Ramiz Alia

Last updated

Semiramis Xhuvani
(died 1986)
[1]
Ramiz Alia
Ramiz Alia (portret).jpg
Official portrait, 1985
President of Albania
In office
30 April 1991 3 April 1992
Children3 (Zana, Besa and Arben)
Signature Ramiz Alia (nenshkrim).svg

Ramiz Alia (Albanian pronunciation: [ɾaˈmizaˈlia] ; 18 October 1925 – 7 October 2011) was an Albanian politician serving as the second and last leader of the People's Socialist Republic of Albania from 1985 to 1991, serving as First Secretary of the Party of Labour of Albania. He was also the country's head of state from 1982 to 1992. He had been seen as a successor by Enver Hoxha and took power after Hoxha died.

Contents

Early life and politics

Alia was born on October 18, 1925, in Shkodër to Gheg Albanian parents who were Muslim. [2] They fled persecution in Yugoslavia. [3] [4] [5] He grew up and spent his childhood in Tirana. In the early part of World War II, Alia was a member of a fascist youth organisation known as the Fascist Lictor Youth Organisation but joined the underground Albanian Communist Youth Organisation in 1941. [6] [7] In 1943, he became a member of the Albanian Communist Party. [7] He had risen rapidly under Hoxha's patronage, and was elected to the Central Committee in 1948, and in 1956, was named a candidate member of the Politburo. [8] By 1961, he was made a full member of the Politburo (Politburo of the Party of Labour of Albania). [9] Alia distinguished himself as the chief ideologist in the social and cultural fields for the Party of Labour of Albania, specifically during the years of the Cultural and Ideological Revolution. [10]

Although Hoxha never designated an official successor, there were clear signs that he favoured Alia. In introducing Alia to one of his doctors, Hoxha said "My friend, I'm getting old, and my health is not the best it could be. Younger comrades, like this one [Alia], will step in." [11]

Political career

First Secretary of the Albanian Labour Party

After World War II, Alia resumed his duties in the Communist Youth Organisation, and at the First Congress of the Albanian Party of Labour in November 1948, he was elected to its Central Committee and was assigned to the department of agitation and propaganda. [6]

As late as 1988, Alia had continued insisting that Hoxha was the only statesman in decades who stayed loyal to Marxism-Leninism, claiming in his speech at the unveiling of Hoxha's statue in Skanderbeg Square: "Enver Hoxha has been and remains to this day the only name among the communist leaders of the last 4–5 decades who defended the teachings of Marxism-Leninism, the ideals of the revolution and socialism, both in theory and practice." [12]

Transition to multi-party system and presidency

Despite Alia's efforts to proceed with change on a limited, cautious basis, reform from above threatened to turn into reform from below, largely because of the increasingly vocal demands of Albania's youth. On 9 December 1990, student demonstrators marched from the Enver Hoxha University (now University of Tirana) at Tirana through the streets of the capital shouting slogans and demanding reforms. By 11 December, the number of participants had reached almost 3,000. In an effort to quell the student unrest, which had led to clashes with riot police, Alia met with the students and agreed to take further steps toward democratization. The students informed Alia that they wanted to create an independent political organisation of students and youth. Alia's response was that such an organisation had to be registered with the Ministry of Justice. [13]

In his traditional New Year's message to the Albanian people, Alia welcomed the changes that had been occurring in the country and claimed that 1991 would be a turning point in terms of the economy.

Alia was a crucial figure in the peaceful political transition of the early 1990s. Many believe that he helped the rise to power of the anti-communist opposition forces, thus eliminating possible bloodshed. He managed to remain a key political figure throughout several political crises. Nonetheless, with Albania in the throes of a grave economic crisis, Alia had to face challenges that he could not surmount. On 12 December 1990, he signed a law allowing political pluralism, on which he would later comment as his life's greatest failure. [14] In the 1991 elections, the first democratic elections in the country, where Alia ran for Member of National Parliament in a constituency in the capital, which was a stronghold of the communist party, he was badly defeated by a surprising majority of 61% by the renowned mining engineer in the country, Franko Kroqi. Kroqi ran as a candidate of the newly formed Democratic Party of Albania, although he never became a party member.

