Ramsay MacDonald

Last updated

Ramsay MacDonald
FRS
J. Ramsay MacDonald LCCN2014715885 (cropped).jpg
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
In office
5 June 1929 7 June 1935

For half a century, MacDonald was demonised by the Labour Party as a turncoat who consorted with the enemy and drove the Labour Party to its nadir. Later, however, scholarly opinion raised his status as an important founder and leader of the Labour Party, and a man who held Britain together during its darkest economic times. [102] [103]

MacDonald's expulsion from Labour along with his National Labour Party's coalition with the Conservatives, combined with the decline in his physical and mental powers after 1931, left him a discredited figure. The downfall of the Labour government in 1931, his National coalition with the Conservatives and the electoral defeat were blamed on him, and few spoke on his behalf. [104] MacNeill Weir, MacDonald's former parliamentary private secretary, published the first major biography The Tragedy of Ramsay MacDonald in 1938. Weir demonised MacDonald for obnoxious careerism, class betrayal and treachery. [105] Clement Attlee in his autobiography As it Happened (1954) called MacDonald's decision to abandon the Labour government in 1931 "the greatest betrayal in the political history of the country". [106] The coming of war in 1939 led to a search for the politicians who had appeased Hitler and failed to prepare Britain; MacDonald was grouped among the "Guilty Men".

By the 1960s, while union activists maintained their hostile attitude, scholars wrote with more appreciation of his challenges and successes. [107] [108] Finally in 1977 he received a long scholarly biography that historians have judged to be "definitive". [109] Labour MP David Marquand, a trained historian, wrote Ramsay MacDonald with the stated intention of giving MacDonald his due for his work in founding and building the Labour Party, and in trying to preserve peace in the years between the two world wars. He argued also to place MacDonald's fateful decision in 1931 in the context of the crisis of the times and the limited choices open to him. Marquand praised the prime minister's decision to place national interests before that of party in 1931. He also emphasised MacDonald's lasting intellectual contribution to socialism and his pivotal role in transforming Labour from an outside protest group to an inside party of government. [110]

Scholarly analysis about the economic decisions taken in the inter-war period such as the return to the Gold Standard in 1925, and MacDonald's desperate efforts to defend it in 1931, has changed. Robert Skidelsky, in his classic account of the 1929–31 government, Politicians and the Slump (1967), compared the orthodox policies advocated by leading politicians of both parties unfavourably with the more radical, proto-Keynesian measures proposed by David Lloyd George and Oswald Mosley. However, in the preface to the 1994 edition Skidelsky argued that recent experience of currency crises and capital flight made it hard to be critical of politicians who wanted to achieve stability by cutting so-called "labour costs" and defending the value of the currency. [111] In 2004 Marquand advanced a similar argument:

In the harsher world of the 1980s and 1990s it was no longer obvious that Keynes was right in 1931 and the bankers wrong. Pre-Keynesian orthodoxy had come in from the cold. Politicians and publics had learned anew that confidence crises feed on themselves; that currencies can collapse; that the public credit can be exhausted; that a plummeting currency can be even more painful than deflationary expenditure cuts; and that governments which try to defy the foreign exchange markets are apt to get their—and their countries'—fingers burnt. Against that background MacDonald's response to the 1931 crisis increasingly seemed not just honourable and consistent, but right ... he was the unacknowledged precursor of the Blairs, the Schröders, and the Clintons of the 1990s and 2000s. [112]

Cultural depictions

Personal life

MacDonald c. 1900s Ramsay MacDonald ggbain.29588.jpg
MacDonald c.1900s

Ramsay MacDonald married Margaret Ethel Gladstone (no relation to Prime Minister William Gladstone) in 1896. The marriage was a very happy one, and they had six children, including Malcolm MacDonald (1901–81), who had a distinguished career as a politician, colonial governor and diplomat, and Ishbel MacDonald (1903–82), who was very close to her father. Another son, Alister Gladstone MacDonald (1898–1993) was a conscientious objector in the First World War, serving in the Friends' Ambulance Unit; he became a prominent architect who worked on promoting the planning policies of his father's government, and specialised in cinema design. [113] MacDonald was devastated by Margaret's death from blood poisoning in 1911, and had few significant personal relationships after that time, apart from with Ishbel, who acted as his consort while he was Prime Minister and cared for him for the rest of his life. Following his wife's death, MacDonald commenced a relationship with Lady Margaret Sackville. [114]

