Raquel Welch

Last updated

Raquel Welch
Welch in April 2010
Jo Raquel Tejada

(1940-09-05) September 5, 1940 (age 80)
OccupationActress, singer
Years active1964–present
Height1.68 m (5 ft 6 in) [2]
James Welch
(m. 1959;div. 1964)

(m. 1967;div. 1972)

(m. 1980;div. 1990)

Richard Palmer
(m. 1999;div. 2004)
Children2, including Tahnee Welch

Raquel Welch (born Jo Raquel Tejada; September 5, 1940) is an American actress and singer.


She first won attention for her role in Fantastic Voyage (1966), after which she won a contract with 20th Century Fox. They lent her contract to the British studio Hammer Film Productions, for whom she made One Million Years B.C. (1966). Although she had only three lines of dialogue in the film, images of her in the doe-skin bikini became best-selling posters that turned her into an international sex symbol. She later starred in Bedazzled (1967), Bandolero! (1968), 100 Rifles (1969), Myra Breckinridge (1970) and Hannie Caulder (1971). She made several television variety specials.

Welch's unique film persona made her an icon of the 1960s and 1970s, due to her portrayal of strong female characters and breaking the mold of the archetypal sex symbol. Because of this, her rise to stardom in the mid 1960s was partly credited with ending Hollywood's vigorous promotion of the blonde bombshell. [3] [4] [5] She won a Golden Globe Award for Best Motion Picture Actress in a Musical or Comedy in 1974 for her performance in The Three Musketeers . She was also nominated for a Golden Globe Award for Best Actress in Television Film for her performance in the film Right to Die (1987). In 1995, Welch was chosen by Empire magazine as one of the "100 Sexiest Stars in Film History". Playboy ranked Welch No. 3 on their "100 Sexiest Stars of the Twentieth Century" list. In 2011, Men's Health ranked her No. 2 in its "Hottest Women of All Time" list. [6]

Early life

Welch was born as Jo Raquel Tejada on September 5, 1940 in Chicago, Illinois. She is the first child of Armando Carlos Tejada Urquizo (1911–1976) and Josephine Sarah Hall (1909–2000). [7] [8] Her father, Armando Tejada, was an aeronautical engineer from La Paz, Bolivia, son of Agustin Tejada and Raquel Urquizo. [9] In 2010 while being interviewed on the talk show Tavis Smiley , Welch stated, "My father came from a country called Bolivia. He was of Spanish descent." [10] [11] [12] Her cousin, Bolivian politician Lidia Gueiler Tejada (1921–2011), became the first female President of Bolivia and the second female head of state in the Americas. [13] Welch was named after her paternal grandmother. [1] [14] Her mother, Josephine Hall, was the daughter of architect Emery Stanford Hall and his wife Clara Louise Adams; she was of English ancestry. [15] Welch has a younger brother, James "Jim" Tejada, and had a younger sister, Gayle Tejada (1943-2020). [16]

The family moved from Illinois to San Diego, California, when Raquel was two years old. Welch attended the Pacific Beach Presbyterian Church every Sunday with her mother. [17] As a young girl, Raquel had the desire to be a performer and entertainer. She began studying ballet at age seven but, after ten years of study, she left the art at seventeen when her instructor told her she did not have the right body type for professional ballet companies. [18] At age 14, she won beauty titles as Miss Photogenic and Miss Contour. [19] While attending La Jolla High School she won the title of Miss La Jolla and the title of Miss San Diego the Fairest of the Fair at the San Diego County Fair. [20] This long line of beauty contests eventually led to the state title of Maid of California. Her parents divorced when she finished her school years. [21]

Welch graduated with honors from high school in 1958. [22] Seeking an acting career, Welch entered San Diego State College on a theater arts scholarship, [23] and the following year she married her high school sweetheart, James Welch. [24] She won several parts in local theater productions. [19] In 1959, she played the title role in The Ramona Pageant , a yearly outdoor play at Hemet, California, which is based on the novel Ramona by Helen Hunt Jackson and Bob Biloe.

She got a job as a weather forecaster at KFMB, a local San Diego television station. Because her family life and television duties were so demanding she decided to give up her drama classes. After her separation from James Welch, she moved with her two children to Dallas, where she made a "precarious living" as a model for Neiman Marcus and as a cocktail waitress. [19]


1964–1966: Early works and breakthrough

Welch initially intended to move to New York City from Dallas, but moved back to Los Angeles in 1963 [19] and started applying for roles with the movie studios. During this period of time, she met one-time child actor and Hollywood agent Patrick Curtis who became her personal and business manager. [23] They developed a plan to turn Welch into a sex symbol. [19] To avoid typecasting as a Latina, he convinced her to use her husband's last name. [19]

She was cast in small roles in two films, A House Is Not a Home (1964) and the musical Roustabout (1964), an Elvis Presley film. She also landed small roles on the television series Bewitched , McHale's Navy and The Virginian and appeared on the weekly variety series The Hollywood Palace as a billboard girl and presenter. She was one of many actresses who auditioned for the role of Mary Ann Summers on the television series Gilligan's Island .

Welch's first featured role was in the beach film A Swingin' Summer (1965). That same year, she won the Deb Star while her photo in a Life magazine layout called "The End of the Great Girl Drought!" created buzz around town. [25] She was noticed by the wife of producer Saul David, who recommended her to 20th Century Fox, where with the help of Curtis she landed a contract. [19] She agreed to seven-year nonexclusive contract, five pictures over the next five years and two floaters. [23] Studio executives talked about changing her name to "Debbie". They thought "Raquel" would be hard to pronounce. She refused their request. She wanted her real name, so she stuck with "Raquel Welch". [6] [26] [27]

She was cast in a leading role in the sci-fi film Fantastic Voyage (1966), in which she portrayed a member of a medical team that is miniaturized and injected into the body of an injured diplomat with the mission to save his life. The film was a hit and made her a star. [19]

This promotional still of Welch in the deerskin bikini became a best-selling poster and turned her into an instant pin-up girl. Raquel Welch in deer-skin bikini.jpg
This promotional still of Welch in the deerskin bikini became a best-selling poster and turned her into an instant pin-up girl.

