Rara Lake

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Rara Lake
Rara lake, Mugu.jpg
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Red pog.svg
Rara Lake
Location Mugu District
Coordinates 29°31′45″N82°5′35″E / 29.52917°N 82.09306°E / 29.52917; 82.09306 Coordinates: 29°31′45″N82°5′35″E / 29.52917°N 82.09306°E / 29.52917; 82.09306
Type fresh water [1]
Native name Nepali: रारा ताल pronounced  [raɾa]
Primary inflows small rivulets
Primary outflows Nijar River [1]
Basin  countriesNepal
Max. length5.1 km (3.2 mi)
Max. width2.7 km (1.7 mi)
Surface area1,061 ha (2,620 acres) [1]
Average depth100 m (330 ft) [1]
Max. depth167 m (548 ft)
Water volume10,682 m3 (377,200 cu ft)
Shore length114 km (8.7 mi)
Surface elevation2,990 m (9,810 ft)
Designated23 September 2007
Reference no.1695 [2]
1 Shore length is not a well-defined measure.

Rara Lake is the biggest fresh water lake in the Nepalese Himalayas. It is the main feature of Rara National Park, located in Jumla and Mugu Districts. [1] In September 2007, it was declared a Ramsar site, covering 1,583 ha (6.11 sq mi) including the surrounding wetland. [3]

Contents

Features

Nepal rel location map.svg
Blue pog.svg
Rara Lake
Location of Rara Lake in Nepal

Rara Lake lies at an elevation of 2,990 m (9,810 ft), has a water surface of 10.8 km2 (4.2 sq mi), a maximum depth of 167 m (548 ft), is 5.1 km (3.2 mi) long and 2.7 km (1.7 mi) wide. It drains into the Mugu Karnali River via the Nijar River. [4] Its water quality is characterized by high pH, conductivity and total hardness. It has been classified as oligotrophic as it is slightly polluted. [5]

Climate

Summer is quite pleasant but winter is cold. The best visiting time to the lake is September/October and April to May. From December to March, the temperatures go low below the freezing point, and heavy snowfall occur up to one meter, blocking the way to the lake. April to June is warm in this region. [6]

Monsoon season, which in this region occurs between the months of July to October, is short. The average rainfall during the ten-year period 1994–2003 was 800 mm. The surface temperature of the lake was found to be 7.5 °C to 7.6 °C and was visible below 14 m to 15 m. [5]

Socio-cultural and religious values

The main occupation of the people living around the area is agriculture. People also rear goats and extract medicinal herbs and sell them for their living. Thakur society is dominant in the community. Thakur Baba’s Temple is situated in the southeast corner of the lake. Local people believe that the god Thakur shot an arrow to open the passage of the lake reducing the damage caused by flooding. [4]

Environmental issues

Due to over-grazing and defecation, the national park conservation officers are facing a challenge to preserve the lake. Local people are found cutting timber wood and fuel wood, which is a problem for conservation of Rara. Also during festivals visitors and local people produce a lot of wastage causing water pollution. [4]

Flora and fauna

Fish in clear water of Rara Fishes in Rara.jpg
Fish in clear water of Rara

Rara Lake, being surrounded by Rara National Park, has unique floral and faunal importance with rare and vulnerable species. The park was established in 1976 to preserve the beauty of the lake and protect it from sedimentation and adverse human activities. The Park flora consists of 1074 species, of which 16 are endemic to Nepal; the fauna includes 51 species of mammals and 214 species of birds. [7]

The lake holds three endemic fish species Nepalese snowtrout ( Schizothorax macrophthalmus ), ( S. nepalensis ) and the Rara snowtrout (S. raraensis ) and one endemic frog, Rara Lake frog ( Nanorana rarica ). Winter visitor water birds such as gadwall ( Anas strepera ), mallard ( Anas platyrhynchos ), northern shoveler ( Anas clypeata ), common teal ( Anas crecca ), tufted duck ( Aythya fuligula ), common golden eye ( Bucephala clangula ), common merganser ( Mergus merganser ), common coot ( Fulica atra ), and solitary snipe ( Gallinago solitaria ) reside and rest at this lake [5]

Transport

Tara Air taxiing down the runway in Talcha Airport Mugu Airport.JPG
Tara Air taxiing down the runway in Talcha Airport

Air is the only mode of transportation for the tourists visiting the lake. Rara Lake is served by Talcha Airport, which is 4 km east of the lake. Nepal Airlines and Tara Air operate flights to Rara from Nepalgunj Airport. It takes approx 2 hours to reach Rara Lake from the airport on foot.

