Raymond Pace Alexander

Last updated

Raymond Pace Alexander
Raymond Pace Alexander in 1943
Member of the Philadelphia City Council
from the 5th district
In office
January 7, 1952 January 5, 1959
Preceded byEugene J. Sullivan
Succeeded by Thomas McIntosh
Judge of the Pennsylvania Court of Common Pleas No. 4
In office
January 5, 1959 November 1974
Preceded by John Morgan Davis
Personal details
Raymond Pace Alexander

(1897-10-13)October 13, 1897
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
DiedNovember 24, 1974(1974-11-24) (aged 77)
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
Political party Democratic (1937–1940, after 1947)
Other political
Republican (before 1937, 1940–1947)
(m. 1923)
  • Politician
  • civil rights attorney
  • judge

Raymond Pace Alexander (October 13, 1897 – November 24, 1974) was an American civil rights leader, lawyer, politician, and the first African American judge appointed to the Pennsylvania courts of common pleas.


Born and raised in Philadelphia, in 1920 he became the first black graduate of the Wharton School of Business. After graduation from Harvard Law School in 1923, Alexander became one of the leading civil rights attorneys in Philadelphia. He gained prominence as a black lawyer willing to fight for equal rights in the Berwyn desegregation case and represented black defendants in other high-profile cases, including the Trenton Six, a group of black men arrested for murder in Trenton, New Jersey.

Alexander began his involvement in politics with unsuccessful runs for a judgeship on the Court of Common Pleas in 1933 and 1937. In 1949 he was considered by President Harry S. Truman for a seat on the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit. He finally won a seat on the Philadelphia City Council in 1951. After two terms on the city council, Alexander was appointed to a seat on the Court of Common Pleas and was re-elected to a ten-year term as a judge in 1959. He continued to work for racial equality throughout his time in the municipal government.

Alexander assumed senior status at mandatory retirement age in 1969 and died in 1974. His legacy is honored by a professorship at the University of Pennsylvania.

Early life and education

Alexander graduated from Philadelphia's Central High School in 1917 Boys-Central-High-School-Broad-and-Green-Streets-Philadelphia-PA-800x513.jpg
Alexander graduated from Philadelphia's Central High School in 1917

Alexander was born into a working-class black family in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on October 13, 1897. [1] His parents, like many African Americans in the 1860s and 1870s, had left the rural South looking for economic opportunities and an escape from the violence that accompanied the Jim Crow segregation system in place there. [2] His father, Hillard Boone Alexander, was born a slave in Mecklenburg County, Virginia, and was the son of the plantation owner. [3] He migrated to Philadelphia with his brother, Samuel, in 1880. [2] That same year, Raymond's mother, Virginia Pace, also migrated to Philadelphia with her brother, John Schollie Pace; they had been born slaves in Essex County, Virginia. Hillard and Virginia married in Philadelphia in 1882. [2]

The family, like most of the city's black population, lived in the Seventh Ward in what is called Center City, Philadelphia today. [4] W. E. B. Du Bois called the area in which the Alexanders lived the "fair and comfortable" part of the neighborhood. [4] Alexander's father and uncle were "riding masters" who gave horseback riding lessons to wealthy white people in Philadelphia and its suburbs along the Main Line, but by 1915 the emergence of the automobile era led the business to decline and ultimately fail. [3] [5]

Alexander as a college student in 1920 Raymond Pace Alexander 1920.png
Alexander as a college student in 1920

In 1909, Alexander's mother died of pneumonia. [5] Although Alexander immediately began working to help support the family, his father felt unable to provide adequate care for the children and sent Alexander and his three siblings (including his sister Virginia) to live with their aunt and uncle, Georgia and John Pace, in a growing black community in North Philadelphia. [5] The Paces were a working-class family as well, and so with even more mouths to feed, Alexander continued working through grade school and high school to help support himself and his siblings. Jobs he held during those years included working on the docks unloading fish, selling newspapers, and owning a bootblack stand where he worked six days per week. [6] Alexander also worked at the Metropolitan Opera House in North Philadelphia for six years, beginning when he was 16 years old. [7] Later, looking back on his time at the Opera House, Alexander said that it had "opened a new world for me", and he credited that environment with giving him "some of the smoothness and culture which characterizes my later years". [7]

