Ramiz Alia

Last updated
Ramiz Alia
Ramiz Alia.jpg
Alia in 2004
1st President of Albania
In office
30 April 1991 3 April 1992
Preceded byHimself as Chairman of the Presidium of the People's Assembly
Succeeded by Sali Berisha
Chairman of the Presidium of the Albanian People's Assembly
In office
22 November 1982 30 April 1991
Leader Enver Hoxha (First Secretary)
Preceded by Haxhi Lleshi
Succeeded byHimself as President
First Secretary of the Party of Labor of Albania
In office
13 April 1985 4 May 1991
Preceded by Enver Hoxha
Succeeded byEnd of People's Republic of Albania
Personal details
Born(1925-10-18)18 October 1925
Shkodër, Albanian Republic (now Albania)
Died7 October 2011(2011-10-07) (aged 86)
Tirana, Albania
Nationality Albanian
Political party Party of Labour (1961–1991)
Socialist Party (1991–2011)
Spouse(s)
Semiramis Xhuvani
(m. before 1986)
[1]
Children3 (Zana, Besa, Arben)
Signature Ramiz Alia (nenshkrim).svg

Ramiz Tafë Alia ( Loudspeaker.svg pronunciation  ; 18 October 1925 – 7 October 2011) was the second and last leader of the People's Socialist Republic of Albania from 1985 to 1991, served as First Secretary of the Party of Labor of Albania. He was also the country's head of state from 1982 to 1992. He had been designated as successor by Enver Hoxha and took power after Hoxha died. Alia died on 7 October 2011 in Tirana due to lung disease, aged 85. [2]

Contents

Early life and politics

Alia was born on 18 October 1925 in Shkoder to Muslim parents who fled from persecution in Kingdom of Yugoslavia. [3] [4] [5] He grew up and spent his childhood in Tirana. In the early part of World War II Alia was a member of a Fascist youth organization known as the 'Fascist Lictor Youth Organization' but joined the underground Albanian Communist Youth Organization in 1941. [6] [7] In 1943, he became a member of the Albanian Communist Party. [7] He had risen rapidly under Hoxha's patronage and by 1961 was a full member of the ruling Political Bureau (Politburo of the Party of Labour of Albania). [8]

Hoxha chose Alia for several reasons. First, Alia had long been a militant follower of Marxism-Leninism and supported Hoxha's policy of national self-reliance. Alia also was favored by Hoxha's wife Nexhmije, who had once been his instructor at the Institute of Marxism-Leninism. His political experience was similar to that of Hoxha; and in as much as he appeared to share Hoxha's views on most foreign and domestic issues, he accommodated himself to the totalitarian mode of ruling. [ citation needed ]

Political career

First Secretary of the Albanian Labour Party

After World War II, Alia resumed his duties in the Communist Youth Organization, and at the First Congress of the Albanian Party of Labour in November 1948, he was elected to its Central Committee and was assigned to the department of agitation and propaganda. [6] When he succeeded Hoxha in 1985, the country was in grave difficulty. Political apathy and cynicism were pervasive, with large segments of the population having rejected the government's values. The economy, which suffered from low productivity and permanent shortages of the most basic foodstuffs, showed no sign of improvement. Social controls and self-discipline had eroded. The intelligentsia was beginning to resist strict party controls and to criticize the government's failure to observe international standards of human rights. Apparently recognizing the depth and extent of the societal malaise, Alia cautiously and slowly began to make changes in the system. His first target was the economic system. In an effort to improve economic efficiency, Alia introduced some economic decentralization and price reform in specific sectors. [ citation needed ]

Alia did not relax censorship, but he did allow public discussions of Albania's societal problems and encouraged debates among writers and artists on cultural issues. In response to international criticism of Albania's record on human rights, the new leadership loosened some political controls and ceased to apply repression on a mass scale. In 1989, general amnesties brought about the release of many long-term prisoners. He strengthened ties with Greece, Italy, Turkey, and Yugoslavia. A loosening of restrictions on travel and tourism resulted in a more promising outlook for Albania's tourist trade. [ citation needed ]

Transition to multi-party system and presidency

Despite Alia's efforts to proceed with change on a limited, cautious basis, reform from above threatened to turn into reform from below, largely because of the increasingly vocal demands of Albania's youth. On 9 December 1990, student demonstrators marched from the Enver Hoxha University (now University of Tirana) at Tirana through the streets of the capital shouting slogans and demanding reforms. By 11 December, the number of participants had reached almost 3,000. In an effort to quell the student unrest, which had led to clashes with riot police, Alia met with the students and agreed to take further steps toward democratization. The students informed Alia that they wanted to create an independent political organization of students and youth. Alia's response was that such an organization had to be registered with the Ministry of Justice. [ citation needed ]

In his traditional New Year's message to the Albanian people, Alia welcomed the changes that had been occurring in the country and claimed that 1991 would be a turning point in terms of the economy. Despite positive signs of change, many Albanians were still trying to leave their country. At the end of 1990, as many as 5,000 Albanians crossed over the mountainous border into Greece. Young people motivated by economic dissatisfaction made up the bulk of the refugees.[ citation needed ]

Alia was a crucial figure in the peaceful political transition of the early 1990s as many believe that he helped the rise to power of the anti-communist opposition forces thus eliminating possible bloodshed.