Tourism

Rara lake has been a popular destination with a very rough route in Western Nepal for trekkers. The glimpses of culture and scenery on the way is quite different from the rest of Nepal. Situated in high altitude, you can find the lake surrounded by Rara National Park with pine, spruce and juniper forest. The view of snow-capped Himalayan peaks enhance the attraction of trekkers. The trek begins with flight to Jumla (over an hour flight from Kathmandu) or from nearer Nepalgunj. Going along the mountain path and some villages one can reach the bank of Rara lake.[ citation needed ]

A travel writer wrote:

Although more trampled than in the past, the road to Rara Lake is still without any of the comfortable services available along more popular trails. Logistically it is not an easy trek; it is hard to get to and from, and it is an organizational challenge, requiring informed guides and porters to tote the two weeks' worth of material that will keep you warm, dry and fed. It is also tough on the bones, involving several 11,000-foot passes. However, once you overcome the obstacles, the rewards are legion: few if any other trekkers, incomparable natural splendor, "untouched" villages, blissful quiet.… [8]

Rara Lake as described by GORP founder Bill Greer is "a shimmering blue jewel set in a ring of snowy peaks". [8] Similarly, Mark Drett, talking about Rara Lake, said: "Since the interval of 10 years, I visited again. Before 10 years, we needed to walk 19 days to get there but that has been reduced to 10 hours of gravel road and 4 hours of walk. Not expected but great change. When you get there, you will get the reward for 4 hour long walk." [8]

Trekkers are recommended to bring their own first aid kit due to the lack of health services around the area. Since there are no accommodation facilities they may need help from a travel agency. Trekkers need to be self-sufficient as the facilities are not adequate. [6]

Rara has the potential of becoming the next major place for tourists to visit. During 1997–1998, the number of tourists visiting to this place was found to be 560, but in 2007 it decreased to 87 individuals. Rara Festival was conducted by the Nepal Tourism Board in early 2007 to promote domestic and international visit. [4]

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Rara National Park

Rara National Park is a protected area in the Himalayas of Nepal and was established in 1976. Covering an area of 106 km2 (41 sq mi) in the Mugu and Jumla districts, it is the country's smallest national park. Its main feature is Rara Lake at an altitude of 2,990 m (9,810 ft). The park was established to protect the unique flora and fauna of the Humla–Jumla Region of Nepal.

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Gokyo Lakes are oligotrophic lakes in Nepal's Sagarmatha National Park, located at an altitude of 4,700–5,000 m (15,400–16,400 ft) above sea level. These lakes are the world's highest freshwater lake system comprising six main lakes, of which Thonak Lake is the largest. In September 2007, Gokyo and associated wetlands of 7,770 ha (30.0 sq mi) have been designated a Ramsar site.

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References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 Bhuju, U. R.; Shakya, P. R.; Basnet, T. B. & Shrestha, S. (2007). Nepal Biodiversity Resource Book. Protected Areas, Ramsar Sites, and World Heritage Sites (PDF). Kathmandu: International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, Ministry of Environment, Science and Technology, in cooperation with United Nations Environment Programme, Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific. ISBN   978-92-9115-033-5.
  2. "Rara Lake". Ramsar Sites Information Service. Retrieved 25 April 2018.
  3. Bhandari, B. B. (2009). "Wise use of Wetlands in Nepal". Banko Janakari. 19 (3): 10–17.
  4. 1 2 3 4 Upadhyay, S.; Chalise, L. & Paudel, R. P. (2009). "High Altitude Ramsar Sites of Nepal". The Initiation: 135–148.
  5. 1 2 3 Khadka, M. (n.d.). "Study of Himalayan Lakes in Nepal" (PDF).Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  6. 1 2 "Rara National Park".
  7. Rara National Park.(n.d.). Retrieved from http://icimod.org/hkhconservationportal/PA.aspx?ID=64
  8. 1 2 3 Ethan, G. (2012). "Top Ten Treks in the Nepalese Himalaya".Cite journal requires |journal= (help)