the last high security prisoners, Lohia, together with Jayaprakash Narayan, was finally released on 11 April 1946. [13] He was the one who gave the idea of sapta kranti.

Later political career

As a member of the Congress Socialist Party Lohia joined with that party when it left Congress. He remained a member of the Socialist Party when it fused in 1952 with the Kisan Majdoor Praja Party to form the Praja Socialist Party. Unhappy with the new party Lohia led a split from it to reform the Socialist Party (Lohia) in 1956. He lost to Nehru in 1962 general election in Phulpur. In 1963 Lohia became a member of the Lok Sabha after a by-election in Farrukhabad (Lok Sabha constituency) and in 1965 merged the Socialist Party (Lohia) into the ranks of the Samyukta Socialist Party. The two socialist factions merged, split and re-merged several times. In 1967, Lohia played an instrumental role in formation of the first non-Congress government in Uttar Pradesh. This alliance was formed by Lohia and Bharatiya Jan Sangh leader Nanaji Deshmukh [14] He won Lok Sabha general election of 1967 from Kannauj (Lok Sabha constituency), but died a few months later.

Major writings in English

Writings in Kannada Translation


See also

Related Research Articles

Socialist Party has been the name of several political parties in India, all of which have their roots in the Congress Socialist Party during the freedom struggle.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Praja Socialist Party</span> Indian political party

The Praja Socialist Party, abbreviated as PSP, was an Indian political party. It was founded when the Socialist Party, led by Jayaprakash Narayan, Rambriksh Benipuri, Acharya Narendra Deva and Basawon Singh (Sinha), merged with the Kisan Mazdoor Praja Party led by J. B. Kripalani.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">All India Kisan Sabha</span> Farmers wing of Communist Pary of India

All India Kisan Sabha, is the peasant or farmers' wing of the Communist Party of India, an important peasant movement formed by Sahajanand Saraswati in 1936.

Asoka Mehta was an Indian freedom fighter and socialist politician. He helped organize the socialist wing Congress Socialist Party of the Indian National Congress, along with Rambriksh Benipuri, Jaya Prakash Narayan, and was heavily involved in the politics and government of the city of Bombay.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Madhu Limaye</span>

Madhu Limaye, full name: Madhukar Ramchandra Limaye, was an Indian socialist essayist and activist, particularly active in the 1970s. A follower of Ram Manohar Lohia and a fellow-traveller of George Fernandes, he was active in the Janata government that gained power at the Centre following the Emergency. He, with Raj Narain and Krishan Kant was also responsible for the collapse of the Morarji Desai-led Janata government installed by that coalition, by insisting that no member of the Janata Party could simultaneously be a member of an alternative social or political organisation. This attack on dual membership was directed specifically at members of the Janata Party who had been members of the Jan Sangh, and continued to be members of the right-wing Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS), the Jan Sangh's ideological parent. The issue led to fall of the Janata government in 1979, and the destruction of the Janata coalition.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Raj Narain</span> Indian freedom fighter and politician

Raj Narain was an Indian freedom fighter and politician. He won in a famous electoral malpractice case against the then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, which led to her disqualification and imposition of Emergency in India in 1975. He defeated Indira Gandhi during the 1977 Lok Sabha elections.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Nanaji Deshmukh</span> Indian Social Reformer

Chandikadas Amritrao Deshmukh BR, better known as Nanaji Deshmukh, was a social reformer and politician from India. He worked in the fields of education, health, and rural self-reliance. He was posthumously awarded the Bharat Ratna, India's highest civilian award in 2019 by the Government of India. He was a leader of the Bharatiya Jana Sangh and also a member of the Rajya Sabha.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Yogendra Shukla</span> Indian revolutionary (1896–1960)

Yogendra Shukla was an Indian nationalist and freedom fighter, notable for his contributions in the state of Bihar. He was incarcerated in the Cellular Jail, also known as Kala Pani, and was a founding member of the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA). Shula, in collaboration with Basawon Singh (Sinha), was also instrumental in establishing the Congress Socialist Party in Bihar.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Akbarpur, Ambedkar Nagar</span> City in Uttar Pradesh, India

Akbarpur is a city, municipal corporation, tehsil, and the administrative headquarters of Ambedkar Nagar district in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. It is a part of Ayodhya division.

Janeshwar Mishra was a politician from Samajwadi Party. He was a member of the Parliament of India and also represented Uttar Pradesh in the Rajya Sabha, the upper house of the Indian Parliament. He was known as Chhote Lohia for his commitment towards socialist ideology, in reference to Ram Manohar Lohia.

