|Ramon Berenguer I the Old|
|Count of Barcelona|
|Predecessor||Berenguer Ramon I|
|Successor||Ramon Berenguer II and Berenguer Ramon II|
|Died||26 May 1076|
|Noble family||House of Barcelona|
|Spouse(s)||Elisabeth of Narbonne|
Blanca of Narbonne
Almodis de la Marche
|Father||Berenguer Ramon I the Crooked|
Ramon Berenguer I (1023–1076), called the Old (Catalan : el Vell, French : le Vieux), was Count of Barcelona in 1035–1076. He promulgated the earliest versions of a written code of Catalan law, the Usages of Barcelona.
Catalan is a Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain. It is the only official language of Andorra, and a co-official language of the Spanish autonomous communities of Catalonia, the Balearic Islands and Valencia. It also has semi-official status in the Italian comune of Alghero. It is also spoken in the eastern strip of Aragon, in some villages of Region of Murcia called Carche and in the Pyrénées-Orientales department of France. These territories are often called Països Catalans or "Catalan Countries".
French is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl—languages historically spoken in northern France and in southern Belgium, which French (Francien) has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages of Northern Roman Gaul like Gallia Belgica and by the (Germanic) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders. Today, owing to France's past overseas expansion, there are numerous French-based creole languages, most notably Haitian Creole. A French-speaking person or nation may be referred to as Francophone in both English and French.
The Count of Barcelona was the ruler of Catalonia for much of Catalan history, from the 9th century until the 15th century.
Born in 1024, he succeeded his father, Berenguer Ramon I the Crooked in 1035.It was during his reign that the dominant position of Barcelona among the other Catalan counties became evident.
Berenguer Ramon I [Berengar Raymond I], called the Crooked or the Hunchback, was the count of Barcelona, Girona, and Ausona from 1018 to his death.
Catalonia is an autonomous community and an historical nationality in Spain on the northeastern corner of the Iberian Peninsula, designated as a nationality by its Statute of Autonomy Catalonia consists of four provinces: Barcelona, Girona, Lleida, and Tarragona. The capital and largest city is Barcelona, the second-most populated municipality in Spain and the core of the sixth most populous urban area in the European Union. It comprises most of the territory of the former Principality of Catalonia. It is bordered by France (Occitanie) and Andorra to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the east, and the Spanish autonomous communities of Aragon to the west and Valencia to the south. The official languages are Catalan, Spanish, and the Aranese dialect of Occitan.
Ramon Berenguer campaigned against the Moors, extending his dominions as far west as Barbastro and imposing heavy tributes ( parias ) on other Moorish cities.Historians claim that those tributes helped create the first wave of prosperity in Catalan history. During his reign Catalan maritime power started to be felt in the western Mediterranean. Ramon Berenguer the Old was also the first count of Catalonia to acquire lands (the counties of Carcassonne and Razés) and influence north of the Pyrenees.
The term "Moors" refers primarily to the Muslim inhabitants of the Maghreb, the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily, and Malta during the Middle Ages. The Moors initially were the indigenous Maghrebine Berbers. The name was later also applied to Arabs.
Barbastro is a city in the Somontano county, province of Huesca, Spain. The city is at the junction of the rivers Cinca and Vero.
In medieval Spain, parias were a form of tribute paid by the taifas of al-Andalus to the Christian kingdoms of the north. Parias dominated relations between the Islamic and the Christian states in the years following the disintegration of the Caliphate of Córdoba (1031) until the reunification of Islamic Spain under the Almoravid dynasty. The parias were a form of protection money established by treaty. The payee owed the tributary military protection against foes both Islamic and Christian. Usually the original exaction was forced, either by a large razzia or the threat of one, or as the cost of supporting one Islamic party against another.
Another major achievement of his was beginning the codification of Catalan law in the written Usatges of Barcelona which was to become the first full compilation of feudal law in Western Europe. Legal codification was part of the count's efforts to forward and somehow control the process of feudalization which started during the reign of his weak father, Berenguer Ramon. Another major contributor was the Church acting through the institution of the Peace and Truce of God. This established a general truce among warring factions and lords in a given region for a given time. The earliest extant date for introducing the Truce of God in Western Europe is 1027 in Catalonia, during the reign of his father, Berenguer Ramon.