Alexander attended Central High School and graduated in 1917, delivering a speech "The Future of the American Negro", at the commencement ceremony. [8] He enrolled at the University of Pennsylvania on a merit scholarship and became the first black graduate of the Wharton School of Business in 1920. [9] He then enrolled at Harvard Law School. [9] While there, Alexander earned a living by working as a teaching assistant during the school year. [10] In the summers, he took classes for a master's degree in political science at Columbia University, though he did not finish the degree. [11] At Columbia, Alexander supported himself by working as a porter for the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad. [11] While still in law school, Alexander brought his first discrimination lawsuit, suing Madison Square Garden for refusing him entry on account of his race, a violation of New York's equal rights law. As he was not yet admitted to the bar, Alexander hired an attorney to represent him. [12]

Alexander graduated from Harvard Law in 1923. That same year, he married his former Penn classmate Sadie Tanner Mossell. Mossell was the granddaughter of Benjamin Tucker Tanner and in 1927 would become the first black woman to earn a law degree from the University of Pennsylvania. [13] They would have two daughters, Rae and Mary. [14] He passed the Pennsylvania bar exam in 1923, becoming one of a few black lawyers in the state. [15] Despite his credentials, Alexander had difficulty finding a job in Philadelphia after graduation. [16] Ultimately, he took a position in the law office of John R. K. Scott, a white Republican former congressman with a small office in the city. [17] Shortly thereafter, he opened his own office with a focus on representing black people. [17]

He soon rose to prominence in Philadelphia's black community. In 1924, he represented Louise Thomas, a black woman accused of murdering a black policeman. After she was convicted and sentenced to death, Alexander secured her a new trial. [18] In a new trial before the same judge, Thomas was found not guilty, which Alexander's biographer, David A. Canton, described as "a landmark in Pennsylvania legal history". [19] That same year, he filed an anti-discrimination lawsuit against a movie theater owner in Philadelphia who refused admission to black ticketholders. He lost the case, but it nonetheless raised his profile as a black lawyer willing to fight for equal rights. [20] Around this time, Alexander began to identify with the black intellectual "New Negro" movement, which advocated self-help, racial pride, and protest against injustice. [21] He also joined the National Bar Association (NBA), an association of black lawyers that had formed when its founding members were denied membership in the American Bar Association. Through the NBA, Alexander began to use political protest as well as legal action in the struggle for equal rights. [22] His firm, which now included his wife and Maceo W. Hubbard, relocated to a new building at 19th and Chestnut Streets. [23] [24]

Berwyn desegregation case

In 1932, Alexander became involved with efforts to desegregate the schools in Berwyn, Pennsylvania, a suburb of Philadelphia. After Easttown Township built a new elementary school, neighboring Tredyffrin Township closed its school and paid to send its students to Easttown (the Berwyn region included parts of both townships). [25] Easttown converted its old (and smaller) school building into one "for the instruction of certain people", which in practice meant all black students in the district, segregating the previously integrated schools. [26] As a result, 212 African American students began to boycott the public schools. [25] The families hired Alexander to press the issue in court. [27]

With the assistance of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), Alexander negotiated with the school board, attempting to end the boycott, but the stalemate continued into 1933. [28] Tensions increased as the state Attorney General, William A. Schnader, ordered the black parents prosecuted for refusing to send their children to school. [29] Some refused to pay bail and stayed in prison as a protest. Alexander approved of the strategy, while the NAACP thought it too confrontational; they also objected to Alexander's acceptance of help from International Labor Defense lawyers, fearing association with the far-left group. [30]

Present-day site of Alexander's law office (now a Target) RPAoffice2017.jpg
Present-day site of Alexander's law office (now a Target)

As the boycott dragged on into 1934, groups organized protest marches in Philadelphia. Schnader, now running for governor, promised to find a solution. [31] Alexander and others credited Schnader's newfound support for their campaign to his recognition of the growing influence of black voters in Pennsylvania. [32] By June, the school board agreed to allow students to be admitted to the two schools on a race-neutral basis, and the parents ended their boycott. [27] The following year, the state passed a strengthened equal rights bill that covered all public accommodations, including schools, and allowed private lawyers to sue segregated businesses. It was introduced by state representative Hobson R. Reynolds, a black Republican from Philadelphia. [33]