Alia managed to remain a key political figure throughout several political crises. Nonetheless, with Albania in the throes of a grave economic crisis, Alia had to face challenges that he could not surmount. After the collapse of a coalition government in December 1991 and the Democratic Party of Albania's (DPA) landslide victory in the spring 1992 general election, he resigned as president on 3 April 1992. [6] On 9 April the People's Assembly elected DPA leader Sali Berisha as Albania's new head of state.

Arrest

On 21 May 1994, senior officials from the Communist government, including Ramiz Alia, went on trial. Alia was charged with abuse of power and misappropriation of state funds, as was prime minister Adil Carçani, deputy prime minister Manush Myftiu, and Rita Marko who was a vice-president.

Alia had been placed under house arrest in August 1992 and his detention was converted into imprisonment in August 1993. [6] In court he claimed he was the victim of a political show trial and demanded that the trial be broadcast on television, a request denied by the presiding judge. The trial was monitored by a Human Rights Watch representative and proceeded with only minor due process irregularities. The ten defendants were found guilty as charged and sentenced to between three and nine years in prison; Alia received a nine-year sentence.

A court of appeals subsequently reduced some of the sentences, notably Alia's to five years. Alia, Myftiu, Carçani, Stefani and Isai were also ordered to repay various sums to the state. On 30 November, the Court of Cassation reduced Alia's term by an additional three years. On 7 July 1995, Ramiz Alia was freed from jail. However, his freedom was short-lived and in 1996 he was charged with committing crimes against humanity during his term, and was imprisoned anew in March. The trial against him began on 18 February 1997, but he escaped from the prison following the unrest in the country and the desertion of the guards. [6] Amid the unrest he appeared on State TV in an exclusive interview with Blendi Fevziu. In the late 2000s he was sometimes seen travelling to Albania from Dubai to give interviews or publicize his books. [9]

Death

Ramiz Alia died on 7 October 2011 in Tirana from lung disease, shortly before his 87th birthday, according to a spokesman for President Bamir Topi. [2]

See also

Related Research Articles

The history of Albania forms a part of the history of Europe. During the classical times, Albania was home to several Illyrian tribes such as the Ardiaei, Albanoi, Amantini, Enchele, Taulantii and many others, but also Thracian and Greek tribes, as well as several Greek colonies established on the Illyrian coast. In the 3rd century BC, the area was annexed by Rome and became part of the Roman provinces of Dalmatia, Macedonia and Moesia Superior. Afterwards, the territory remained under Roman and Byzantine control until the Slavic migrations of the 7th century. It was integrated into the Bulgarian Empire in the 9th century.

Chronology of Important Events of Albania:

President of Albania

The president of Albania, officially styled President of the Republic of Albania is the head of state, commander-in-chief of the military and the representative of the unity of the Albanian people.

Fatos Nano Albanian politician

Fatos Thanas Nanolisten  is an Albanian socialist politician who was the Prime Minister of Albania several times; he was the first leader and founder of the Socialist Party of Albania and a member of the Albanian Parliament from 1991 to 1996 and 1997 to 2009. He reformed the Anti-Revisionist Marxist-Leninist ideology of the Labor Party of Albania into social democracy for its successor, the Socialist Party. During his leadership, the Socialist Party, as a result of reforms, joined the Socialist International and Party of European Socialists. Nano was a candidate in the 2007 presidential election but did not win. He again tried in the 2012 presidential election, but he did not even qualify as a candidate, because the leaders of parties in Parliament obstructed their respective MPs to elect him as candidate in the elections.

The Democratic Party of Albania is a conservative political party in Albania. They became the leading party in the governing coalition following the 2005 parliamentary elections. It is an associate member of the European People's Party (EPP) and a full member of the International Democrat Union and Centrist Democrat International. Rilindja Demokratike is the party's official newspaper. Its youth organisation, FRPD, is one of the founders of the Youth of the European People's Party (YEPP), in which they are also full active members.

Adil Çarçani

Adil Çarçani was an Albanian politician who served as the 24th Prime Minister of Albania in the Communist regime led by Enver Hoxha. He served as the titular head of the Albanian government in the years immediately preceding the fall of the Communist regime.

Party of Labour of Albania

The Party of Labour of Albania (PLA), sometimes referred to as the Albanian Workers' Party (AWP), was the vanguard party of Albania during the communist period (1945–1991) as well as the only legal political party. It was founded on 8 November 1941, as the Communist Party of Albania, but its name was changed in 1948. In 1991, the party was succeeded by the Socialist Party of Albania. For most of its existence, the party was dominated by its First Secretary, Enver Hoxha, who was also the de facto leader of Albania.

Omer Nishani

Omer Nishani was an Albanian doctor and political figure involved first in the struggle against Ahmet Zogu in the 1920s and 1930s, and then in the struggle against the fascist occupation of Albania during the 1942–44 period, becoming Chairman of the Presidium of the People's Assembly of the People's Republic of Albania in 1946 and serving in this position until 1953.

