Ramon Berenguer I, Count of Barcelona

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Ramon Berenguer I the Old
RamonBerenguel1prijimatribut.jpg
Ramon Berenguer I and his wife, Almodis de la Marche, counting out 2000 ounces of gold coins as payment to William Raymond and Adelaide, count and countess of Cerdagne, in return for their rights over Carcassonne in 1067. [1]
Count of Barcelona
Reign1035–1076
Predecessor Berenguer Ramon I
Successor Ramon Berenguer II and Berenguer Ramon II
Born1023
Died26 May 1076
Buried Barcelona Cathedral
Noble family House of Barcelona
Spouse(s)Elisabeth of Narbonne
Blanca of Narbonne
Almodis de la Marche
Issue
Father Berenguer Ramon I the Crooked
MotherSancha Sanchez
Signature Signum-ramon-berenguer-I-barcelona.jpg
Religion Roman Catholicism

Ramon Berenguer I (1023–1076), called the Old (Catalan : el Vell, French : le Vieux), was Count of Barcelona in 10351076. He promulgated the earliest versions of a written code of Catalan law, the Usages of Barcelona.

Catalan language Romance language

Catalan is a Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain. It is the only official language of Andorra, and a co-official language of the Spanish autonomous communities of Catalonia, the Balearic Islands and Valencia. It also has semi-official status in the Italian comune of Alghero. It is also spoken in the eastern strip of Aragon, in some villages of Region of Murcia called Carche and in the Pyrénées-Orientales department of France. These territories are often called Països Catalans or "Catalan Countries".

French language Romance language

French is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl—languages historically spoken in northern France and in southern Belgium, which French (Francien) has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages of Northern Roman Gaul like Gallia Belgica and by the (Germanic) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders. Today, owing to France's past overseas expansion, there are numerous French-based creole languages, most notably Haitian Creole. A French-speaking person or nation may be referred to as Francophone in both English and French.

The Count of Barcelona was the ruler of Catalonia for much of Catalan history, from the 9th century until the 15th century.

Contents

Born in 1024, he succeeded his father, Berenguer Ramon I the Crooked in 1035. [2] It was during his reign that the dominant position of Barcelona among the other Catalan counties became evident.

Berenguer Ramon I, Count of Barcelona Count of Barcelona

Berenguer Ramon I [Berengar Raymond I], called the Crooked or the Hunchback, was the count of Barcelona, Girona, and Ausona from 1018 to his death.

Catalonia Autonomous area of northeastern Spain

Catalonia is an autonomous community and an historical nationality in Spain on the northeastern corner of the Iberian Peninsula, designated as a nationality by its Statute of Autonomy Catalonia consists of four provinces: Barcelona, Girona, Lleida, and Tarragona. The capital and largest city is Barcelona, the second-most populated municipality in Spain and the core of the sixth most populous urban area in the European Union. It comprises most of the territory of the former Principality of Catalonia. It is bordered by France (Occitanie) and Andorra to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the east, and the Spanish autonomous communities of Aragon to the west and Valencia to the south. The official languages are Catalan, Spanish, and the Aranese dialect of Occitan.

Ramon Berenguer campaigned against the Moors, extending his dominions as far west as Barbastro and imposing heavy tributes ( parias ) on other Moorish cities. [2] Historians claim that those tributes helped create the first wave of prosperity in Catalan history. During his reign Catalan maritime power started to be felt in the western Mediterranean. Ramon Berenguer the Old was also the first count of Catalonia to acquire lands (the counties of Carcassonne and Razés) and influence north of the Pyrenees. [2]

Moors medieval Muslim inhabitants of the Maghreb, Iberian Peninsula, Sicily, and Malta

The term "Moors" refers primarily to the Muslim inhabitants of the Maghreb, the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily, and Malta during the Middle Ages. The Moors initially were the indigenous Maghrebine Berbers. The name was later also applied to Arabs.

Barbastro Municipality in Aragon, Spain

Barbastro is a city in the Somontano county, province of Huesca, Spain. The city is at the junction of the rivers Cinca and Vero.