In the 1920s and 1930s he was frequently entertained by the society hostess Lady Londonderry, which was much disapproved of in the Labour Party since her husband was a Conservative cabinet minister. [115] [ incomplete short citation ]

Ramsay MacDonald's religious life was varied, starting as a devout Christian and incrementally moving across his life into organised humanism, particularly the British Ethical movement. MacDonald's father held firm Calvinist beliefs, but as an adult Ramsay would join the Church of Scotland. Subsequently, he became interested in the Unitarian movement during his time in London, and led Unitarian worship sessions. His interest in Unitarianism led him to discover the Ethical Church, an early humanist association affiliated with the Union of Ethical Societies (today known as Humanists UK), which he joined as a member. [116] [117] He regularly attended services at the South Place Ethical Society (now Conway Hall), [118] and became intensely involved in Union of Ethical Societies, and friends with its founder, Stanton Coit. Ramsay would write regularly in Stanton Coit's Ethical World, a humanist publication. [119] On more than one occasion, he had been elected chair of the Union at its annual meeting, evidencing the significance of his commitment to organised humanism. [120] He was Chair/President of the organisation from 1900-1901 and again in 1903. [121]

MacDonald's unpopularity in the country following his stance against Britain's involvement in the First World War spilled over into his private life. In 1916, he was expelled from Moray Golf Club in Lossiemouth for being deemed to bring the club into disrepute because of his pacifist views. [122] The manner of his expulsion was regretted by some members but an attempt to re-instate him by a vote in 1924 failed. However, a Special General Meeting held in 1929 finally voted for his reinstatement. By this time, MacDonald was Prime Minister for the second time. He felt the initial expulsion very deeply and refused to take up the final offer of membership, which he had framed and mounted. [123]

Honours

In 1930, MacDonald was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS) under Statute 12. [124] He was awarded honorary Doctor of Laws (LLD) degrees by the universities of Wales, Glasgow, Edinburgh, Oxford and McGill and George Washington University. [125]

The novel Fame is the Spur (1940) by Howard Spring is thought to be based on the life of MacDonald. [126]

Related Research Articles

The Zinoviev letter was a fake document published by the British Daily Mail newspaper four days before the general election of October 1924. The letter purported to be a directive from Grigory Zinoviev, the head of the Communist International (Comintern) in Moscow, to the Communist Party of Great Britain, ordering it to engage in seditious activities. It said the resumption of diplomatic relations would hasten the radicalisation of the British working class. It was thought in many quarters that this development would have constituted a significant interference in British politics, and as a result it offended some British voters, turning them against the Labour Party.

Stanley Baldwin British statesman (1867–1947)

Stanley Baldwin, 1st Earl Baldwin of Bewdley, was a British Conservative statesman who dominated the government of the United Kingdom between the world wars, serving as Prime Minister on three occasions, from May 1923 to January 1924, from November 1924 to June 1929 and from June 1935 to May 1937.

Arthur Henderson British iron moulder, Labour politician and Nobel laureate

Arthur Henderson was a British iron moulder and Labour politician. He was the first Labour cabinet minister, won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1934 and, uniquely, served three separate terms as Leader of the Labour Party in three different decades. He was popular among his colleagues, who called him "Uncle Arthur" in acknowledgement of his integrity, his devotion to the cause and his imperturbability. He was a transitional figure whose policies were, at first, close to those of the Liberal Party. The trades unions rejected his emphasis on arbitration and conciliation, and thwarted his goal of unifying the Labour Party and the trade unions.