Peoples Socialist Republic of Albania Marxist-Leninist government of Albania (1946-1992)

Albania, officially the People's Socialist Republic of Albania, was ruled by a Marxist-Leninist government from 1946 to 1992. From 1944 to 1946, it was known as the Democratic Government of Albania and from 1946 to 1976 it was known as the People's Republic of Albania.

Fall of communism in Albania Collapse of Communist control of Albania

The fall of Communism in Albania, the last such event in Europe outside the USSR, started in earnest in December 1990 with student demonstrations in the capital, Tirana, although protests had begun earlier that year in other cities such as Shkodra and Kavaja. The Central Committee of the communist Party of Labour of Albania allowed political pluralism on 11 December and the largest opposition party, the Democratic Party, was founded the next day. March 1991 elections left the Party of Labour in power, but a general strike and urban opposition led to the formation of a "stability government" that included non-communists. Albania's former communists were routed in elections in March 1992 amid economic collapse and social unrest, with the Democratic Party winning most seats and its party head, Sali Berisha, becoming president.

The Democratic Front of Albania was the largest mass organization of the Party of Labour of Albania which united all other mass organizations of the Party within it, was responsible for carrying out the Party's cultural and social programs to the masses, and was in charge of nominating candidates in elections.

Fadil Paçrami was an Albanian politician, writer and playwright. He served as Chairman of the Assembly of the Republic of Albania from 20 November 1970 to 25 September 1973. He used to be the minister of education and culture, as well as the speaker of the Albanian parliament. In 1975, he was wrongfully accused of anti-communist activity and got a 25-year sentence. He was freed from prison in 1990 by Ramiz Alia, Hoxha's successor.

Soviet–Albanian split

The Soviet–Albanian split refers to the gradual deterioration of relations between the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) and the People's Republic of Albania, which occurred in the 1955–1961 period as a result of Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev's rapprochement with Yugoslavia along with his "Secret Speech" and subsequent de-Stalinization, including efforts to extend these policies into Albania as was occurring in other Eastern Bloc states at the time.

Hekuran Isai

Hekuran Isai was an Albanian politician of the Albanian Party of Labour (PPSh).

Prokop Murra Albanian politician (1921-2007)

Prokop Murra (1921–2005) was a former Albanian politician of the Albanian Party of Labour (PPSh).

Foto Çami is a former Albanian academic and politician of Albanian Party of Labour (PPSh).

Vangjel Çërrava is a former Albanian politician of the Albanian Party of Labour (PPSh). He was member of the Albanian Parliament, Deputy Chairman of the Cabinet of Albania, and for a short time member of the Politburo of the Party.

Pirro Kondi is a former Albanian politician of the Albanian Party of Labour (PPSh). Coming from a family with strong communist background, he became member of the Albanian Parliament and a candidate-member of the Politburo of the Party of Labour of Albania by the '80.

Xhafer Spahiu was a former Albanian politician of the Albanian Party of Labour (PPSh). He was the only Kosovar Albanian of the higher ranks of the Communist Albania leadership after 1948.

6th congress of the Party of Labour of Albania

The 6th congress of the Party of Labour of Albania was held in Tirana November 1–7, 1971. The party congress coincided with the 30th foundation anniversary of the party.

References

  1. "Semiramis Alia Is Dead a 58; Wife of the Albanian Leader". March 15, 1986 via NYTimes.com.
  2. 1 2 Albania's last Communist leader Ramiz Alia dies [ permanent dead link ], CNBC, 7 October 2011.
  3. "ramiz-alia-former-ruler-of-albania-dies-at-85". nytimes. Retrieved 2020-05-14.
  4. "Ramiz Alia". Presidenti i Republikës së Shqipërisë (in Albanian). Retrieved 2020-02-16.
  5. Roszkowski, Wojciech; Kofman, Jan (2016-07-08). Biographical Dictionary of Central and Eastern Europe in the Twentieth Century. Routledge. ISBN   978-1-317-47594-1.
  6. 1 2 3 4 5 "Ramiz Alia Facts". biography.yourdictionary.com.
  7. 1 2 J.F. Brown: Background Notes to Albania's Party Congress – Special Report Archived 2012-06-01 at the Wayback Machine , Open Society Archives, 2 February 1961.
  8. Eastern Christianity and the Cold War, 1945-91, p.154
  9. "Ish-presidenti i Shqipërisë, Ramiz Alia boton librin "Jeta Ime"" Shqiperia, 4 May 2011

Bibliography

Sources

Political offices
Preceded by
Minister of Education and Culture
19551958
Succeeded by
Preceded by
Enver Hoxha
First Secretary of the Albanian Party of Labour
13 April 19854 May 1991
Succeeded by
End of Communist rule
Preceded by
Haxhi Lleshi
Chairman of the Presidium of the Albanian People's Assembly
22 November 198230 April 1991
Succeeded by
Himself as President
Preceded by
Himself as Chairman of the Presidium of the People's Assembly
President of Albania
30 April 19913 April 1992
Succeeded by
Sali Berisha