In law, codification is the process of collecting and restating the law of a jurisdiction in certain areas, usually by subject, forming a legal code, i.e. a codex (book) of law.
The Peace and Truce of God was a movement in the Middle Ages led by the Catholic Church and the first mass peace movement in history. The goal of both the Pax Dei and the Treuga Dei was to limit the violence of feuding endemic to the western half of the former Carolingian Empire – following its collapse in the middle of the 9th century – using the threat of spiritual sanctions. The eastern half of the former Carolingian Empire did not experience the same collapse of central authority, and neither did England.
Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe. Though the term Western Europe is commonly used, there is no commonly agreed-upon definition of the countries that it encompasses.
While still married to his second wife Blanca, he became involved with the wife of the Count of Toulouse, Almodis de La Marche, countess of Limoges.Both quickly married and were consequently excommunicated by Pope Victor II.
Limoges is a city and commune, the capital of the Haute-Vienne department and was the administrative capital of the former Limousin region in west-central France.
Pope Victor II, born Gebhard, Count of Calw, Tollenstein, and Hirschberg, was Pope from 13 April 1055 until his death in 1057. He was also known as Gebhard Of Dollnstein-hirschberg. Gebhard was one of a series of German reform popes.
Ramon Berenguer I, together with his third wife Almodis, also founded the Romanesque cathedral of Barcelona, to replace the older basilica presumably destroyed by Almanzor. Their velvet and brass bound wooden coffins are still displayed in the Gothic cathedral which eventually replaced the cathedral that they founded.
Abu ʿĀmir Muḥammad ibn ʿAbdullāh ibn Abi ʿĀmir, al-Ḥājib al-Manṣūr, better known as Almanzor, was for 24 years (978–1002) the de facto ruler of al Andalus under the Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba. His rule marked the peak of power for al-Andalus. Some say that he claimed the title of a King, and was known as Al Malik Al Mansur.
He was succeeded by his twin sons Ramon Berenguer II and Berenguer Ramon II.
Alfonso VII, called the Emperor, became the King of Galicia in 1111 and King of León and Castile in 1126. Alfonso, born Alfonso Raimúndez, first used the title Emperor of All Spain, alongside his mother Urraca, once she vested him with the direct rule of Toledo in 1116. Alfonso later held another investiture in 1135 in a grand ceremony reasserting his claims to the imperial title. He was the son of Urraca of León and Raymond of Burgundy, the first of the House of Ivrea to rule in the Iberian peninsula.
The Cathedral of the Holy Cross and Saint Eulalia, also known as Barcelona Cathedral, is the Gothic cathedral and seat of the Archbishop of Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. The cathedral was constructed from the thirteenth to fifteenth centuries, with the principal work done in the fourteenth century. The cloister, which encloses the Well of the Geese was completed in 1448. In the late nineteenth century, the neo-Gothic façade was constructed over the nondescript exterior that was common to Catalan churches. The roof is notable for its gargoyles, featuring a wide range of animals, both domestic and mythical.
Ramon Berenguer IIIthe Great was the count of Barcelona, Girona, and Ausona from 1086, Besalú from 1111, Cerdanya from 1117, and count of Provence in the Holy Roman Empire, from 1112, all until his death in Barcelona in 1131. As Ramon Berenguer I, he was Count of Provence from 1112 in right of his wife.
Berenguer Ramon II "the Fratricide" was Count of Barcelona from 1076 to 1097. He was the son of Ramon Berenguer I, and initially ruled jointly with his twin brother Ramon Berenguer II.
Ramon Berenguer IIthe Towhead or Cap de estopes was Count of Barcelona from 1076 until his death. He ruled jointly with his twin brother, Berenguer Ramon II. The Chronicle of San Juan de la Pena called him, ".. . exceeding brave and bold, kind, pleasant, pious, joyful, generous, and of an attractive appearance. Because of the extremely thick hair he had on top of his head, he was known as Cap d'Estop."
The County of Osona, also Ausona, was one of the Catalan counties of the Marca Hispanica in the Early and High Middle Ages. It was based around the capital city of Vic (Vicus) and the corresponding diocese, whose territory was roughly the current comarca of Osona.