1931 United Kingdom general election British national election

The 1931 United Kingdom general election was held on Tuesday 27 October 1931 and saw a landslide election victory for the National Government which had been formed two months previously after the collapse of the second Labour government. Collectively, the parties forming the National Government won 67% of the votes and 554 seats out of 615. The bulk of the National Government's support came from the Conservative Party, and the Conservatives won 470 seats. The Labour Party suffered its greatest defeat, losing four out of every five seats compared with the previous election. The Liberal Party, split into three factions, continued to shrink and the Liberal National faction never reunited. Ivor Bulmer-Thomas said the results "were the most astonishing in the history of the British party system". It is the most recent election in which one party received an absolute majority of the votes cast, and the last UK general election not to take place on a Thursday. It would be the last election until 1997 in which a party won over 400 seats in the House of Commons.

The National Labour Organisation, also known as the National Labour Committee or simply as National Labour, was a British political group formed after the 1931 creation of the National Government to co-ordinate the efforts of the supporters of the government who had come from the Labour Party. The party leaders were Ramsay MacDonald (1931–1937) and Malcolm MacDonald (1937–1945).

1924 United Kingdom general election 1924 elections in the UK

The 1924 United Kingdom general election was held on Wednesday 29 October 1924, as a result of the defeat of the Labour minority government, led by Ramsay MacDonald, in the House of Commons on a motion of no confidence. It was the third general election to be held in less than two years.

1923 United Kingdom general election

The 1923 United Kingdom general election was held on Thursday 6 December 1923. The Conservatives, led by Stanley Baldwin, won the most seats, but Labour, led by Ramsay MacDonald, and H. H. Asquith's reunited Liberal Party gained enough seats to produce a hung parliament. It is the most recent UK general election in which a third party won over 100 seats. The Liberals' percentage of the vote, 29.7%, has not been exceeded by a third party at any general election since.

National Government (United Kingdom) UK term for a government formed by an alliance of some or all of the major political parties

In the politics of the United Kingdom, a National Government is a coalition of some or all of the major political parties. In a historical sense, it refers primarily to the governments of Ramsay MacDonald, Stanley Baldwin and Neville Chamberlain which held office from 1931 until 1940.

William Jowitt, 1st Earl Jowitt

William Allen Jowitt, 1st Earl Jowitt, was a British Liberal Party, National Labour and then Labour Party politician and lawyer who served as Lord Chancellor under Clement Attlee from 1945 to 1951.

Malcolm MacDonald British politician and diplomat

Malcolm John MacDonald was a British politician and diplomat.

Second MacDonald ministry Government of the UK from 1929 to 1931, formed by Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald

The second MacDonald ministry was formed by Ramsay MacDonald on his reappointment as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom by King George V on 5 June 1929. It was only the second occasion on which the Labour Party had formed a government; the First MacDonald Ministry held office in 1924.

Tudor Walters

Sir John Tudor Walters PC was a Welsh architect, surveyor and Liberal Party politician. He served as Paymaster-General under David Lloyd George from 1919 to 1922 and once again briefly in 1931 under Ramsay MacDonald.

1922 Labour Party leadership election (UK)

The 1922 Labour Party leadership election was the first leadership election for the posts of chairman and leader of the Parliamentary Labour Party. Previously the position had been simply the "Chairman of the Parliamentary Labour Party".

Seaham was a parliamentary constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that was in existence between 1918 and 1950. It elected one Member of Parliament (MP) by the first past the post system of election. Incorporating a lot of the mining area of the eastern part of County Durham around Seaham, it has a history of strong Labour Party support.

Thomas Bridgehill Wilson Ramsay was a Scottish Liberal Party, and National Liberal Party politician and Member of Parliament (MP).

The National Government of August–October 1931, also known as the First National Government was the first of a series of national governments formed during the Great Depression in the United Kingdom. It was formed by Ramsay MacDonald as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom following the collapse of the previous minority government, led by the Labour Party, known as the Second MacDonald ministry.

Ishbel MacDonald

Ishbel Allan MacDonald was the daughter of Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Ramsay MacDonald and his wife Margaret MacDonald née Gladstone. Margaret's death in 1911 – a year after their son David had died – left Ramsay a single father to his remaining five children. When, in 1924 he came to power as Prime Minister of the country's first Labour Government, it was Ishbel, as the eldest daughter, who her father decided should be his hostess at 10 Downing Street. At just 20 she became the youngest person ever to take on the role.