Growing prestige

Alexander rose to national prominence in the black legal community after the Berwyn case, and he began to speak around the country at NBA events, serving as the organization's president from 1933 to 1935. [34] In 1942, he represented Thomas Mattox, a black teenager, as Mattox fought extradition to Georgia where he was accused of assaulting a white man. [35] Alexander argued that Mattox would not receive a fair trial in the South, and the judge agreed, quashing the extradition attempt. [36] He also represented Corrine Sykes, a 23-year-old black maid who was charged with murdering her white employer. [37] This time, Alexander was unsuccessful, as the jury disregarded his arguments that Sykes was mentally impaired and found her guilty. [38] After appeals to the Supreme Court of the United States were denied, Sykes was executed in 1946. [39]

Trenton Six

In 1948, Alexander became involved with the case of the Trenton Six, a group of black men arrested in Trenton, New Jersey, accused of robbery and murder. [40] Trenton police induced confessions from five of the six, and all were convicted by an all-white jury and sentenced to death. [40] The Civil Rights Congress (CRC), the legal arm of the Communist Party USA, represented three of the men during their appeal; the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund, at the request of their chief counsel, Thurgood Marshall, hired Alexander to represent two of the others. [41] In 1949, the Supreme Court of New Jersey granted the men a new trial but prohibited the CRC from representing any of the defendants because they found that the group had unfairly influenced jury pools through the news media. [42]

In the 1951 re-trial, Alexander established that the police had manufactured evidence in order to secure a quick conviction and quiet public concerns about the crime wave then rippling through Trenton. The judge also ruled out the confessions, which were proved to have been coerced. [43] After a lengthy trial, four were acquitted and two convicted, with the jury recommending life imprisonment. [44] Though not a complete victory, Alexander had demonstrated his skill as a lawyer and saved the lives of his clients, while managing to distance himself from the CRC and other communist groups, an important consideration in the Cold War atmosphere. [45]

Political and judicial career

Seeking a judicial nomination

By the 1930s, Alexander's civil rights activity led him to become involved in local politics. At that time, Republicans dominated Philadelphia's political scene, and Alexander ran for a seat on the Court of Common Pleas as a Republican in 1933, but withdrew before the election, a decision the Philadelphia Tribune reported was due to ill health. [46] He grew frustrated with the Republican party organization, which offered only the lowest-level city patronage jobs to blacks. Nonetheless, he saw the Republicans as the best chance for African American advancement in the city and lobbied the party leaders to nominate a black lawyer—preferably him—for one of the judicial seats up for election in 1937. [47] He found little support, and lost the primary election to the three party-endorsed candidates: Byron A. Milner, Clare G. Fenerty, and John Robert Jones. [48] [49] This left the Republicans, like the Democrats, with an all-white ticket again in 1937. [48]

After the election, Alexander joined many black Americans of the era in shifting his allegiance to the Democratic Party. [48] By 1940, however, Alexander decided that the Democrats were no more likely than the Republicans to elect a black judge and, dissatisfied with the New Deal and the party's lack of action on civil rights causes, he returned to the Republicans. [50] Sadie Alexander had followed her husband's political shift to the Democrats and remained there, and in 1946 President Harry S. Truman appointed her to his Committee on Civil Rights. [51] Alexander rejoined the Democratic Party in 1947 and campaigned for Truman the following year. [52]

Following Truman's election, Alexander lobbied to be appointed to a federal district court seat. [53] Around the same time, he was rumored to be among the candidates for a seat on the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit, but the position went to William H. Hastie instead, making Hastie the first black federal appeals court judge in 1950. [54] Canton suggests that Alexander's frequent party-switching and perceived disloyalty to the Democratic Party may have harmed his chances at a nomination. [53] After his efforts at a seat on the federal bench failed, Alexander sought a foreign service appointment, expressing a particular desire to be U.S. Ambassador to Haiti or Ethiopia; he was unsuccessful. [55]

