Raymond Gosling

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Raymond Gosling
Raymond Gosling.jpg
Professor Raymond Gosling in 2003 "DNA at King's – the continuing story: 50th anniversary of the discovery of the structure of DNA"
Born(1926-07-15)15 July 1926
Wembley, London, England
Died18 May 2015(2015-05-18) (aged 88)
ResidenceLondon, United Kingdom
Alma mater University College London
King's College London
Known for DNA
Scientific career
Fields Physics
Institutions King's College London

Raymond George Gosling (15 July 1926 – 18 May 2015) was a British scientist. While a PhD student at King's College, London he worked under the supervision of Rosalind Franklin. Their crystallographic experiments, together with those of Maurice Wilkins of the same laboratory, produced data that helped James Watson and Francis Crick to infer the structure of DNA.

Rosalind Franklin British chemist, biophysicist, and X-ray crystallographer

Rosalind Elsie Franklin was an English chemist and X-ray crystallographer whose work was central to the understanding of the molecular structures of DNA, RNA, viruses, coal, and graphite. Although her works on coal and viruses were appreciated in her lifetime, her contributions to the discovery of the structure of DNA were largely recognised posthumously.

Maurice Wilkins New Zealand-born English physicist and biologist

Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins was a New Zealand-born British physicist and molecular biologist, and Nobel laureate whose research contributed to the scientific understanding of phosphorescence, isotope separation, optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction, and to the development of radar. He is best known for his work at King's College London on the structure of DNA.

James Watson American molecular biologist, geneticist, and zoologist

James Dewey Watson is an American molecular biologist, geneticist and zoologist. In 1953, he co-authored with Francis Crick the academic paper proposing the double helix structure of the DNA molecule. Watson, Crick, and Maurice Wilkins were awarded the 1962 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material".


Early years

He was born in 1926 and attended school in Wembley. He studied physics at University College London from 1944 to 1947 and became a hospital physicist at the King's Fund and Middlesex Hospital between 1947 and 1949 before joining King's College London as a research student where he eventually received his PhD. [1]

University College London, which has operated under the official name of UCL since 2005, is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom. It is a constituent college of the federal University of London, and is the third largest university in the United Kingdom by total enrolment, and the largest by postgraduate enrolment.

Kings College London public research university located in London, United Kingdom

King's College London is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom, and a founding constituent college of the federal University of London. King's was established in 1829 by King George IV and Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, when it received its first royal charter, and claims to be the fourth oldest university institution in England. In 1836, King's became one of the two founding colleges of the University of London. In the late 20th century, King's grew through a series of mergers, including with Queen Elizabeth College and Chelsea College of Science and Technology, the Institute of Psychiatry, the United Medical and Dental Schools of Guy's and St Thomas' Hospitals and the Florence Nightingale School of Nursing and Midwifery.

Work at King's College London and DNA

At King's College London, Gosling worked on X-ray diffraction with Maurice Wilkins, [2] analysing samples of DNA which they prepared by hydrating and drawing out into thin filaments and photographing in a hydrogen atmosphere.

Gosling was then assigned to Rosalind Franklin when she joined King's College in 1951. They worked under the direction of Sir John Randall. [3] Together they produced the first X-ray diffraction photographs of the "form B" paracrystalline arrays of highly hydrated DNA. During the next two years, the pair worked closely together to perfect the technique of x-ray diffraction photography of DNA and obtained at the time the sharpest diffraction images of DNA. Gosling made the X-ray diffraction image of DNA known as Photograph 51 . [4] This work led directly to the 1962 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine being awarded to Francis Crick, James D. Watson and Maurice Wilkins. Gosling was the co-author with Franklin of one of the three DNA double helix papers published in Nature in April 1953. [5]

Sir John Turton Randall, was an English physicist and biophysicist, credited with radical improvement of the cavity magnetron, an essential component of centimetric wavelength radar, which was one of the keys to the Allied victory in the Second World War. It is also the key component of microwave ovens.

DNA Molecule that encodes the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known organisms and many viruses

Deoxyribonucleic acid is a molecule composed of two chains that coil around each other to form a double helix carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning, and reproduction of all known organisms and many viruses. DNA and ribonucleic acid (RNA) are nucleic acids; alongside proteins, lipids and complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides), nucleic acids are one of the four major types of macromolecules that are essential for all known forms of life.

<i>Photo 51</i> photograph of X-ray diffraction image of crystallized DNA

Photograph 51 is the nickname given to an X-ray diffraction image of crystallized DNA taken by Raymond Gosling in May 1952, working as a PhD student under the supervision of Rosalind Franklin, at King's College London in Sir John Randall's group. It was critical evidence in identifying the structure of DNA.