Fox Studio loaned Welch to Hammer Studios in Britain where she starred in One Million Years B.C. (1966), a remake of the Hal Roach film One Million B.C. (1940). Her only costume was a two-piece deer skin bikini. She was described as "wearing mankind's first bikini" and the fur bikini was described as a "definitive look of the 1960s". [28] [29] The New York Times hailed her in its review of the film (which was released in the U.K. in 1966 and in the U.S. in 1967), "a marvelous breathing monument to womankind". [30] One author said, "although she had only three lines in the film, her luscious figure in a fur bikini made her a star and the dream girl of millions of young moviegoers". [19] A publicity still of her in the bikini became a best-selling poster and turned her into an instant pin-up girl. [31] The film raised Welch's stature as a leading sex symbol of the era. [32] In 2011, Time listed Welch's B.C. bikini in the "Top Ten Bikinis in Pop Culture". [33]

In 1966, Welch starred with Marcello Mastroianni in the Italian film Shoot Loud, Louder... I Don't Understand for Joe E. Levine. [34] The same year, she appeared in the film Sex Quartet (1966) as Elena in the segment "Fata Elena". She was the only American in the cast of the anthology film The Oldest Profession (1967); her segment was directed by Michael Pfleghar. In Italy, she also appeared in a heist movie for MGM, The Biggest Bundle of Them All (1968). It co-starred Edward G. Robinson who said of Welch, "I must say she has quite a body. She has been the product of a good publicity campaign. I hope she lives up to it because a body will only take you so far." [35]

1967–1979: International stardom

Her first starring vehicle, the British Modesty Blaise-style spy movie Fathom (1967), was filmed in Spain for 20th Century Fox. Second unit director Peter Medak said Welch "was at that time quite inexperienced, exactly like one of those American drum majorettes. But she tried very hard and went to see the rushes each day, gradually improving. 'Who's this dumb broad?' people used to say. But I said: 'You wait. I'll bet she makes it.' I liked her very much because she was such a genuine person. And she had a beautiful body which always helps." [36] Welch said her role was "a blown up Barbie doll". [37] Reviewing her performance, the Los Angeles Times film critic said that "each new Raquel Welch picture brings further proof that when Maria Montez died they didn't break the mold. Like Maria, Raquel can't act from here to there, but both ladies seem to have been born to be photographed ... this sappiest of spy pictures." [38]

At this stage, Welch owed Fox four films, at one a year. She and Curtis also established their own production company, Curtwel. [34] Fox wanted Welch to play Jennifer in their adaptation of Valley of the Dolls but she refused, wanting to play the role of Neely O'Hara. The studio was not interested, casting Patty Duke; Sharon Tate played Jennifer North. [39]

In England, she appeared as Lust incarnate in the Peter CookDudley Moore comedy, Bedazzled (1967), a Swinging '60s retelling of the Faust legend. It was popular, as was the Western, Bandolero! (1968), which was shot in Del Rio, Texas, at the Alamo Village. It co-starred her against James Stewart and Dean Martin. "I think she's going to stack up all right," Stewart said of Welch. [40] "No one is going to shout, 'Wow it's Anne Bancroft all over again'," said Welch of her performance, "but at least I'm not Miss Sexpot running around half naked all the time." [37]

In 1968, Welch appeared with Frank Sinatra in the detective film Lady in Cement , a sequel to the film Tony Rome (1967). She played the socialite Kit Forrest, the romantic interest of Tony Rome. Welch said later wittily that she catches the film from time to time and now realizes Kit Forrest was an alcoholic: "I'm watching this movie and I'm thinking, 'What the hell has she got on?' At one point, I had this epiphany: 'Oh, she's an alcoholic!' I didn't know that. How could I miss that?" She reportedly was so smitten with Sinatra she forgot to act: "I think I was just so enamoured with Frank Sinatra, you know. He's hypnotic." [41]

Welch starred as a freedom fighter leader in 100 Rifles , a 1969 western directed by Tom Gries and filmed in Almería, Spain. It also starred Jim Brown, Burt Reynolds and Fernando Lamas. The movie provoked publicity and controversy at the time because it included a love scene between Welch and Brown that breached the Hollywood taboo against the onscreen portrayal of interracial intimacy. [42] The film is remembered for the spectacular "Shower Scene" in which Welch distracts the soldiers on the train by taking a shower at a water tower along the tracks. The director, Gries, tried hard to convince Welch to do the scene naked, but she refused. It was one of the many instances Welch resisted going nude on-screen and pushed back for years against producers who wanted her to act or pose nude. [43] [44] In 1969, Welch also starred in the thriller Flareup and had a supporting role in the dark comedy The Magic Christian .

Welch's most controversial role came in Myra Breckinridge (1970). She took the role as the film's transsexual heroine in an attempt to be taken seriously as an actress. [45] [44] The production was characterized by animosity between Welch and Mae West, who walked out of the film for three days. The film was based on Gore Vidal's controversial bestseller about a man who becomes a woman through surgery. The film's producer Robert Fryer stated: "If a man were going to become a woman, he would want to become the most beautiful woman in the world. He would become Raquel Welch". [46]

Her looks and fame led Playboy to dub her the "Most Desired Woman" of the 1970s. Welch presented at the Academy Award ceremony several times during the 1970s due to her popularity. [47] [48] She accepted the Best Supporting Actress Oscar on behalf of fellow actress Goldie Hawn when she could not be there to accept it. [49]

David Winters directing Welch on the set of Raquel! Welche-winters-aquarious.jpg
David Winters directing Welch on the set of Raquel!

On April 26, 1970, CBS released the television special Raquel! in which she starred. The special was produced, directed and choreographed by David Winters, and for guest Tom Jones, Bob Hope and John Wayne. It was filmed in London, Paris, Acapulco, Mexico City, Yucatán, Big Sur, and Los Angeles and featured lavish production numbers of song-and-dance extravaganza. It marked Welch's debut special on television. Together Welch and Jones combined musical and comedic talents on classic rock 'n' roll standards of the era. [50] It is considered by some viewers to be a classic pairing together of 1970s popular culture icons in their prime Produced by Winters' company Winters/Rosen for CBS-TV, originally co-sponsored by Coca-Cola and Motorola. On the day of the premiere, the show received a 51% share on the National ARB Ratings and an impressive Overnight New York Nielsen Rating of 58% share. [51] [52]

Welch continued to work in films starting with The Beloved (1970) in which she starred and produced and filmed in Cyprus. The next year Hannie Caulder (1971), a Tigon and Curtwell western shot in Spain. She followed with a series of films including Kansas City Bomber (1972), The Last of Sheila (1973), The Three Musketeers (1973), The Four Musketeers (1974) and The Wild Party (1975).