City Council

By the late 1940s, Alexander joined the ranks of a growing reform movement in the Philadelphia Democratic Party. [56] The group was led by Joseph S. Clark Jr. and Richardson Dilworth, former Republicans who had left their party over machine politics, and James A. Finnegan, a Democratic organization leader who saw that a growing desire for civil service reform and good government could lift his party from its perpetual minority status by attracting independent voters. [57] After reformers passed a new city charter in 1951, Alexander won the Democratic primary to represent the 5th district on the City Council. [56] At the general election that November, Alexander won easily, taking 58% of the vote against incumbent Republican Eugene J. Sullivan. [58] Democrats swept nine of the ten council districts and elected Clark mayor, ending 67 years of Republican rule in the city. [59]

Alexander's campaign for council stressed messages of merit selection for city workers as well as increasing the number of black employees. [60] The promise of civil service reform gained the confidence of black voters, who had traditionally been left out of the Republican patronage system. [61] In 1953, Alexander introduced a resolution in council demanding that the then all-white Girard College admit black students, or else lose its tax-exempt status. [62] The case wended its way through the courts, led by civil rights activist Cecil B. Moore; the school would eventually desegregate, but not until 1968, long after Alexander had left City Council. [63]

He was re-elected in 1955 with an increased share of the vote, receiving 70% of the vote to Republican nominee William Lynch's 30%. [64] On the city council, Alexander continued to press the cause of civil service reform. In 1954, he successfully opposed the efforts of fellow Democrats James Hugh Joseph Tate and Michael J. Towey to weaken the civil service reforms of the new charter. [65] Two years later, Alexander remained opposed, but the amendments' proponents found the required two-thirds vote in Council to make it on to the ballot for popular approval. [66] A referendum on the subject failed in a vote that April. [67]


In 1958, Rep. Earl Chudoff, who represented the 4th district in the U.S. House of Representatives, resigned his seat after he was elected to be a judge on the Court of Common Pleas No. 1. [68] In the ensuing special election for the congressional seat, as the 4th district was about 75% black, the Democratic organization wanted a black candidate to replace Chudoff, who was white. They settled on Robert N. C. Nix Sr., a local attorney. [69] Alexander also announced his candidacy for the seat; according to his biographer, Alexander was less interested in serving in Congress than in using the leverage of a primary challenge to force the party organization to back him for a judgeship. [69] The ploy was successful. Alexander soon dropped out of the race and Nix was elected. [70] Governor George M. Leader appointed Alexander to be a judge on the Court of Common Pleas No. 4, to fill a vacancy caused by the resignation of John Morgan Davis, who was elected lieutenant governor in 1958. [71] Governor Leader was initially hesitant to appoint Alexander as it was traditional for the governor to appoint judges from a list of recommendations by the judiciary committee of the Philadelphia Bar Association; however, there was "adequate precedent" for appointing a qualified judge not recommended by the committee, and Rep. William J. Green Jr. used his considerable political influence to ensure Alexander's appointment. [72] On January 5, 1959, Alexander was sworn in, the first black judge to sit on the Court of Common Pleas, [9] and in the election later that year, he won a full ten-year term on the court. [73]

In Alexander's first year on the court, he was disturbed by the high number of black defendants he saw and sought to remedy the problem by creating an alternate probation system for first-time offenders called the "Spiritual Rehabilitation Program", with funding and logistical assistance coming from local churches and synagogues. [74] The program received national attention for its innovative approach to crime but failed to gain much support outside of black churches. [74] He also found himself dragged back into the political realm when Republicans demanded that a grand jury be convened to investigate Democratic corruption in City Hall; Alexander rejected their petition. [75]

Alexander continued to be active as a civil rights leader but clashed with younger activists over the methods best suited to achieving their goals. In 1962, for example, while Alexander urged increased black representation on the Philadelphia Council for Community Advancement, he disagreed with NAACP branch president Cecil B. Moore's call for a boycott of corporate donors to the group. [76] While supporting Martin Luther King Jr.'s civil disobedience campaigns in the South in 1964, he believed some measures hurt the cause by alienating white voters; he called on black leaders to "cease the needless demonstrations, stall-ins, uncalled lie downs especially in the North which bring discredit upon us". [77] In 1966, he condemned the Black Power movement as "a hazardous and meaningless catch-phrase which is as dangerous and divisive for the Negro as the white racism which we have opposed for so long". [6]