The Kilmarnock by-election, 1929 was a by-election held on 27 September 1929 for the British House of Commons constituency of Kilmarnock in Ayrshire.

The National Government of 1931–1935 was formed by Ramsay MacDonald following his reappointment as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom by King George V after the general election in October 1931.

1931 Labour Party leadership election

The 1931 Labour Party leadership election took place after the expulsion of incumbent Leader Ramsay MacDonald from the Labour Party. As Labour leader, MacDonald had been prime minister in 1924 and from 1929 to 1931, until he became head of a National Government that was opposed by the bulk of the Labour Party. MacDonald was then expelled from the party.

References

  1. John Shepherd, "The Lad from Lossiemouth." History today 57#11 (2007): 31+
  2. Marquand, David: Ramsay MacDonald, London, 1977, pp. 4–5
  3. Marquand, p. 6
  4. Marquand, p. 5
  5. Marquand, p. 12
  6. Marquand, p. 15
  7. Bryher, Samual: An Account of the Labour and Socialist Movement in Bristol, 1929
  8. Elton, p.44
  9. Marquand, pp. 9, 17
  10. Tracey, Herbert: J. Ramsay MacDonald, 1924, p. 29
  11. Marquand, p. 20
  12. Marquand, p.21
  13. Morgan, J. Ramsay MacDonald (1987) p.17
  14. Marquand, p.23
  15. MacDonald, James Ramsay (1921). Socialism: critical and constructive. Cassell's social economics series. Cassell and Company Ltd.
  16. Elton, pp.56–57
  17. "Letter from Ramsay McDonald to Birkbeck College - Birkbeck, University of London". Google Arts & Culture. Retrieved 11 April 2020.
  18. Conor Cruise O' Brien, Parnell and his Party 1957, p.275
  19. Marquand, p.22
  20. Marquand, p. 31
  21. Dover Express, 17 June 1892; 12 August 1892
  22. Dover Express, 7 October 1892
  23. Marquand, p. 35
  24. Southampton Times, 21 July 1894
  25. Marquand, p. 73
  26. 1 2 Gunther, John (1940). Inside Europe. New York: Harper & Brothers. pp. 335, 337–340.
  27. Jennings 1962, p. 457.
  28. Mackintosh, John P. (Ed.): British Prime Ministers in the twentieth Century, London, 1977, p. 157
  29. MacDonald Papers, P.R.O. 3/95
  30. McDonald, Deborah, Clara Collet 1860–1948: An Educated Working Woman; Routledge: 2004
  31. Diary of Clara Collet: Warwick Modern Records Office
  32. Morgan 1987, p. 30. sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFMorgan1987 (help)
  33. Clegg, H.A;, Fox, Alan; Thompson, A.F.: A History of British Trade Unions since 1889, 1964, vol I, p. 388
  34. Leicester Pioneer, 20 January 1906
  35. Morgan 1987, p. 40. sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFMorgan1987 (help)
  36. Kenneth Morgan (1987) pp 42–43
  37. Thompson, Laurence: The Enthusiasts, (1971), p. 173
  38. Marquand, pp. 77, 168
  39. Marquand, p. 168.
  40. HC Deb 03 August 1914 vol 65 c. 1831
  41. Marquand, p. 169.
  42. MacKintosh, John P (Ed.): British Prime Ministers in the Twentieth Century, (1977), p. 159.
  43. Elton, pp. 269–71
  44. Marquand, p. 189.
  45. Symons, Julian, Horatio Bottomley, Cressett Press, London, 1955, pp. 168–69
  46. Marquand, pp. 190, 191.
  47. Marquand, p. 192.
  48. Marquand, p. 205.
  49. Marquand, p. 236.
  50. Marquand, p. 250.
  51. Marquand, p. 273.
  52. Marquand, p. 274.
  53. Marquand, pp. 274–275.
  54. Marquand, p 283
  55. Kenneth Morgan (1987) pp 44–45
  56. 1 2 3 David Cesarani. "Anti-Zionism in Britain, 1922–2002: Continuities and Discontinuities" The Journal of Israeli History 25.1 (2006): 141
  57. Neilson, Keith; Otte, T.G. (2008). The Permanent Under-Secretary for Foreign Affairs, 1854–1946. New York: Routledge. p. 175. ISBN   978-1134231393.
  58. 1 2 Bennett, Gill (22 January 2014). "What's the context? 22 January 1924: Britain's first Labour government takes office - History of government - What's the context? series". history.blog.gov.uk. The National Archives of the United Kingdom . Retrieved 20 January 2021. Ramsay MacDonald took office as both Prime Minister and Foreign Secretary of a minority government on 22 January 1924.