In Kansas City Bomber Raquel Welch played a hardened roller-derby star and single mother who tries to balance her desire for a happy personal life and her dreams of stardom. Life dubbed Welch the "hottest thing on wheels" for her role. The production of the film shut down for six weeks after Welch broke her wrist doing some of her own stunts. [53] In the interim, she flew to Budapest and filmed a cameo in Bluebeard (1972) opposite Richard Burton. Although Kansas City Bomber was not considered a critical success, it vividly depicted gender relations in the early 1970s. In a 2012 interview with GQ , Welch reflected on the roller derby world depicted in the film: "You have all those women out there, but the men in the front office are really running it. Which I thought was a really nice metaphor for the way a lot of women felt about their lives at that time." [54]

Saturday Night Live, 1976, with Gilda Radner (right) Saturday night live welch radner 1976.JPG
Saturday Night Live , 1976, with Gilda Radner (right)

In a 1975 interview, Welch said she thought she had been "good" in Kansas City Bomber, Myra Breckenridge and The Last of Sheila "but being good in a bad movie doesn't do anything for your career." [55]

In the late 1970s, Welch appeared in the action comedies Mother, Jugs & Speed (1976) and Animal (1977), the last one filmed in France with Jean-Paul Belmondo. In 1977, she also starred in the British swashbuckling adventure The Prince and the Pauper .

Welch at the premiere of Bette Midler's movie, The Rose, 1979 Raquel Welch 1979 cropped 2.jpg
Welch at the premiere of Bette Midler's movie, The Rose, 1979

In 1978, Welch appeared in an episode of The Muppet Show and in 1979, for the series Mork & Mindy , Welch was featured as an alien bounty hunter pursuing Robin Williams in "Mork vs. the Necrotons".

1980–present day: subsequent to current projects

In 1981 she starred on Broadway in Woman of the Year , receiving praise for following Lauren Bacall in the title role.

In 1982, Welch acted in the Western television film The Legend of Walks Far Woman . Around this time, Along with Elizabeth Taylor and Sophia Loren, Welch was among the candidates considered for the role of Alexis Carrington on the ABC prime time drama Dynasty which began in 1981, before the producers settled on Joan Collins.

She was due to star in a 1982 adaptation of John Steinbeck's Cannery Row , but was abruptly fired by the producers a few weeks into production. The studio claimed she was not living up to her contract, by refusing early-morning rehearsals, and was replaced with Debra Winger. Welch sued MGM for breach of contract. [56] Studio executives claimed in testimony the reason Welch was following through with the trial was because she was an actress over 40 and generally actresses in that age range can't get roles anymore. Welch's evidence at trial proved there was a conspiracy to falsely blame her for the film's budget problems and delays. The jury sided with Welch and she won a $10.8 million verdict against MGM in 1986. [57] [58]

Despite the win, Welch wished the whole episode never had happened. "I just wanted to clear my reputation and get back to my work, my work in movies", she said. [59] But she was blackballed by the industry and the incident affected her film career on the big screen from that moment on. [60]

In 1987 she played in the television drama Right to Die , in which she turned in a stirring performance as a woman stricken with Lou Gehrig's disease. That year, she flirted with a pop singing career, releasing the dance single "This Girl's Back In Town", which peaked at No. 29 on Billboard's dance club chart. [61]

Welch at the 39th Emmy Awards Governor's Ball in September 1987 Raquel Welch.jpg
Welch at the 39th Emmy Awards Governor's Ball in September 1987

She also starred in the television films Scandal in a Small Town (1988), Trouble in Paradise (1989), Torch Song (1993). [62]

In 1994, she had a cameo appearance in Naked Gun 33+13: The Final Insult

She appeared in the night-time soap opera Central Park West (1995).

As a guest, she played Sabrina's flamboyant Aunt Vesta on the American comedy series Sabrina, the Teenage Witch (1996).

In 1997, Raquel also starred on Broadway in Victor/Victoria , following Julie Andrews and Liza Minnelli in the title role. That year, she also acted in an episode of the comedy series Seinfeld , entitled "The Summer of George", Welch played a highly temperamental version of herself, assaulting series characters Kramer and Elaine, the former because he fired her from an acting job and the latter because Welch mistakenly thought Elaine was mocking her.

In 2001, she had supporting roles in the comedy films Legally Blonde opposite Reese Witherspoon and Tortilla Soup . In 2002, she starred in the PBS series American Family , a story about a Mexican American family in East Los Angeles. Her next film was Forget About It (2006). She also appeared in Welcome to The Captain , which premiered on CBS television on February 4, 2008. In 2015 she played a role in The Ultimate Legacy.

Most recently Welch appeared in a sitcom titled Date My Dad (2017) where she reunited with Robert Wagner on screen, four decades after starring together in The Biggest Bundle of Them All. [63] She also acted in How to Be a Latin Lover (2017).

Singing career

For many years, Raquel performed in a successful one-woman nightclub musical act in Las Vegas.[ citation needed ]

Achievements and awards

In 1974, Welch won a Golden Globe Award for Best Motion Picture Actress in a Musical or Comedy for The Three Musketeers . She was also nominated for a Golden Globe Award for her performance in the television drama Right to Die (1987). In 1994, Welch received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 7021 Hollywood Boulevard. In 2001, she was awarded the Imagen Foundation Lifetime Achievement Award for her positive promotion of Americans of Latin heritage throughout her career. [64] [65] In 2012, the Film Society of Lincoln Center presented a special retrospective of the films of Raquel Welch at the Walter Reade Theater. [66]

Beauty and business career

The Raquel Welch Total Beauty and Fitness Program book and videos were first released in 1984. The book, written by Welch with photographs by André Weinfeld, includes a hatha yoga fitness program, her views on healthy living and nutrition, as well as beauty and personal style. The Multi-Platinum collection of Fitness and Yoga videos were produced and directed by André Weinfeld. As a businesswoman, Welch succeeded with her signature line of wigs. She also began a jewelry and skincare line, although neither of those ventures compared to the success of her wig collection HAIRuWEAR. [67]