Despite differences with Moore and others, Alexander continued to work toward his lifelong goal of racial equality. In 1969, he called for the city to hire more black employees, and in 1972 penned an article in The Philadelphia Inquirer calling for the Philadelphia Police Department to do the same. [78] Meanwhile, he spoke out against black separatism, calling it "reverse racism". [79] His focus increasingly was on how economic issues exacerbated racial problems, and he called for a universal basic income and affirmative action to remedy the problem. [80] Nevertheless, according to Canton, by the 1970s young blacks viewed Alexander and his generation of civil rights leaders as "out of touch and too dependent on the white elite". [81]

Death and legacy

Having reached the mandatory retirement age of 70, Alexander was forced to retire from the court at the end of 1969, but stayed on as a senior judge. [82] On the night of November 25, 1974, Alexander was found dead of a heart attack in his judicial chambers. [83] Leon Sullivan officiated Alexander's funeral at Philadelphia's First Baptist Church, after which the judge was buried in West Laurel Hill Cemetery in Bala Cynwyd, Pennsylvania. [83] In 2007, the University of Pennsylvania endowed the Raymond Pace and Sadie Tanner Mossell Alexander Professorship, devoted to the study of civil rights and race relations. [84] Their daughters donated portraits of their parents to the law school to coincide with the announcement. [84]

See also

Related Research Articles

Robert Nelson Cornelius Nix Jr. served as the Chief Justice of the Pennsylvania Supreme Court from 1984 to 1996. Nix was the first African-American Chief Justice of any state's highest court, and the first African American to be elected to statewide office in Pennsylvania. He served as a justice of the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania for 24 years, 12 of which were as chief justice, and was a prominent figure in Pennsylvania law and public service for more than three decades.

Sadie Tanner Mossell Alexander

Sadie Tanner Mossell Alexander, was an American lawyer who was the first African-American to receive a Ph.D. in economics in the United States (1921), and the first woman to receive a law degree from the University of Pennsylvania Law School. She was the first African-American woman to practice law in Pennsylvania, following in her father's footsteps. She was the first national president of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, serving from 1919 to 1923.

Aaron Albert Mossell

Aaron Albert Mossell II was the first African-American to graduate from the University of Pennsylvania Law School.

Harry Norwitch

Harry Norwitch was an organized labor leader and Democratic politician from Philadelphia.

1951 Philadelphia municipal election 1951 municipal election in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States

Philadelphia's municipal election held on November 6, 1951, was the first under the city's new charter, which had been approved by the voters in April, and the first Democratic victory in the city in more than a half-century. The positions contested were those of mayor and district attorney, and all seventeen city council seats. There was also a referendum on whether to consolidate the city and county governments. Citywide, the Democrats took majorities of over 100,000 votes, breaking a 67-year Republican hold on city government. Joseph S. Clark Jr. and Richardson Dilworth, two of the main movers for the charter reform, were elected mayor and district attorney, respectively. Led by local party chairman James A. Finnegan, the Democrats also took fourteen of seventeen city council seats, and all of the citywide offices on the ballot. A referendum on city-county consolidation passed by a wide margin. The election marked the beginning of Democratic dominance of Philadelphia city politics, which continues today.

1955 Philadelphia municipal election 1955 municipal election in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Philadelphia's municipal election of November 8, 1955, involved contests for mayor, district attorney, all seventeen city council seats, among other offices. Citywide, the Democrats took majorities of over 130,000 votes, continuing their success from the elections four years earlier. Richardson Dilworth, who had been elected district attorney in 1951, was elected mayor. Victor H. Blanc, a city councilman, was elected district attorney. The Democrats also kept fourteen of seventeen city council seats, losing one district seat while gaining another, and kept control of the other citywide offices. The election represented a further consolidation of control by the Democrats after their citywide victories of four years earlier.

Samuel Rose (Philadelphia)

Samuel Rose was a Democratic lawyer and politician from Philadelphia.

Michael J. Towey

Michael John Towey was an organized labor leader and Democratic politician from Philadelphia.