After this loss, and later on the Democratic Party of Albania's (DPA) landslide victory in the spring 1992 general election, he resigned as president on 3 April 1992. [6] On 9 April the People's Assembly elected DPA leader Sali Berisha as Albania's new head of state.

Arrest

On 21 May 1994, senior officials from the Communist government, including Ramiz Alia, went on trial. Alia was charged with abuse of power and misappropriation of state funds, as was prime minister Adil Çarçani, deputy prime minister Manush Myftiu, and Rita Marko who was a vice-president.

Alia had been placed under house arrest in August 1992 and his detention was converted into imprisonment in August 1993. [6] In court he claimed he was the victim of a political show trial and demanded that the trial be broadcast on television, a request denied by the presiding judge. The trial was monitored by a Human Rights Watch representative and proceeded with only minor due process irregularities. The ten defendants were found guilty as charged and sentenced to between three and nine years in prison; Alia received a nine-year sentence.

A court of appeals subsequently reduced some of the sentences, notably Alia's to five years. Alia, Myftiu, Carçani, Stefani and Isai were also ordered to repay various sums to the state. On 30 November, the Court of Cassation reduced Alia's term by an additional three years. On 7 July 1995, Ramiz Alia was freed from jail. However, his freedom was short-lived and in 1996 he was charged with committing crimes against humanity during his term, and was imprisoned anew in March. The trial against him began on 18 February 1997, but he escaped from the prison following the unrest in the country and the desertion of the guards. [15] Amid the unrest he appeared on state TV in an exclusive interview with Blendi Fevziu. In December 1997 he returned to Albania after escaping briefly to France to join his family during the Albanian unrest. [16] In the late 2000s he was sometimes seen travelling to Albania from Dubai to give interviews or publicize his books. [17]

Death

Alia died on October 7, 2011, in Tirana, Albania, 11 days before his 86th birthday. [18]

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Enver Hoxha</span> Leader of Albania from 1944 to 1985

Enver Hoxha was an Albanian politician who was the ruler of Albania from 1944 until his death in 1985. He was the First Secretary of the Party of Labour of Albania from 1941 until his death, a member of its Politburo, chairman of the Democratic Front of Albania, and commander-in-chief of the Albanian People's Army. He was the twenty-second prime minister of Albania from 1944 to 1954 and at various times was both foreign minister and defence minister of the country.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Nexhmije Hoxha</span> Albanian politician (1921–2020)

Nexhmije Hoxha was an Albanian communist politician. For many years she was the wife of Enver Hoxha, the first leader of the Socialist People's Republic of Albania and the First Secretary of the Party of Labour of Albania. Very close to her husband, she attempted to remain politically influential after his death in 1985. She was one of the few spouses of a ruling communist party leader with a high political profile of her own.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Fatos Nano</span> Albanian politician

Fatos Thanas Nano is an Albanian socialist politician who served as Prime Minister of Albania in 1991, from 1997 to 1998 and from 2002 to 2005. He was the first leader and founder of the Socialist Party of Albania and a member of the Albanian Parliament from 1991 to 1993 and 1997 to 2009. He reformed the anti-revisionist Marxist-Leninist ideology of the Labor Party of Albania into social democracy for its successor, the Socialist Party. During his leadership, the Socialist Party, as a result of reforms, joined the Socialist International and Party of European Socialists. Nano was a candidate in the 2007 presidential election but did not win. He again tried in the 2012 presidential election, but he did not even qualify as a candidate, because the leaders of parties in Parliament obstructed their respective MPs to elect him as candidate in the elections.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Adil Çarçani</span> Albanian politician (1922–1997)