In January 2007, Welch was selected as the newest face of MAC Cosmetics Beauty Icon series. Her line features several limited-edition makeup shades in glossy black and tiger-print packaging. The tiger print motif of the collection celebrates Welch's feline and sensuous image: "strong and wild, yet sultry and exotic". [68] [69]

Personal life

Welch married her high school sweetheart, James Welch, on May 8, 1959, but they separated in 1962 and divorced in 1964. [21] She married producer Patrick Curtis in 1967 and divorced him in 1972. In 1980, she began a 10-year marriage to producer André Weinfeld, whom she divorced in 1990. Welch wed Richard Palmer, owner of Mulberry Street Pizzeria, in 1999 but then separated from him in 2003 and later divorced. Welch says she will not remarry. [23]

Through her first marriage, Welch is the mother of Damon Welch (born November 6, 1959) and actress Tahnee Welch (born Latanne Rene Welch, December 26, 1961). Tahnee followed her mother's December 1979 example and appeared on the cover of Playboy in the November 1995 issue and in a nude pictorial inside it. [70] In 1990, Damon married Rebecca, daughter of Fred Trueman but the marriage lasted only two years.

Welch posed for Playboy in 1979, but she never did a fully nude shoot. Hugh Hefner later wrote, "Raquel Welch, one of the last of the classic sex symbols, came from the era when you could be considered the sexiest woman in the world without taking your clothes off. She declined to do complete nudity, and I yielded gracefully. The pictures prove her point." [71] Welch has refused to take all her clothes off on screen or pose naked throughout her career spanning five decades, saying this was the way she was brought up. [72] While her image in the 1960s was that of a torrid sex temptress, Welch's private life was quite different. [73] [74] [75] She once famously said, "What I do on the screen is not to be equated with what I do in my private life. Privately, I am understated and dislike any hoopla". [76] She also admitted, "I was not brought up to be a sex symbol, nor is it in my nature to be one. The fact that I became one is probably the loveliest, most glamorous and fortunate misunderstanding". [77]

Political views

In 2014, during an appearance on The O'Reilly Factor , Welch described herself as being on the conservative side, attributing it to her mother's midwestern values. [78] During the Vietnam War, Welch showed support for the troops at United Service Organizations (USO) shows. [78]

Raquel Welch helped transform America's feminine ideal into its current state. Her beautiful looks and eroticism made her the definitive 1960s and 1970s sex icon, rather than the blonde bombshell of the late 1950s as typified by Marilyn Monroe, Jayne Mansfield, and others. [79] [80] [81] Welch became a star in the mid-1960s and was exotic, brunette, and smolderingly sexual. [82] [83] [84] Her countless publicity photos helped to popularize her image, [85] dress style, and 1960s and 1970s fashion trends. [86] Welch and other actresses also made big hair popular. [87] [88]

Raquel Welch is mentioned in the 1971 song, "One's on the Way" by country music legend Loretta Lynn.

Raquel Welch is one of the few actresses, and one of the earliest, who had a lead role in a Western movie. Hannie Caulder (1971) was a clear influence on later revenge films. [89] Quentin Tarantino said the film was one of his inspirations for Kill Bill (2003). [90] It took many years, arguably until the 1990s, until female leads appeared in mainstream U.S. cinema who are strong without adding fictional or overemphasizing masculine traits (or portraying them as femme fatales). [91]

In the 1994 film The Shawshank Redemption , Welch was on the poster that Andy Dufresne had on his prison cell wall at the time of his escape was the famous pinup image of Welch in One Million Years B.C. Prior to Dufresne's escape being realized, the warden refers to Welch as Miss Fuzzy Britches. [92]



1964 A House Is Not a Home Call Girl
1964 Roustabout College GirlUncredited
1965 A Swingin' Summer Jeri
1965 Do Not Disturb Woman in LobbyUncredited
1966 Fantastic Voyage Cora PetersonFirst film under contract to 20th Century Fox
1966 Shoot Loud, Louder... I Don't Understand Tania MontiniMade in Italy for Joseph E. Levine
1966 Sex Quartet ElenaSegment: "Fata Elena"
Also known as The Queens
1966 One Million Years B.C. Loana
1967 The Oldest Profession NiniSegment: "The Gay Nineties"
1967 Fathom Fathom Harvill
1967 Bedazzled Lust / Lilian Lust
1968 The Biggest Bundle of Them All Juliana
1968 Bandolero! Maria Stoner
1968 Lady in Cement Kit Forrester
1969 100 Rifles Sarita
1969 Flareup Michele
1969 The Magic Christian Priestess of the Whip
1970 Myra Breckinridge Myra Breckinridge
1970 The Beloved ElenaAlso known as Sin
1971 Hannie Caulder Hannie Caulder
1972 Fuzz Det. Eileen McHenry
1972 Kansas City Bomber K.C. Carr
1972 Bluebeard Magdalena
1973 The Last of Sheila Alice Wood
1973 The Three Musketeers Constance Bonacieux Golden Globe Award for Best Actress – Motion Picture Comedy or Musical
1974 The Four Musketeers Constance Bonacieux
1975 The Wild Party Queenie
1976 Mother, Jugs & Speed Jennifer a.k.a. "Jugs"
1977 The Prince and the Pauper Lady EdithAlso known as Crossed Swords
1977 Animal Jane GardnerAlso known as Stuntwoman
1994 Naked Gun 33⅓: The Final Insult HerselfUncredited
1998 Chairman of the Board Grace KosikNominated: Golden Raspberry Award for Worst Supporting Actress
1998 What I Did for Love Jacqueline
1999 Get Bruce HerselfDocumentary
2001 Legally Blonde Mrs. Windham-Vandermark
2001 Tortilla Soup Hortensia
2006 Forget About It Christine DeLee
2017 How to Be a Latin Lover Celeste Birch