<i>parias</i> tax / tribute in medieval Iberia

In medieval Spain, parias were a form of tribute paid by the taifas of al-Andalus to the Christian kingdoms of the north. Parias dominated relations between the Islamic and the Christian states in the years following the disintegration of the Caliphate of Córdoba (1031) until the reunification of Islamic Spain under the Almoravid dynasty. The parias were a form of protection money established by treaty. The payee owed the tributary military protection against foes both Islamic and Christian. Usually the original exaction was forced, either by a large razzia or the threat of one, or as the cost of supporting one Islamic party against another.

Another major achievement of his was beginning the codification of Catalan law in the written Usatges of Barcelona which was to become the first full compilation of feudal law in Western Europe. Legal codification was part of the count's efforts to forward and somehow control the process of feudalization which started during the reign of his weak father, Berenguer Ramon. Another major contributor was the Church acting through the institution of the Peace and Truce of God. This established a general truce among warring factions and lords in a given region for a given time. The earliest extant date for introducing the Truce of God in Western Europe is 1027 in Catalonia, during the reign of his father, Berenguer Ramon.

In law, codification is the process of collecting and restating the law of a jurisdiction in certain areas, usually by subject, forming a legal code, i.e. a codex (book) of law.

The Peace and Truce of God was a movement in the Middle Ages led by the Catholic Church and the first mass peace movement in history. The goal of both the Pax Dei and the Treuga Dei was to limit the violence of feuding endemic to the western half of the former Carolingian Empire – following its collapse in the middle of the 9th century – using the threat of spiritual sanctions. The eastern half of the former Carolingian Empire did not experience the same collapse of central authority, and neither did England.

Western Europe region comprising the westerly countries of Europe

Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe. Though the term Western Europe is commonly used, there is no commonly agreed-upon definition of the countries that it encompasses.

While still married to his second wife Blanca, he became involved with the wife of the Count of Toulouse, Almodis de La Marche, countess of Limoges. [3] Both quickly married and were consequently excommunicated by Pope Victor II. [3] [4]

Limoges Prefecture and commune in Nouvelle-Aquitaine, France

Limoges is a city and commune, the capital of the Haute-Vienne department and was the administrative capital of the former Limousin region in west-central France.

Pope Victor II pope

Pope Victor II, born Gebhard, Count of Calw, Tollenstein, and Hirschberg, was Pope from 13 April 1055 until his death in 1057. He was also known as Gebhard Of Dollnstein-hirschberg. Gebhard was one of a series of German reform popes.

Ramon Berenguer I, together with his third wife Almodis, also founded the Romanesque cathedral of Barcelona, to replace the older basilica presumably destroyed by Almanzor. Their velvet and brass bound wooden coffins are still displayed in the Gothic cathedral which eventually replaced the cathedral that they founded.

Almanzor ruler of Al-Andalus

Abu ʿĀmir Muḥammad ibn ʿAbdullāh ibn Abi ʿĀmir, al-Ḥājib al-Manṣūr, better known as Almanzor, was for 24 years (978–1002) the de facto ruler of al Andalus under the Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba. His rule marked the peak of power for al-Andalus. Some say that he claimed the title of a King, and was known as Al Malik Al Mansur.

He was succeeded by his twin sons Ramon Berenguer II and Berenguer Ramon II.

Family and issue

Sepulchers of Ramon Berenguer in the Cathedral of Barcelona. Barcelona Cathedral Interior - Sepulchre of Ramon Berenguer I.jpg
Sepulchers of Ramon Berenguer in the Cathedral of Barcelona.

Notes

  1. Charles Julian Bishko, 40.
  2. 1 2 3 Bernard F. Reilly, 48-49.
  3. 1 2 Patricia Humphrey, 34.
  4. Bernard F. Reilly, 67.
  5. Bernard F. Reilly, 71.

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References


Preceded by
Berenguer Ramon I
Count of Barcelona
(Barcelona, Girona and Manresa)

1035–1076
(under regency of Ermesinde of Carcassonne, 1035-1041)
(with Almodis de La Marche, 1052-1071)
Succeeded by
Ramon Berenguer II and
Berenguer Ramon II
Preceded by
Guisla of Lluçá and
William I
Count of Osona
1054–1076
(with Almodis de La Marche, 1054-1071)
Succeeded by
Ramon Berenguer II and
Berenguer Ramon II
Preceded by
Garsenda I
Ermengarde I
and Adelaide I
Count of Carcassonne
(Carcassonne and Razès)

1069–1076
(with Almodis de La Marche, 1069-1071)
Succeeded by
Ramon Berenguer II and
Berenguer Ramon II