His other King's colleagues included Alex Stokes and Herbert Wilson.

Alexander (Alec) Rawson Stokes was a co-author of the second of the three papers published sequentially in Nature on 25 April 1953 announcing the presumed molecular structure of DNA. The first was authored by Francis Crick and James Watson, and the third by Rosalind Franklin and Raymond Gosling. The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded in 1962 to Crick, Watson, and Wilkins for this work.

Herbert Wilson British physicist

Herbert Rees Wilson FRSE was a physicist, who was one of the team who worked on the structure of DNA at King's College London, under the direction of Sir John Randall.

Gosling briefly remained at King's College following the completion of his thesis in 1954 before lecturing in physics at Queen's College, University of St Andrews, and at the University of the West Indies. [1]

University of St Andrews university in St Andrews, Fife, Scotland

The University of St Andrews is a public university in St Andrews, Fife, Scotland. It is the oldest of the four ancient universities of Scotland and the third oldest university in the English-speaking world. St Andrews was founded between 1410 and 1413, when the Avignon Antipope Benedict XIII issued a papal bull to a small founding group of Augustinian clergy.

University of the West Indies International university in the Caribbean

The University of the West Indies (UWI), originally University College of the West Indies, is a public university system established to serve the higher education needs of the residents of 17 English-speaking countries and territories in the Caribbean: Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bermuda, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Dominica, Grenada, Jamaica, Montserrat, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago, and Turks and Caicos Islands. Each country is either a member of the Commonwealth of Nations or a British Overseas Territory. The aim of the university is to help 'unlock the potential for economic and cultural growth' in the West Indies, thus allowing improved regional autonomy. The University was originally instituted as an independent external college of the University of London.

Work at Guy's Hospital

He returned to the UK in 1967 and became Lecturer and Reader at Guy's Hospital Medical School, and Professor and Emeritus Professor in Physics Applied to Medicine from 1984. Here he helped develop the underlying basic medical science and technology for haemodynamic doppler ultrasound vascular assessment in the Non Invasive Angiology Group, and set up the clinical Ultrasonic Angiology Unit. [6] [7] [8] [9]

Gosling served on numerous committees of the University of London, notably relating to radiological science, and retained an active professional involvement in medical physics almost to the end of his life.

Personal background

Gosling was married to his wife Mary; they had four sons, the eldest of whom is the furniture designer Tim Gosling. Raymond Gosling died at the age of 88 on 18 May 2015. [10]

References and Sources

  1. 1 2 "King's College biography" . Retrieved 29 November 2006.
  2. Wilkins, M.; Gosling, R.; Seeds, W. (1951). "Physical studies of nucleic acid". Nature. 167 (4254): 759–760. Bibcode:1951Natur.167..759W. doi:10.1038/167759a0. PMID   14833383.
  3. Gosling, R.; Tickle, C.; Running, S. W.; Tandong, Y.; Dinnyes, A.; Osowole, A. A.; Cule, E. (2011). "Seven ages of the PhD". Nature. 472 (7343): 283–286. Bibcode:2011Natur.472..283G. doi:10.1038/472283a.
  4. "Due credit". Nature. 496: 270. 18 April 2013. doi:10.1038/496270a.
  5. Franklin, R. E.; Gosling, R. G. (1953). "Molecular Configuration in Sodium Thymonucleate". Nature. 171 (4356): 740–741. Bibcode:1953Natur.171..740F. doi:10.1038/171740a0. PMID   13054694.
  6. Side, C. D.; Gosling, R. G. (1971). "Non-surgical Assessment of Cardiac Function". Nature. 232 (5309): 335–336. Bibcode:1971Natur.232..335S. doi:10.1038/232335a0. PMID   5094838.
  7. Laogun, A. A.; Gosling, R. G. (1982). "In vivo arterial compliance in man". Clinical Physics and Physiological Measurement. 3 (3): 201–212. Bibcode:1982CPPM....3..201L. doi:10.1088/0143-0815/3/3/004. PMID   7140158.
  8. Kontis, S.; Gosling, R. G. (1987). "A computerized method for processing of spectrally analysed Doppler-shifted signals from insonated arteries". Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology. 11 (3): 108–112. doi:10.3109/03091908709018151.
  9. Baskett, J. J.; Lewis, R. R.; Beasley, M. G.; Gosling, R. G. (1990). "Changes in Carotid Artery Compliance with Age". Age and Ageing. 19 (4): 241–246. doi:10.1093/ageing/19.4.241. PMID   2220482. - Abstract
  10. Professor Raymond Gosling

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