  59. 1 2 "Scotland Back in the Day: Remembering the first working-class PM, Ramsay MacDonald, 150 years after his birth", The National.
  60. "Ramsay MacDonald", Spartacus Educational, John Simkin, September 1997 (updated February 2016).
  61. A.J.P. Taylor, English History: 1914–1945 (1965) p 209
  62. Sir Harold Nicolson, King George V: His life and reign (1952)
  63. Taylor, English History: 1914–1945, pp. 213–14
  64. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Morgan, Kevin. (2006) MacDonald (20 British Prime Ministers of the 20th Century), Haus Publishing, ISBN   1-904950-61-2
  65. Keith Robbins, "Labour Foreign Policy and International Socialism: MacDonald and the League of Nations," in Robbins, Politicians, Diplomacy and War (2003) pp. 239–72
  66. Marquand, pp. 315–17
  67. 1 2 Marks, Sally (1978). "The Myths of Reparations". Central European History. 11 (3): 231–55. doi:10.1017/s0008938900018707.
  68. Steiner, Zara (2005). The lights that failed : European international history, 1919-1933. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN   978-0-19-151881-2. OCLC   86068902.
  69. Marks, "The Myths of Reparations", p. 249
  70. Marquand, pp. 329–51
  71. Limam: The First Labour Government, 1924, p. 173
  72. Curtis Keeble (1990). Britain and the Soviet Union 1917–89. Palgrave Macmillan UK. p. 117. ISBN   9781349206438.
  73. Lyman, The First Labour Government, 1924 pp. 195–204
  74. A.J.P. Taylor (1965). English History, 1914–1945. pp. 217–20, 225–26. ISBN   9780198217152.
  75. Marquand, p. 382
  76. Taylor, English History: 1914–1945, pp. 219–20, 226–7
  77. C. L. Mowat (1955). Britain Between the Wars, 1918–1940. Taylor & Francis. pp. 188–94.
  78. "A Century of Change: Trends in UK statistics since 1900," Research Paper 99/111, 1999, House of Commons Library
  79. "MR. W. G. COVE, M.P., MAY NOT STAND AGAIN AT WELLINGBOROUGH" . Northampton Mercury. 17 August 1928. Retrieved 25 October 2015 via British Newspaper Archive.
  80. Chris Howard, "Ramsay MacDonald and Aberavon, 1922–29," Llafur: Journal of Welsh Labour History 7#1 (1996) pp 68–77
  81. John Shepherd, The Second Labour Government: A reappraisal (2012).
  82. "THE NEW MINISTRY" . Hartlepool Mail. 8 June 1929. Retrieved 25 October 2015 via British Newspaper Archive.
  83. 1 2 Davies, A.J. (1996) To Build A New Jerusalem: The British Labour Party from Keir Hardie to Tony Blair, Abacus, ISBN   0-349-10809-9
  84. C. L. Mowat, Britain between the Wars, 1918–1940 (1955) pp 379–401
  85. Andrew Thorpe, "Arthur Henderson and the British political crisis of 1931." Historical Journal 31#1 (1988): 117–139.
  86. Martin Pugh Speak for Britain!: A New History of the Labour Party (2010) pp 212–16
  87. Reginald Bassett, 1931 Political Crisis (MacMillan, 1958) defends MacDonald.
  88. Harford Montgomery Hyde (1973). Baldwin; the unexpected Prime Minister . Hart-Davis MacGibbon. p.  345.
  89. Wrench, David (2000). "'Very Peculiar Circumstances': Walter Runciman and the National Government, 1931-3". Twentieth Century British History. 11 (1): 61–82. doi:10.1093/tcbh/11.1.61.
  90. A.J.P. Taylor, English History 1914–1945 (1965), pp. 359–70
  91. Kevin Morgan (2006). Ramsay MacDonald. Haus Publishing. p. 79. ISBN   9781904950615.
  92. Aage Trommer, "MacDonald in Geneva in March 1933: A study in Britain's European policy." Scandinavian Journal of History 1#1–4 (1976): 293–312.
  93. Taylor, English History: 1914–1945 (1965), pp .334–35
  94. Morgan 1987, p. 213. sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFMorgan1987 (help)
  95. Crompton, Teresa (2020). Adventuress, the Life and Loves of Lucy, Lady Houston. The History Press.