Adil Çarçani was an Albanian politician who served as the 24th Prime Minister of Albania during the Communist era led by Enver Hoxha. He served as the titular head of the Albanian government in the years immediately preceding the fall of Communism.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Party of Labour of Albania</span> Ruling party of Albania from 1945 to 1991

The Party of Labour of Albania (PLA), also referred to as the Albanian Workers' Party (AWP), was the ruling and sole legal party of Albania during the communist period (1945–1991). It was founded on 8 November 1941 as the Communist Party of Albania but changed its name in 1948. The party was dissolved on 13 June 1991 and succeeded by the Socialist Party of Albania and the new Communist Party of Albania. For most of its existence, the party was dominated by its First Secretary, Enver Hoxha, who was also the de facto leader of Albania from 1944 until his death in 1985.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">People's Socialist Republic of Albania</span> Socialist State in Southeastern Europe from 1946 to 1991

The People's Socialist Republic of Albania, officially the People's Republic of Albania from 1946 until 1976, was the one-party communist state in Albania from 1946 to 1991. It succeeded the Democratic Government of Albania (1944–1946).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Fall of communism in Albania</span> Collapse of communist control of Albania in the early 1990s

The fall of communism in Albania, the last such event in Europe outside the Soviet Union, started in December 1990 with student demonstrations in the capital, Tirana, although protests started in January that year in other cities like Shkodra and Kavaja. The Central Committee of the communist Party of Labour of Albania allowed political pluralism on 11 December and the largest opposition party, the Democratic Party, was founded the next day. March 1991 elections left the Party of Labour in power, but a general strike and urban opposition led to the formation of a "stability government" that included non-communists. Albania's former communists were routed in elections in March 1992 amid economic collapse and social unrest, with the Democratic Party winning most seats and its party head, Sali Berisha, becoming president.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Beqir Balluku</span> Albanian politician (1917–1975)

Beqir Balluku was an Albanian politician, military leader, and Minister of Defense of Albania. Balluku assisted Enver Hoxha in carrying out the 1956 purge within the Party of Labour. However, in 1974, Balluku himself, along with a group of other government members was accused by Hoxha of an attempted coup d'état against the Albanian People's Republic. He was executed the next year.

Fadil Paçrami was an Albanian politician, writer and playwright. He served as Chairman of the Assembly of the Republic of Albania from 20 November 1970 to 25 September 1973. He used to be the minister of education and culture, as well as the speaker of the Albanian parliament. In 1975, he was wrongfully accused of anti-communist activity and got a 25-year sentence. He was freed from prison in 1990 by Ramiz Alia, Enver Hoxha's successor.

Bedri Spahiu was an Albanian politician and Lieutenant-General and one of the most prominent figures of the Albanian Labour Party up to 1956.

Blendi Fevziu is an Albanian journalist, writer and host of the TV talk show Opinion, which first went on air on August 31, 1997.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Liri Belishova</span> Albanian politician (1926–2018)

Liri Belishova was an Albanian politician. She was a member of the Politburo of the Party of Labour of Albania and an important political figure in Albania between 1944 and 1960.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hekuran Isai</span> Albanian politician (1933–2008)

Hekuran Isai was an Albanian politician of the Albanian Party of Labour (PPSh).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Prokop Murra</span> Albanian politician of the Albanian Party of Labour

Prokop Murra was an Albanian politician of the Albanian Party of Labour (PPSh).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Foto Çami</span> Albanian academic and politician of Albanian Party of Labour

Foto Çami was an Albanian academic and politician of Albanian Party of Labour (PPSh).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Vangjel Çërrava</span> Albanian politician of the Albanian Party of Labour (born 1941)

Vangjel Çërrava is an Albanian politician of the Albanian Party of Labour (PPSh). He was member of the Albanian Parliament, Deputy Chairman of the Cabinet of Albania, and for a short time member of the Politburo of the Party.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Pirro Kondi</span> Albanian politician