1953 Philadelphia municipal election

Philadelphia's municipal election of November 3, 1953, was the second held under the city charter of 1951 and represented the first test of the Democratic city government of Mayor Joseph S. Clark Jr. In the 1951 election, the voters had elected a Democratic mayor for the first time in 67 years, breaking the Republican hold on political power in the city. They had also elected a majority-Democratic City Council along with Democrats for district attorney and other citywide offices. In 1953, the voters had the chance to continue the Democratic trend or to block it in the election for City Controller, Register of Wills, and various judges and magistrates. On election day, the Republican organization recovered from their 1951 losses, electing all their candidates citywide. Republicans celebrated the victory, but subsequent Democratic triumphs in the 1955 and 1959 elections made the 1953 result more of an aberration than a true comeback for the once-powerful Philadelphia Republican machine.

1957 Philadelphia municipal election Municipal election in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Philadelphia's municipal election of November 5, 1957, involved the election of the district attorney, city controller, and the remainder of a term for one city council seat, as well as several row offices and judgeships. Democrats were successful citywide, continuing a run of victories racked up after the passage of a new city charter in 1951 despite growing divisions between factions of the party. Victor H. Blanc, the incumbent district attorney, led the Democratic ticket to victory. They held the city council seat and took two citywide offices that Republicans had won in 1953. In the judges' elections, most were endorsed by both parties but in the one race that pitted a Democratic candidate against a Republican, the Democrats were successful in seating their candidate, former Congressman Earl Chudoff.

Joseph Lorenz Kun was a Philadelphia lawyer and judge who served for thirty years on the Philadelphia Court of Common Pleas.

Paul DOrtona American politician

Paul D'Ortona was a Democratic politician from Philadelphia who served as President of Philadelphia's City Council.

1959 Philadelphia municipal election 1959 municipal election in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Philadelphia's municipal election of November 3, 1959 involved contests for mayor, all seventeen city council seats, and several other executive and judicial offices. Citywide, the Democrats took majorities of over 200,000 votes, continuing their success from the elections four years earlier. Richardson Dilworth, who had been elected mayor in 1955, was re-elected over Republican nominee Harold Stassen. The Democrats also took fifteen of seventeen city council seats, the most seats allowed to any one party under the 1951 city charter. They further kept control of the other citywide offices. The election represented a continued consolidation of control by the Democrats after their citywide victories of the previous eight years.

Henry W. Sawyer American lawyer, civil rights activist and politician

Henry Washington Sawyer III was an American lawyer, civil rights activist and politician. Born in Philadelphia, he served in the U.S. Navy in World War II, afterwards returning to the University of Pennsylvania Law School. Sawyer worked as a corporate lawyer but is best known for his advocacy of civil liberties, especially in First Amendment cases. In Abington School District v. Schempp and Lemon v. Kurtzman, he successfully argued cases on behalf of the American Civil Liberties Union before the Supreme Court of the United States that became the basis for all modern Establishment Clause jurisprudence. A member of the Democratic Party, he pursued civil rights causes in Philadelphia and in the South during the civil rights movement of the 1960s. He also served a four-year term on the Philadelphia City Council, where he worked for civil service reform and to increase the amount of public art in the city.

1960 Philadelphia City Council special election

Philadelphia's City Council special election of 1960 was held to fill two vacant city council seats. The first was in the 4th district, when Democrat Samuel Rose died in January 1960. A second vacancy that same year occurred in the 6th district when Democrat Michael J. Towey died suddenly in September 29. Special elections were scheduled for November 8, 1960, to be held at the same time as the national election that year. Both seats were easily held by the Democratic Party.

William A. Dwyer Jr.

William Aloysius Dwyer Jr. was an American lawyer, judge, and Democratic politician from Philadelphia. He served on the Philadelphia City Council from 1960 to 1963 and on the Pennsylvania Court of Common Pleas from 1967 until his death in 1982.

1961 Philadelphia municipal election

Philadelphia's municipal election of November 7, 1961, involved the election of the district attorney, city controller, and several judgeships. Democrats swept all of the city races but saw their vote totals much reduced from those of four years earlier, owing to a growing graft scandal in city government. District Attorney James C. Crumlish, Jr. and City Controller Alexander Hemphill, both incumbents, were returned to office. Several ballot questions were also approved, including one permitting limited sales of alcohol on Sundays.