Tribhuvan Narain Singh was an Indian politician and Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh. He remained Chief Minister from 18 October 1970 till 4 April 1971. Singh later served as Governor of West Bengal from the late 1970s until 1981. He was born and died in Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh. He also served as the Chairman of the Public Accounts Committee and as Union Minister of Industry and Steel.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Mani Ram Bagri</span>

Ch. Mani Ram Bagri was an Indian parliamentarian and political activist. He served three terms in the Indian Parliament, first from 1962 to 1967, and then again from 1977 to 1984 [Consisting of two terms: 1977-1980 and 1980-1984]. He belonged to the league of parliamentary opposition socialists like Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia and Jayaprakash Narayan.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Chandra Shekhar</span> Prime Minister of India from 1990 to 1991

Chandra Shekhar, known as Jananayak, was an Indian politician who served as the 8th Prime Minister of India, between 10 November 1990 and 21 June 1991. He headed a minority government of a breakaway faction of the Janata Dal with outside support from the Indian National Congress. He was the first Indian Prime Minister who had never held any prior government office.

B. Satya Narayan Reddy was a freedom fighter, Socialist politician and a former Governor of Uttar Pradesh, Odisha and West Bengal.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Avadh University</span> Public University in Ayodhya

Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Avadh University, commonly known as Avadh University, is a state university located in Faizabad, Ayodhya district, Uttar Pradesh, India. It was established in 1975 by the government of Uttar Pradesh. Presently, the university is catering education to about 5 lakhs regular/private student through its nine residential PG departments and on campus Institute of Engineering along-with more than 600 affiliated colleges.

Mahamaya Rajkiya Allopathic Medical College or Mahamaya Government Allopathic Medical College, generally known as Mahamaya Medical College, is one of the state run medical colleges with multispeciality hospitals in Akbarpur, Ambedkar Nagar. The institution, as a mega project, is built within the constituency of chief minister of Uttar Pradesh Km. Mayawati with an expenditure of more than 400 crore. This institute has been established under the special component action plan.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sunilam</span> Indian politician

Sunilam, formerly known as Sunil Mishra, is an Indian socialist politician, writer, and former physicist. As of the mid-1990s, he served as the national general secretary of the Yuva Janata Dal.

Nandini Nagar Mahavidyalaya (NNM) is located at Nawabganj, in Gonda district of Uttar Pradesh. The college is affiliated to Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Awadh University, Faizabad and approved by Pharmacy Council of India for providing diploma in pharmacy.

Era's Lucknow Medical College is a private medical college in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India, established in 1997. Till 2016, it was affiliated with Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Avadh University. Since 2016, the college has been affiliated to the Era University.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sanghmitra Maurya</span> Indian politician

Sanghmitra Maurya is an Indian politician and a member of the 17th Lok Sabha. She was elected to the Lok Sabha, the lower house of the Parliament of India from Badaun, Uttar Pradesh, in the 2019 Indian general election as a member of the Bharatiya Janata Party, defeating senior Samajwadi Party leader Dharmendra Yadav. She earlier contested in Mainpuri in 2014 as a member of the Bahujan Samaj Party but lost to Mulayam Singh Yadav.


  1. Yogendra Yadav (2 October 2010). "On Remembering Lohia" (PDF). Economic and Political Weekly . 45 (40): 46.
  2. Bipan Chandra pal, et AL, India's Struggle for Independence
  3. McMohan, Ian (1990). "Lohia—An American Radical's Estimate". Rammanohar Lohia. Vol. 9. Deep & Deep Publications. pp. 612–613. ISBN   978-81-7100-251-1.
  4. Kancha Ilaiah (18 February 2015). "AAP Victory & Baniya Economics". Deccan Chronicle . Archived from the original on 20 February 2015.
  5. "Vaishyas find caste icon in Lohia". The Telegraph . 12 October 2003. Retrieved 26 June 2023.
  6. "डॉ. राम मनोहर लोहिया के नाम से हो अकबरपुर तहसील: ओम प्रकाश".
  7. "AAP victory & baniya economics". 18 February 2015.
  8. K. Gopinath Pillai (1994). Political Philosophy of Rammanohar Lohia: Alternative Development Perceptions. Deep & Deep Publications. p. 68. ISBN   9788171005659
  9. 1 2 "Ram Manohar Lohia as a Doctoral Student in Berlin (1929–1933)". The Institute of Asian and African Studies (IAAW). Humboldt University of Berlin. Retrieved 30 March 2015.
  10. R. Lohia, The Conquest of violence, Congress Socialist, 9 April 14 May, 28 May & 4 June 1938, Collected Works of Dr Rammanohar Lohia, vol. 8: 402–417. ISBN   9788179753798.
  11. R. Lohia, The Russian Trials, Congress Socialist, 9 April & 7 May 1938, Collected Works of Dr. Rammanohar Lohia, vol. 8: 395–401. ISBN   9788179753798.
  12. Onkar Sharad (1972) Lohia. Lucknow, Prakashan Kendra. pp. 103f.
  13. The Times, 15 April 1946, p. 4.
  14. "Nanaji Deshmukh — key architect of Janata Party, who quit politics to transform rural India". The Print. 11 October 2020. Retrieved 8 April 2021.
  15. "Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia dead". The Hindu. 12 October 2017. ISSN   0971-751X . Retrieved 24 May 2019.
  16. "Ram Vilas Paswan to visit birthplace of Dr Ram Manohar Lohia at Akhbarpur". PIB. 13 August 2016. Retrieved 11 December 2019.

Further reading