  96. Stevenson, David (1998). "France at the Paris Peace Conference: Addressing the Dilemmas of Security". In Robert W. D. Boyce (ed.). French Foreign and Defence Policy, 1918–1940: The Decline and Fall of a Great Power. London: Routledge. p. 10. ISBN   9780415150392.
  97. "Historic Anglo-Egyptian treaty signed in London – archive, 1936". Guardian. Retrieved 28 August 2021.
  98. 1 2 Marquand, David (1977). Ramsay MacDonald . J. Cape. p.  784. ISBN   978-0-224-01295-9. George V's death in January 1936, had been a heavy blow to MacDonald; it is clear from his diary that he must have taken some time to recover from it.
  99. 1 2 Morgan, Austen (1987). J. Ramsay MacDonald. Manchester University Press. p. 234. ISBN   978-0-7190-2168-8.
  100. Berkeley, Humphry (1978). The myth that will not die: the formation of the National Government 1931. Croom Helm. p. 15. ISBN   978-0-85664-773-4.
  101. Watkins, Alan (2 September 1978). "History without heroes". The Spectator . Vol. 241. F.C. Westley. p. 20.
  102. John Shepherd, "The Lad from Lossiemouth," History Today (Nov 2007) 57#11 pp 31–33
  103. Owen, Nicholas (2007). "MacDonald's Parties: The Labour Party and the 'Aristocratic Embrace' 1922–31". Twentieth Century British History. 18 (1): 1–53. doi:10.1093/tcbh/hwl043.
  104. Marquand (2004) p. 700
  105. David E. Martin, "MacDonald, (James) Ramsay" in David Loades, ed. Reader's Guide to British History (2003) 2:836-37.
  106. Clement Attlee, As it Happened. Heinemann: 1954
  107. Martin, pp 836–37.
  108. John Shepherd, "The Lad from Lossiemouth" History Today (2007) 57#1 pp 31-33
  109. David Dutton (2008). Liberals in Schism: A History of the National Liberal Party. I.B.Tauris. p. 88. ISBN   9780857737113.
  110. Martin (2003) p 837.
  111. Robert Skidelsky (1994). Politicians and the slump: The Labour Government of 1929–1931. Papermac. ISBN   9780333605929.
  112. Marquand (2004)
  113. David Goold (2008). "Alister Gladstone MacDonald (or Alistair Gladstone MacDonald)". Dictionary of Scottish Architects. Retrieved 9 May 2010.
  114. Fenton, Ben (2 November 2006). "Secret love affair of Labour Prime Minister and Lady Margaret is revealed 80 years on". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 9 May 2010.
  115. Morgan 1987, p. 124. sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFMorgan1987 (help)
  116. Turner, Jacqueline (2018). The Labour Church: Religion and Politics in Britain 1890–1914. I.B.Tauris & Co Ltd.
  117. Hunt, James D. (2005). An American Looks at Gandhi: Essays in Satyagraha, Civil Rights, and Peace. Promilla & Co Publishers Ltd.
  118. Marquand, p. 24
  119. Roger E Blackhouse; Tamotsu Nishizawa, eds. (2010). No Wealth But Life: Welfare Economics and the Welfare State in Britain, 1880–1945 . Cambridge University Press. p.  118.
  120. Lord Godfrey Elton (1939). The Life of James Ramsay Macdonald (1866–1919) . Collins. p.  94.
  121. "Papers of Individual Members and Humanists" (1887-1999). British Humanist Association, Series: Papers of Stanton Coit, File: Minutes. London: Bishopsgate Institute Special Collections and Archives.
  122. Marquand, pp 190, 191
  123. McConnachie, John. The Moray Golf Club at Lossiemouth, 1988
  124. Gregory, R. A. (1939). "James Ramsay MacDonald. 1866–1937". Obituary Notices of Fellows of the Royal Society . 2 (7): 475–482. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1939.0007.
  125. "MacDonald, Rt Hon. James Ramsay, (12 October 1866 – 9 November 1937), JP Morayshire; MP (Lab.) Aberavon Division of Glamorganshire, 1922–29, Seaham Division Co. Durham, 1929–31, (Nat. Lab.) 1931–35, Scottish Universities since 1936". MacDonald, Rt Hon. James Ramsay. Who Was Who . Oxford University Press. 1 December 2007. doi:10.1093/ww/9780199540884.013.U213229.
  126. Britmovie.co.uk Accessed 6 November 2014