Foster A. Dunlap

Foster Alexander Dunlap was a Republican lawyer and politician from Philadelphia who served as City Controller from 1954 to 1958.

Thomas McIntosh (politician)

Thomas McIntosh was a Democratic politician from Philadelphia who served three terms on the Philadelphia City Council.


  1. Mack 2012, pp. 45, 282 n.16.
  2. 1 2 3 Canton 2010, pp. 3–4.
  3. 1 2 WMP 1976, p. 1.
  4. 1 2 Canton 2010, p. 5.
  5. 1 2 3 Canton 2010, p. 6.
  6. 1 2 Mann 1974, p. 2-A.
  7. 1 2 Canton 2010, p. 8.
  8. Canton 2010, pp. 11–12.
  9. 1 2 3 Wharton 2007.
  10. Canton 2010, p. 16.
  11. 1 2 Canton 2010, p. 17.
  12. Canton 2010, p. 18.
  13. Fleming 1940, p. 39.
  14. Stone 1974, p. 3.
  15. Canton 2010, p. 20.
  16. WMP 1976, p. 6.
  17. 1 2 Canton 2010, p. 21.
  18. Fleming 1940, p. 6.
  19. Canton 2010, p. 22.
  20. Canton 2010, p. 25.
  21. Canton 2010, p. 26.
  22. Mack 2006, pp. 37–39.
  23. Canton 2010, p. 35.
  24. Maule 2014.
  25. 1 2 Canton 2008, p. 267.
  26. Thorne 2007, p. 65.
  27. 1 2 Fleming 1940, p. 7.
  28. Canton 2008, p. 269.
  29. Canton 2008, p. 271.
  30. Canton 2008, pp. 271–272.
  31. Canton 2008, p. 275.
  32. Canton 2008, p. 276.
  33. Canton 2008, pp. 277–278.
  34. Canton 2010, p. 72.
  35. Canton 2010, pp. 75–76.
  36. Murray 1945, p. 213.
  37. Canton 2010, pp. 81–82.
  38. Avery 1996.
  39. Canton 2010, pp. 86–88.
  40. 1 2 Canton 2008, pp. 97–98.
  41. Canton 2008, pp. 98–99; Knepper 2011, pp. 18, 120.
  42. Canton 2008, pp. 98–99.
  43. Canton 2008, pp. 100–101.
  44. Canton 2010, p. 104.
  45. Canton 2008, pp. 106–107.
  46. Canton 2010, p. 64.
  47. Canton 2010, p. 65.
  48. 1 2 3 Canton 2010, p. 67.
  49. Inquirer 1937, pp. 1–2, 10.
  50. Canton 2010, p. 89.
  51. Canton 2010, p. 90.
  52. Canton 2010, p. 91.
  53. 1 2 Canton 2010, p. 108.
  54. Canton 2010, p. 110.
  55. Canton 2010, pp. 112–117.
  56. 1 2 Canton 2010, p. 118.
  57. Petshek 1973, pp. 65–66.
  58. Bulletin Almanac 1952, p. 34.
  59. Canton 2010, p. 119.
  60. Canton 2010, p. 120.
  61. Reichly 1959, pp. 13, 15, 17.
  62. Canton 2010, p. 131.
  63. Canton 2010, pp. 134–136.
  64. Bulletin Almanac 1956, p. 26.
  65. Miller 1954.
  66. Schraga 1956a.
  67. Schraga 1956b.
  68. Canton 2010, p. 136.
  69. 1 2 Canton 2010, p. 137.
  70. Canton 2010, p. 138.
  71. Kranzel & Klinek 2009, p. 386.
  72. Canton 2010, p. 140-141.
  73. Miller 1959, p. 3.
  74. 1 2 Canton 2010, pp. 142–145.
  75. Freedman 1963, p. II–32.
  76. Canton 2010, pp. 147–148.
  77. Canton 2010, p. 152.
  78. Stone 1974, p. 10; Canton 2010, pp. 168–169.
  79. Canton 2010, pp. 168–169.
  80. Canton 2010, p. 185.
  81. Canton 2010, p. 180.
  82. Miller 1969, p. 5.
  83. 1 2 Mann 1974, p. 1-A.
  84. 1 2 Leong & Teitelbaum 2007.