1964–1965 The Hollywood Palace Billboard GirlSeason 1 Regular
1964 The Virginian Saloon GirlEpisode: "Ryker"
1964 McHale's Navy Lt. WilsonEpisode: "McHale, the Desk Commando"
1964 Bewitched StewardessEpisode: "Witch or Wife" (S01EP09)
1964 The Rogues Miss FranceEpisode: "Hugger-Mugger, by the Sea"
1965 Wendy and Me Lila HarrisonEpisode: "Wendy Sails in the Sunset"
1965 The Baileys of Balboa BeverlyEpisode: "Sam's Nephew"
1970 Raquel! HerselfTelevision Special
1971 Rowan & Martin's Laugh-In Guest PerformerEpisode: "#5.1"
1974 Really, Raquel HerselfTelevision Special
1976 Saturday Night Live HostEpisode: "Raquel Welch/Phoebe Snow/John Sebastian"
Also known as NBC's Saturday Night
1978 The Muppet Show HerselfEpisode: "Raquel Welch"
1979 Mork & Mindy Captain NirvanaEpisode: "Mork vs. the Necrotons"
1980From Raquel with LoveHerselfTelevision Special
1982 The Legend of Walks Far Woman Walks Far WomanTV Movie
Bronze Wrangler for Fictional Television Drama
1987 Right to Die Emily BauerTV Movie
Nominated: Golden Globe Award for Best Actress – Miniseries or Television Film
1988 Scandal in a Small Town Leda Beth VincentTV Movie
1989 Trouble in Paradise RachelTV Movie
1993Tainted BloodElizabeth HayesTV Movie
1993 Torch Song Paula EastmanTV Movie
1993 Evening Shade Cynthia GibsonEpisode: "Small Town Girl"
1993 Hollyrock-a-Bye Baby Shelly Millstone (voice)Animated TV Special
1995 Lois & Clark: The New Adventures of Superman Diana StrideEpisode: "Top Copy"
1995 Happily Ever After: Fairy Tales for Every Child La Madrasta (voice)Episode: "Cinderella"
1996 Central Park West Dianna BrockSeason 2 Regular
Also known as CPW
1996 Sabrina the Teenage Witch Aunt VestaEpisode: "Third Aunt from the Sun"
1997 Seinfeld HerselfEpisode: "The Summer of George"
1997–2000 Spin City Abby LassiterEpisodes: "Porn in the U.S.A.", "A River Runs Through Me", "Balloons over Broadway"
2002 American Family Aunt DoraSeason 1 Semi-Regular
2002 Jim Brown: All-American HerselfDocumentary
2004 8 Simple Rules JackieEpisode: "Vanity Unfair"
2008 Welcome to The Captain Charlene Van ArkSeries Regular
2012 CSI: Miami Vina NavarroEpisode: "Rest in Pieces"
2013 House of Versace Aunt LuciaTV Movie
2015The Ultimate LegacyMiss Sally May AndersonTV Movie
2017 Date My Dad RosaTV series [93]


1973–1974Raquel and the World of Sid and Marty Krofft Herself Las Vegas Hilton [94]
Adapted into the television special Really Raquel
1981–1983 Woman of the Year Tess Harding Palace Theatre [95]
1995 The Millionairess Epifania Ognisanti di Parerga Alexandra Theatre [96]
1997 Victor/Victoria Victoria Grant/Victor Grazinski Marquis Theatre [97]


Album appearances


YearTitlePeak chart positions
US Dance
1987"This Girl's Back In Town"29


See also

Related Research Articles

Sharon Stone American actress and fashion model

Sharon Vonne Stone is an American actress, producer, and former fashion model. Noted for playing femme fatales and women of mystery on film and television, she became a popular sex symbol throughout the 1990s. She is the recipient of a Primetime Emmy Award and a Golden Globe Award, as well as having received nominations for an Academy Award and a Screen Actors Guild Award.

Michelle Pfeiffer American actress

Michelle Marie Pfeiffer is an American actress. Known for pursuing eclectic roles in a wide range of film genres, she has consistently received acclaim for her versatile performances, and is recognized as one of the most prolific actresses of the 1980s and 1990s. Pfeiffer has received numerous accolades throughout her extensive career, including a Golden Globe Award and a British Academy Film Award, as well as nominations for three Academy Awards and one Primetime Emmy Award.

Carroll Baker American actress (born 1931)

Carroll Baker is an American retired actress of film, stage, and television. Throughout the 1950s and 1960s, Baker's range of roles from young ingénues to brash and flamboyant women established her as both a pin-up and serious dramatic actress. After studying under Lee Strasberg at the Actors Studio, Baker began performing on Broadway in 1954. From there, she was recruited by director Elia Kazan to play the lead in the adaptation of two Tennessee Williams plays into the film Baby Doll in 1956. Her role in the film as a coquettish but sexually naïve Southern bride earned her a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Actress.

Ursula Andress Swiss actress

Ursula Andress is a Swiss actress, former model and sex symbol who has appeared in American, British and Italian films. Her breakthrough role was as Bond girl Honey Ryder in the first James Bond film, Dr. No (1962). She later starred as Vesper Lynd in the 1967 Bond parody Casino Royale. Other credits include Fun in Acapulco (1963), 4 for Texas (1963), She (1965), The 10th Victim (1965), The Blue Max (1966), The Southern Star (1969), Perfect Friday (1970), Red Sun (1971), The Sensuous Nurse (1975), The Mountain of the Cannibal God (1978), The Fifth Musketeer (1979), Clash of the Titans (1981) and Peter the Great (1986).

Stephen Boyd Northern Irish actor (1931–1977)

Stephen Boyd was a Northern Irish actor. He appeared in some 60 films, most notably as the villainous Messala in Ben-Hur (1959), a role that earned him the Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actor – Motion Picture. He received his second Golden Globe Award nomination for Billy Rose's Jumbo (1962). He also appeared, sometimes as a hero and sometimes as a malefactor, in the major big-screen productions Les bijoutiers du clair de lune (1958), The Bravados (1958), Imperial Venus (1962), The Fall of the Roman Empire (1964), Genghis Khan (1965), Fantastic Voyage (1966) and Shalako (1968).

Jane Russell American actress and model

Ernestine Jane Geraldine Russell was an American actress, singer, and model. She is known as one of Hollywood's leading sex symbols in the 1940s and 1950s.

John Richardson (actor) English actor

John Richardson was an English actor who appeared in movies from the late 1950s until the early 1990s. He was a male lead in Italian genre films, most notably Mario Bava's Black Sunday (1960) with Barbara Steele, but he was best known for playing the love interest of Ursula Andress in She (1965) and then of Raquel Welch in One Million Years B.C. (1966).

Latanne Rene "Tahnee" Welch is an American model and actress. She is the daughter of actress Raquel Welch.