Pirro Kondi was an Albanian politician of the Albanian Party of Labour (PPSh). Coming from a family with strong communist background, he became member of the Albanian Parliament and a candidate-member of the Politburo of the Party of Labour of Albania by the '80.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Xhafer Spahiu</span> Albanian politician (1923–1999)

Xhafer Spahiu was an Albanian politician of the Albanian Party of Labour (PPSh). He was the only Kosovar Albanian of the higher ranks of the Communist Albania leadership after 1948.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Mustafa Gjinishi</span> Albanian communist resistance member (1912–1944)

Mustafa Gjinishi was an Albanian communist from Peqin, central Albania. He was known for having opposed Enver Hoxha and the Italian invasion of Albania.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">6th Congress of the Party of Labour of Albania</span>

The 6th Congress of the Party of Labour of Albania was held in Tirana 1–7 November 1971. The party congress coincided with the 30th foundation anniversary of the party.

References

  1. "Semiramis Alia Is Dead a 58; Wife of the Albanian Leader". The New York Times. 15 March 1986 via NYTimes.com.
  2. Europe, United States Congress Commission on Security and Cooperation in (1991). The Elections in Albania: March-April 1991. The Commission.
  3. McFadden, Robert D. (8 October 2011). "ramiz-alia-former-ruler-of-albania-dies-at-85". The New York Times. Retrieved 14 May 2020.
  4. "Ramiz Alia". Presidenti i Republikës së Shqipërisë (in Albanian). Retrieved 16 February 2020.
  5. Roszkowski, Wojciech; Kofman, Jan (8 July 2016). Biographical Dictionary of Central and Eastern Europe in the Twentieth Century. Routledge. ISBN   978-1-317-47594-1.
  6. 1 2 3 4 "Ramiz Alia Facts". biography.yourdictionary.com.
  7. 1 2 J.F. Brown: Background Notes to Albania's Party Congress – Special Report Archived 1 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine , Blinken Open Society Archives, 2 February 1961.
  8. Vickers, Miranda (2006). The Albanians: A Modern History. London: I.B. Taurus. p. 210. ISBN   1-86064-541-0.
  9. Eastern Christianity and the Cold War, 1945-91, p.154
  10. Prifti, Peter (1978). Socialist Albania since 1944: Domestic and Foreign Developments. Cambridge: MIT Press. p. 97. ISBN   0-262-16070-6.
  11. Fevziu, Blendi; Elsie, Robert; Nishku, Majlinda (2017). Enver Hoxha: The Iron Fist of Albania. London & New York: I.B. Tauris. p. 251. ISBN   978-1-78453-970-2. OCLC   1000295419.
  12. Alia, Ramiz (1988). Albania Today. 1988(5). p. 5.
  13. "Opinion - Takimi i Ramiz Alise me Studentet_Pjesa 1 (08 dhjetor 2009)". YouTube .
  14. "Këto janë 50 fakte nga jeta e Ramiz Alisë dhe misteret që mori në varr". telegrafi.com. 16 February 2016.
  15. "Ramiz Alia" The Herald Scotland, 4 November 2011
  16. "Ramiz Alia" The Guardian, 7 October 2011
  17. "Ish-presidenti i Shqipërisë, Ramiz Alia boton librin "Jeta Ime"" Shqiperia, 4 May 2011
  18. "Ramiz Alia" The Guardian, 7 October 2011

Other sources

Bibliography

Political offices
Preceded by
Minister of Education and Culture
1955–1958
Succeeded by
Preceded by First Secretary of the Albanian Party of Labour
1985–1991
Succeeded by
End of Communist rule
Preceded by Chairman of the Presidium of the Albanian People's Assembly
1982–1991
Succeeded by
Himself as President
Preceded by
Himself as Chairman of the Presidium of the People's Assembly
President of Albania
1991–1992
Succeeded by