|Raymond-Gaspard de Bonardi de Saint-Sulpice|
|Born||23 October 1761|
|Died|| 20 June 1835 73) (aged|
|Years of service||1777-1814|
|Rank||General of Division|
|Unit||2nd Heavy Cavalry Division (1807, 1809); Dargoons of the Guard (1812)|
|Battles/wars|| French Revolutionary Wars,|
|Other work||Écuyer cavalcadour de l'Impératrice (1804-1815);|
Governor of the castle of Fontainebleau (1813);
Peer of France (from 1831)
Raymond-Gaspard de Bonardi comte de Saint-Sulpice (23 October 1761 - 20 June 1835) was a French general of the French Revolutionary Wars and Napoleonic Wars, noted for his actions as a heavy cavalry commander and who became a Peer of France towards the end of his life.
The French Revolutionary Wars were a series of sweeping military conflicts lasting from 1792 until 1802 and resulting from the French Revolution. They pitted France against Great Britain, Austria, Prussia, Russia and several other monarchies. They are divided in two periods: the War of the First Coalition (1792–97) and the War of the Second Coalition (1798–1802). Initially confined to Europe, the fighting gradually assumed a global dimension. After a decade of constant warfare and aggressive diplomacy, France had conquered a wide array of territories, from the Italian Peninsula and the Low Countries in Europe to the Louisiana Territory in North America. French success in these conflicts ensured the spread of revolutionary principles over much of Europe.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom. The wars stemmed from the unresolved disputes associated with the French Revolution and its resultant conflict. The wars are often categorised into five conflicts, each termed after the coalition that fought Napoleon: the Third Coalition (1805), the Fourth (1806–07), the Fifth (1809), the Sixth (1813), and the Seventh (1815).
Heavy cavalry is a class of cavalry whose primary role was to engage in direct combat with enemy forces, and are heavily armed and armoured compared to light cavalry. Although their equipment differed greatly depending on the region and historical period, they were generally mounted on large powerful horses, and were often equipped with some form of scale, plated, chainmail or lamellar armour as well as either swords, maces, lances, or battle axes.
A nobleman by birth, Saint-Sulpice joins the army as a sublieutenant in 1777, becoming a lieutenant-colonel in 1792 in the Army of the Alps. He is then suspended, from September 1793 to May 1795, because of his aristocratic ascendance. Despite the proclamation of the French Consulate, the career of Saint-Sulpice seems to stagnate until 1803, when he is finally promoted to brigadier general. With the proclamation of the Empire, Saint-Sulpice gets a position as Écuyer cavalcadour of the Empress Joséphine.
The Consulate was the top-level Government of France from the fall of the Directory in the coup of Brumaire on 10 November 1799 until the start of the Napoleonic Empire on 18 May 1804. By extension, the term The Consulate also refers to this period of French history.
Brigadier general or Brigade general is a senior rank in the armed forces. It is the lowest ranking general officer in some countries, usually sitting between the ranks of colonel and major general. When appointed to a field command, a brigadier general is typically in command of a brigade consisting of around 4,000 troops. In some countries a brigadier general is informally designated as a one-star general (OF-6).
The First French Empire, officially the French Empire, was the empire of Napoleon Bonaparte of France and the dominant power in much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th century. Although France had already established an overseas colonial empire beginning in the 17th century, the French state had remained a kingdom under the Bourbons and a republic after the Revolution. Historians refer to Napoleon's regime as the First Empire to distinguish it from the restorationist Second Empire (1852–1870) ruled by his nephew as Napoleon III.
With the outbreak of the Napoleonic Wars, Saint-Sulpice is given the command of a cuirassier brigade in d'Hautpoul's 2nd heavy cavalry division of the cavalry reserve of the Grande Armée, which he will command between 1805 and 1807. At the battle of Eylau in 1807 Saint-Sulpice is wounded, but a week later, on the 14 of February, he gets promoted to general of division and takes command of the 2nd heavy cavalry division, replacing d'Hautpoul, who had died of his injuries. Named count of the Empire in 1808, he fights in most of the major engagements of the Fifth Coalition in 1809: Abensberg, Eckmühl, Ratisbon, Aspern-Essling and Wagram. During the French invasion of Russia, Saint-Sulpice is given command of the dragoon regiment of the Guard. The next year, in March 1813, he is named governor of the castle of Fontainebleau but then is called to serve in the Grande Armée again for the War of the Sixth Coalition, fighting in Saxony. In 1814, as the fighting continued, this time on French soil, Saint-Sulpice is assigned to serve under Marshal of the Empire Pierre Augereau, whose orders were to defend Lyon against the invading Allied armies. Retiring from active service, he became a Peer of France in 1831. His name appears on the Arc de Triomphe in Paris.
Cuirassiers were cavalry equipped with armour and firearms, first appearing in late 15th-century Europe. The first cuirassiers were produced as a result of armoured cavalry, such as the man-at-arms and demi-lancer, discarding their lances and adopting the use of pistols as their primary weapon. In the later 17th century, the cuirassier lost his limb armour and subsequently employed only the cuirass, and sometimes a helmet. By this time, the sword was the primary weapon of the cuirassier, pistols being relegated to a secondary function.
Jean-Joseph Ange d'Hautpoul was a French cavalry general of the Napoleonic wars. He came from an old noble family of France whose military tradition extended for several centuries.
The Grande Armée was the army commanded by Napoleon I during the Napoleonic Wars. From 1805 to 1809, the Grande Armée scored a series of historic victories that gave the French Empire an unprecedented grip on power over the European continent. Widely acknowledged to be one of the greatest fighting forces ever assembled, it suffered terrible losses during the French invasion of Russia in 1812 and never recovered its tactical superiority after that campaign.
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