Catfight is a term for an altercation between two females, often characterized as involving scratching, shoving, slapping, punching, kicking, biting, spitting, hair-pulling, and shirt-shredding. It can also be used to describe women insulting each other verbally or engaged in an intense competition for men, power, or occupational success. The catfight has been a staple of American news media and popular culture since the 1940s, and use of the term is often considered derogatory or belittling. Some observers argue that in its purest form, the word refers to two women, one blonde and the other a brunette, fighting each other. However, the term is not exclusively used to indicate a fight between women, and many formal definitions do not invoke gender.

<i>100 Rifles</i> 1969 film by Tom Gries

100 Rifles is a 1969 American Western film directed by Tom Gries and starring Jim Brown, Raquel Welch and Burt Reynolds. It is based on Robert MacLeod's 1966 novel The Californio. The film was shot in Spain. The original music score was composed by Jerry Goldsmith.

<i>Hannie Caulder</i> 1971 film by Burt Kennedy

Hannie Caulder is a 1971 British Western film. The film was directed by Burt Kennedy and starred Raquel Welch, Robert Culp, and Ernest Borgnine. The screenplay was rewritten by Kennedy, who was not credited.

Valerie Therese Leon is an English actress and model who has had roles in film and television productions, including six of the Carry On film series, as a Bond girl in Never Say Never Again (1983). She had roles in high profile films such as The Italian Job (1969), The Spy Who Loved Me (1977), The Wild Geese (1978) and Revenge of the Pink Panther (1978) and had a starring role in the Hammer horror film Blood from the Mummy's Tomb (1971).

<i>Myra Breckinridge</i> (film) 1970 film by Mike Sarne

Myra Breckinridge is a 1970 American comedy film based on Gore Vidal's 1968 novel of the same name. The film was directed by Michael Sarne, and featured Raquel Welch in the title role. It also starred John Huston as Buck Loner, Mae West as Leticia Van Allen, Farrah Fawcett, Rex Reed, Roger Herren, and Roger C. Carmel. Tom Selleck made his film debut in a small role as one of Leticia's "studs". Theadora Van Runkle was costume designer for the film, though Edith Head designed West's costumes.

Judy Pace American actress

Judy Lenteen Pace is an American actress known for her roles in films and television shows, particularly blaxploitation films. Pace portrayed Vickie Fletcher on the TV series Peyton Place (1968–1969) and Pat Walters on the ABC drama series The Young Lawyers (1969–1971), for which she won an Image Award for Outstanding Actress in a Drama Series in 1970.

<i>Kansas City Bomber</i> 1972 film by Jerrold Freedman

Kansas City Bomber is a 1972 American sports drama film released by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, directed by Jerrold Freedman and starring Raquel Welch. It also marks one of the earliest film appearances of Jodie Foster.

<i>Raquel!</i> (TV program)

Raquel! was an April 26, 1970 CBS television special starring Raquel Welch, Tom Jones, Bob Hope and John Wayne executive produced, directed and choreographed by David Winters produced by Winters' company Winters-Rosen for CBS-TV, originally co-sponsored by Coca-Cola and Motorola. On the day of the premiere, the show received a 51% share on the National ARB Ratings and an Overnight New York Nielsen Rating of 58% share.

<i>Really, Raquel</i>

Really, Raquel was a prime-time variety show adapted from Raquel Welch's 1973 live night club show. The special showcased Welch's talents as a singer, dancer and comedian, pitting her in a variety of skits with the Krofft Puppets, who were the only guest stars The show aired on CBS on March 8, 1974, and on BBC 2 in London on May 2.

History of the bikini Aspect of history

Evidence of bikini-style women's clothing has been found as early as 5600 BC, and the history of the bikini can be traced back to that era. Illustrations of women wearing bikini-like garments during competitive athletic events in the Roman era have been found in several locations, the most famous of which is at Villa Romana del Casale.

Fur bikini of Raquel Welch Costume worn by Raquel Welch in the film One Million Years BC

The fur bikini of Raquel Welch refers to the fur/hide bikini worn by Raquel Welch in the 1966 British-made prehistoric saga One Million Years BC. In that bikini, she was described as "wearing mankind's first bikini" and the fur bikini was described as a "definitive look of the 1960s".

Patrick Curtis is an American film producer, best known for his association with Raquel Welch, whom he married in 1967. Curtis was instrumental in promoting Welch's career, producing a number of movies starring her. The two eventually divorced after six years of marriage.