Almodis de la Marche was a French noble. She was famed for her marriage career, in particularly for her third marriage to Ramon Berenguer I, Count of Barcelona, with whom she committed double bigamy in 1053, for which the Pope had them excommunicated.
Hugh VI, called the Devil, was the Lord of Lusignan and Count of La Marche, the son and successor of Hugh V of Lusignan and Almodis de la Marche.
Wifred or Wilfred was the Count of Cerdanya and Count of Berga. He was the eldest son of Oliba Cabreta and Ermengard of Empúries.
Douce I was the daughter of Gilbert I of Gévaudan and Gerberga of Provence and wife of Ramon Berenguer III, Count of Barcelona. In 1112, she inherited the county of Provence through her mother. She married Ramon Berenguer at Arles on 3 February that year.
The Usages of Barcelona were the customs that form the basis for the Catalan Constitutions. They are the fundamental laws and basic rights of Catalonia, dating back to their codification in the twelfth century.
ErmengolIV (1056–1092), called el de Gerb or Gerp, was the Count of Urgell from 1066 to his death. He was the son of Ermengol III and Adelaide, whose family is not known, even if some scholars made her daughter of Guillem I, Count of Besalu.
ErmengolIII, called el de Barbastro, was the count of Urgell from 1038 to his death. He was the son of Ermengol II, Count of Urgell and his wife Velasquita "Constance", probably the daughter of Bernard I, Count of Besalú.
Saint Olegarius Bonestruga was the Bishop of Barcelona from 1116 and Archbishop of Tarragona from 1118 until his death. He was an intimate of Ramon Berenguer III, Count of Barcelona, and often accompanied the count on military ventures.
Artau I was the Count of Pallars Sobirà from 1049 until his death in or around 1081.). His reign was characterised by ceaseless wars and litigations with his more powerful cousin and neighbour Raymond IV of Pallars Jussà.
The Carmen Campidoctoris is an anonymous medieval Latin epic poem, consisting in 128 sapphic-adonic verses in 32 stanzas, with one line from an unfinished thirty-third. The earliest poem about the Spanish folk hero El Cid Campeador, it was found in the monastery of Santa Maria de Ripoll in the seventeenth century and was transferred to the Bibliothèque nationale de France, where it currently resides as manuscript lat. 5132.
In 1114, an expedition to the Balearic Islands, then a Muslim taifa, was launched in the form of a Crusade. Founded on a treaty of 1113 between the Republic of Pisa and Ramon Berenguer III, Count of Barcelona, the expedition had the support of Pope Paschal II and the participation of many lords of Catalonia and Occitania, as well as contingents from northern and central Italy, Sardinia, and Corsica. The Crusaders were perhaps inspired by the Norwegian king Sigurd I's attack on Formentera in 1108 or 1109 during the Norwegian Crusade. The expedition ended in 1115 in the conquest of the Balearics, but only until the next year. The main source for the event is the Pisan Liber maiolichinus, completed by 1125.
Mafalda of Pulla-Calabria, also known like Mahalta, Mata or Mathilda, was countess consort of Barcelona and Viscountess Consort of Narbonne.
Maud of Apulia was a member of the Norman D’Hauteville family and a daughter of Robert Guiscard and his second wife Sikelgaita, a Lombard princess, the daughter of Guaimar IV, Prince of Salerno. She was also known as Mahalda, Mahault, Mafalda and Matilda. She was the wife of Ramón Berenguer II, and thus Countess of Barcelona (1078-1082). After her husband’s death, she remarried Aimery I, the Viscount of Narbonne (1086-1108).
Berenguer Ramon I
| Count of Barcelona |
(Barcelona, Girona and Manresa)
(under regency of Ermesinde of Carcassonne, 1035-1041)
(with Almodis de La Marche, 1052-1071)
Ramon Berenguer II and
Berenguer Ramon II
Guisla of Lluçá and
| Count of Osona |
(with Almodis de La Marche, 1054-1071)
Ramon Berenguer II and
Berenguer Ramon II
and Adelaide I
| Count of Carcassonne |
(Carcassonne and Razès)
(with Almodis de La Marche, 1069-1071)
Ramon Berenguer II and
Berenguer Ramon II