Bibliography

Historiography

Primary sources

  • Barker, Bernard (ed.) Ramsay MacDonald's Political Writings (Allen Lane, 1972).
  • Cox, Jane A Singular Marriage: A Labour Love Story in Letters and Diaries (of Ramsay and Margaret MacDonald), London: Harrap 1988; ISBN   978-0-245-54676-1
  • MacDonald, Ramsay The Socialist Movement (1911) online; free copy
  • MacDonald, Ramsay Socialism and Society (1914) online
  • MacDonald, Ramsay. Labour and Peace, Labour Party 1912
  • MacDonald, Ramsay. Parliament and Revolution, Labour Party 1919
  • MacDonald, Ramsay. Parliament and revolution (1920) online
  • MacDonald, Ramsay. Foreign Policy of the Labour Party, Labour Party 1923
  • MacDonald, Ramsay. Margaret Ethel MacDonald (1924) online
  • MacDonald, Ramsay. Socialism: critical and constructive (1924) online
Political offices
Preceded by
Leader of the Opposition
1922–1924
Succeeded by
Stanley Baldwin
Preceded by
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
1924–1924
Leader of the House of Commons
1924
Preceded by
Foreign Secretary
1924
Succeeded by
Preceded by
Stanley Baldwin
Leader of the Opposition
1924–1929
Succeeded by
Stanley Baldwin
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
1929–1935
Leader of the House of Commons
1929–1935
Lord President of the Council
1935–1937
Succeeded by
Parliament of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
Member of Parliament for Leicester
19061918
With: Henry Broadhurst, to March 1906
Franklin Thomasson, 1906–1910
Eliot Crawshay-Williams, 1910–1913
Sir Gordon Hewart, 1913–1918
Constituency abolished
Preceded by
Member of Parliament for Aberavon
19221929
Succeeded by
Preceded by
Member of Parliament for Seaham
19291935
Succeeded by
Preceded by
Member of Parliament for the
Combined Scottish Universities

19361937
Succeeded by
Party political offices
New political party Labour Party Secretary
1900–1912
Succeeded by
Preceded by
Chairman of the Independent Labour Party
1906–1909
Succeeded by
Preceded by
Chairman of the Parliamentary Labour Party
1911–1914
Succeeded by
Arthur Henderson
Preceded by
Arthur Henderson
Treasurer of the Labour Party
1912–1929
Succeeded by
Arthur Henderson
Preceded by
Leader of the British Labour Party
1922–1931
Succeeded by
Arthur Henderson
Preceded by
Chair of the Labour Party
1923–1924
Succeeded by
New political party Leader of National Labour
1931–1937
Succeeded by
Awards and achievements
Preceded by
Cover of Time Magazine
18 August 1924
Succeeded by