  1. 1 2 Welch, Raquel (2010). Raquel: Beyond the Cleavage. p. 4). ISBN   9781602861176 . Retrieved March 17, 2020. I WAS BORN in 1940 in the Windy City, Chicago. Not ideal for a new-born baby girl with thin Mediterranean blood, courtesy of my Spanish father.
  2. "Interview with Michael Parkinson" . Retrieved May 11, 2020.
  3. Longworth, Karina. (October 21, 2014). "Raquel Welch, From Pin-up to Pariah" You Must Remember This. Retrieved December 1, 2016.
  4. Öncü, Ece. (February 9, 2012). Spend the Weekend with Raquel Welch and Film Society Film Society of Lincoln Center Retrieved August 5, 2015.
  5. Heavey, John. (February 23, 2012). Video: Two Conversations with Raquel Welch Film Society of Lincoln Center Retrieved August 2015.
  6. 1 2 Spitznagel, Eric. (March 8, 2012). Interview with Raquel Welch: MensHealth.com. Retrieved August 5, 2015.
  7. Welch, Raquel (2010). Raquel: Beyond the Cleavage. ISBN   9781602861176 . Retrieved March 17, 2020.
  8. Raquel Welch Beyond the Cleavage: Quote: "I was born in 1940 in the Windy City, Chicago. Not ideal for a new-born baby girl." (P. 4). Retrieved March 17, 2020.
  9. "Armando Tejada in Brazil, Rio de Janeiro immigration cards 1900: (Agustin Tejada and Raquel Urquizo)" . Retrieved March 17, 2020.
  10. "Tavis Smiley". April 20, 2010. Retrieved March 17, 2020.
  11. Welch, Raquel (2010). Raquel Welch: Beyond the Cleavage. ISBN   9781602861176 . Retrieved March 17, 2020.
  12. Raquel Welch Beyond the Cleavage: Quote: "I WAS BORN in 1940 in the Windy City, Chicago. Not ideal for a new-born baby girl with thin Mediterranean blood, courtesy of my Spanish father."
  13. Davison, Phil (May 12, 2011). "Lidia Gueiler Tejada: Politician who became only the West's second female president". The Independent . Retrieved March 17, 2020.
  14. "Tavis Smiley. Shows. Raquel Welch. April 19, 2010". PBS. April 19, 2010. Retrieved December 30, 2010.
  15. Welch, Raquel (2010). Beyond the Cleavage: Quote: "My mother was Anglo. Her ancestry dated back to John Quincy Adams and the Mayflower"(P. 4). ISBN   9781602861176 . Retrieved March 17, 2020.
  16. "Gayle Carole Tejada". Legacy.com. March 2020. Retrieved September 5, 2020.
  17. Beyond the Cleavage By Raquel Welch Religion. (Page: 8)
  18. Avery, Susan (July 10, 2010). "Raquel Welch, Reluctant Sex Symbol, Talks About Making Amends With Her Kids". ParentDish.com.
  19. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Otfinoski, Steven (2007). Latinos in the arts. Infobase Publishing. p. 243. ISBN   978-0-8160-6394-9.
  20. Welch, Diane (March 19, 2006). "The way we were – 'Fairest of the Fair' part of Del Mar's history". San Diego Union Tribune.
  21. 1 2 Welch, Raquel. (2010). Raquel Welch: Beyond the Cleavage. New York: Weinstein Books. pp. 3–28.
  22. "Yearbook – 1958 La Jolla High School La Jolla, CA". Classmates.com. Retrieved July 15, 2014.
  23. 1 2 3 4 "RaquelWelch". Glamour Girls of the Silver Screen. Retrieved August 15, 2013.
  24. Giammarco, David. (2001, July & Aug.). "Raquel Welch: The Goddess Factor" Cigar Aficionado
  25. Amaya, Mario. (May 25, 2017). "El arte de ser ícono: una entrevista con Raquel Welch" Bocas. Retrieved May 28, 2017
  26. Raquel Welch [Interview by Piers Morgan]. (October 20, 2015). In Piers Morgan's Life Stories. London, England: ITV.
  27. Associated Press. (June 28, 2015). Raquel Welch: 'The essence of who I am is a Latina'. Retrieved October 4, 2015, from Fox News
  28. Filmfacts 1967. University of Southern California. Division of Cinema. 1967. Retrieved May 24, 2011.
  29. Mansour, David (2005). From Abba to Zoom: a pop culture encyclopedia of the late 20th century. Andrews McMeel Publishing. p. 345. ISBN   978-0-7407-5118-9.
  30. "'One Million Years B.C.' Presents a Nice Live Raquel Welch" (February 22, 1967). New York Times.
  31. Westcott, Kathryn (June 5, 2006). "The Bikini: Not a brief affair". BBC News. Retrieved September 17, 2008.
  32. Bale, Miriam (February 10, 2012). "The GQ&A: Raquel Welch". GQ. Retrieved August 21, 2013.
  33. Gayomali, Chris (July 5, 2011). "Raquel Welch's Fur Bikini in One Million Years B.C. – Top 10 Bikinis in Pop Culture". Time. Archived from the original on July 9, 2011. Retrieved August 28, 2012.
  34. 1 2 "Raquel Welch: Living Up to Her Legend" Weller, George. Los Angeles Times September 11, 1966: N10.
  35. "Edward G. Robinson—Mr. Bad Guy Never Had It So Good: EDWARD ROBINSON" Thomas, Kevin. Los Angeles Times February 28, 1967: d1.
  36. "Class will tell: DEREK MALCOLM interviews PETER MEDAK, a director who is at last making his impact on the British cinema" Malcolm, Derek. The Guardian London, May 15, 1972: 10.
  37. 1 2 "Sex Goddess Is Human, After All" Los Angeles Times June 9, 1968: c12.
  38. "'Fathom' Playing on Citywide Screens" Thomas, Kevin. Los Angeles Times August 10, 1967: d16.
  39. "WONDER WOMAN!!" Hallowell, John. Los Angeles Times July 14, 1968: o26.
  40. "Movie Making—30 Years of Fun for Jimmy Stewart: Jimmy Stewart Stewart's 30 Years" Thomas, Kevin. Los Angeles Times October 15, 1967: d19.
  41. Wenn. (April 10, 2017). "Raquel Welch: 'I was awful in Sinatra film'" Retrieved April 15, 2017, from XPOSÉ.ie.
  42. Gleich, J. (2011). "Jim Brown: from integration to resegregation in The Dirty Dozen and 100 Rifles" Cinema Journal, Vol. 51, No. 1 (Fall 2011), pages 1–25.
  43. Associated Press. (May 5, 2017). Raquel Welch Resisted Going Nude On-Screen for Years. The Salamanca Press. Retrieved March 6, 2017.
  44. 1 2 Skene, Gordon. (June 18, 2017). In Conversation With Raquel Welch 1975 Past Daily Pop Chronicles. Past Daily. Retrieved October 19, 2018.
  45. Peikert, Mark. (February 16, 2015). Raquel Welch vs. Mae West. Out. Retrieved March 13, 2018.
  46. Berumen, Frank Javier Garcia. (2014). Latino Image Makers in Hollywood: Performers, Filmmakers and Films since the 1960s. NC: McFarland & Company.
  47. "Brando spurns Oscar; Liza, 'Godfather' win". Chicago Tribune . March 28, 1973. p. 1.(registration required)
  48. "People In The News". Eugene Register-Guard . March 26, 1978. p. 10A.
  49. "Favorite, longshot take home Oscars". The Palm Beach Post . AP. April 8, 1970.
  50. Brown, Les (1971). ""Raquel!"". Television: The Business Behind the Box . Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. p.  187, 188. ISBN   978-0-15-688440-2.
  51. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on August 6, 2011. Retrieved May 19, 2011.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  52. "Happy Birthday today to Raquel Welch: Her 1970 primetime TV special will melt your mind!". Archived from the original on April 11, 2019. Retrieved April 10, 2019.
  53. "Hottest Thing on Wheels" (June 2, 1972). Life, 72 (21), p. 48.
  54. Bale, M. (February 9, 2012). "The GQ&A: Raquel Welch" Retrieved February 23, 2017
  55. "Raquel Welch: A Sex Symbol And Happily: A Sex Symbol And Happily" by Jeannette Smyth. 'The Washington Post May 8, 1975: B1.
  56. Robertson, Carol. (2012). The Little Book of Movie Law. Chicago: ABA Book Publishing, American Bar Association. "All About Eve: The Fickle Director and the Demanding Star – Welch v. Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Film Co."
  57. Modderno, Craig. (June 26, 1986). "Welch Celebrates Verdict Hollywood Cautious on Ruling's Impact" The Washington Post
  58. Murphy, Kim. (June 25, 1986). "Raquel Welch Awarded $10.8 Million Over Firing" Los Angeles Times
  59. AP (June 25, 1986). "Raquel Welch Wins $10.8 Million Judgment". APnewsarchive.com.
  60. Higgins, Bill. (December 10, 2015). "Hollywood Flashback: When Raquel Welch, Fired and Replaced by an Actress 15 Years Younger, Sued MGM (and Won)" Retrieved November 14, 2017, from The Hollywood Reporter
  61. Billboard. Raquel Welch | Chart History: This Girl's Back In Town. Retrieved from Billboard.com.
  62. Hanauer, Joan. (April 9, 1988). Raquel shows off her best asset her IQ. UPI. Retrieved August 7, 2018.
  63. Nolasco, Stephanie. (October 26, 2017). Raquel Welch talks working with Robert Wagner, meeting Elvis Presley and Frank Sinatra. Fox News. Retrieved October 28, 2017.
  64. "16th Annual Imagen Awards – Winners". imagen.org. Retrieved April 10, 2015.
  65. "Actress Raquel Welch". pbs.org. Retrieved April 10, 2015.
  66. Bloomer, J. (January 17, 2012). Raquel Welch Retrospective Coming in February! Retrieved April 12, 2017, from Film Society of Lincoln Center.
  67. "Hairuwear". Hairuwear. Retrieved December 12, 2010.
  68. MAC. (2007). Cosmetics Fetes Screen Siren Raquel Welch as the Newest MAC Beauty Icon. Retrieved August 5, 2015.
  69. Pittilla, Mary Jane (February 2, 2007). "Raquel Welch becomes MAC beauty icon" . Retrieved March 19, 2008.
  70. D'Orazio, Sante (November 1995). "Cover page". Playboy . 42 (11). U.S. pp. 74–81.
  71. Hefner, Hugh M., & Cole, Gary. (2006). Playboy: The Celebrities. CA: Chronicle Books.
  72. Sheldrick, Giles. (November 5, 2015). "Raquel Welch: Secret of Why I Never Revealed All on Screen" Daily Express.
  73. Mills, Nancy. (December 20, 1978). "Raquel Welch: The Other Side of a Star" The Australian Women's Weekly, 23–25.
  74. Raquel Welch takes Mr. Media Beyond the Cleavage! PODCAST INTERVIEW. [Interview by Bob Andelman]. (December 16, 2010). In Mr. Media Interviews. Retrieved September 5, 2018.
  75. Heslep, Michael. (April 3, 2010). Brain and Beauty, that is Raquel. CNN iReport . Retrieved July 5, 2018.
  76. Strodder, Chris. (2007). The Encyclopedia of Sixties Cool: A Celebration of the Grooviest People, Events, and Artifacts of the 1960s. CA: Santa Monica Press.
  77. Birmingham, John. (September 3, 2018). Raquel Welch: A Life in Pictures. Purple Cover. Retrieved September 5, 2018.
  78. 1 2 The O'Reilly Factor : FOXNEWSW: January 2, 2014 1:00am-2 ...
  79. Pulp International. (June 16, 2010). Share the Welch. Retrieved March 6, 2015.
  80. Ruenes, Christopher & Countryman, Stefan. (October 18, 2013). Raquel Welch Retrospective. Columbia Daily Spectator. Retrieved July 11, 2016.
  81. D'Addario, Daniel. (February 7, 2012). Retrospective Body of Work: Screen Siren Raquel Welch Gets Her Lincoln Center Retrospective Raquel Welch Retrospective. Observer. Retrieved March 6, 2015.
  82. Mansour, David. (2005). From Abba to Zoom: A Pop Culture Encyclopedia of the Late 20th Century. Kansas City, MO: Andrews McMeel Publishing, p. 522.
  83. Lisanti, Tom & Paul, Louis. (2002). Film Fatales: Women in Espionage Films and Television, 1962–1973. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, p. 304.
  84. Alchin, Linda. (2017). Raquel Welch Facts and Biography. Facts About. Retrieved October 5, 2017.
  85. Lewis, Richard Warren. (August 7, 2017). Screen Sirens of Hollywood: Raquel Welch. The Saturday Evening Post (Special Collector's Edition: The Golden Age of Hollywood). Retrieved June 2, 2018.
  86. Marain, Alexandre. (September 5, 2018). La Beauté Sauvage de Raquel Welch en 15 Clichés Vintage. Vogue. Retrieved September 28, 2018.
  87. Beauty Launchpad. (August 16, 2018). Hair Through History: 9 Hairstyles that Defined the 1960s. Retrieved October 22, 2018.
  88. Gattis, Lacey. (May 16, 2011). The 15 Most Iconic Hairstyles of the 1960s: Raquel Welch's Mane. Popsugar. Retrieved October 30, 2018.
  89. Film Society Lincoln Center. (2015). Hannie Caulder. Retrieved August 5, 2015.
  90. Peary, Gerald. (October 17, 2013). Quentin Tarantino: Interviews, Revised and Updated. University Press of Mississippi, p. 119.
  91. American Film. Hannie Caulder 1971. (October 29, 2013) Retrieved March 6, 2015.
  92. Campbell, Christopher. (September 12, 2014). 12 Movies to Watch After You See 'The Shawshank Redemption'. Film School Rejects. Retrieved July 12, 2016.
  93. Levy, Dani; Ahern, Sarah (January 19, 2017). "TV News Roundup: Raquel Welch and Barry Watson Join UP Series ..." Variety . Retrieved May 30, 2017.
  94. Dominic, Serene (September 23, 1999). "The Wonderful World of S&M". Phoenix New Times . Retrieved July 28, 2018.
  95. Collins, Glenn (May 30, 1982). "Raquel Welch: 'I Like a Character With Backbone". The New York Times . Retrieved July 28, 2018.
  96. Guttridge, Peter (April 13, 1995). "Any chance of a chat, Raquel?". The Independent . Retrieved July 28, 2018.
  97. Viagas, Robert (March 6, 1997). "Raquel Welch To Replace Julie Andrews in V/V". Playbill . Retrieved July 28, 2018.