Redology (simplified Chinese :红学; traditional Chinese :紅學; pinyin :hóng xué) is the academic study of Cao Xueqin's Dream of the Red Chamber , one of the Four Great Classical Novels of China. There are numerous researchers in this field; most can be divided into four general groups. The first group are the commentators, such as Zhou Chun, Xu Fengyi, Chen Yupi, and others. The second group is the index group, which mainly includes Wang Mengruan and Cai Yuanpei. The third group are the textual critics, including Hu Shih and Yu Pingbo. The final group are the literary critics, including Zhou Ruchang and Li Xifan.
A 1976 essay by Joey Bonner split the Chinese critical reception of the novel into five phases:
Hu Shih (Chinese: 胡適; pinyin: Hú Shì; Wade–Giles: Hu2 Shih4; 17 December 1891 – 24 February 1962), also known as Hu Suh in early references, was a Chinese philosopher, essayist and diplomat. Hu is widely recognized today as a key contributor to Chinese liberalism and language reform in his advocacy for the use of written vernacular Chinese. He was influential in the May Fourth Movement, one of the leaders of China's New Culture Movement, was a president of Peking University, and in 1939 was nominated for a Nobel Prize in literature. He had a wide range of interests such as literature, philosophy, history, textual criticism, and pedagogy. He was also an influential redology scholar and held the famous Jiaxu manuscript (甲戌本; Jiǎxū běn) for many years until his death.
The history of Chinese literature extends thousands of years, from the earliest recorded dynastic court archives to the mature vernacular fiction novels that arose during the Ming dynasty to entertain the masses of literate Chinese. The introduction of widespread woodblock printing during the Tang dynasty (618–907) and the invention of movable type printing by Bi Sheng (990–1051) during the Song dynasty (960–1279) rapidly spread written knowledge throughout China. In more modern times, the author Lu Xun (1881–1936) is considered an influential voice of baihua literature in China.
Dream of the Red Chamber, also called The Story of the Stone, or Hongloumeng, composed by Cao Xueqin, is one of China's Four Great Classical Novels. It was written some time in the middle of the 18th century during the Qing dynasty. Long considered a masterpiece of Chinese literature, the novel is generally acknowledged to be one of the pinnacles of Chinese fiction. "Redology" is the field of study devoted exclusively to this work.
Cáo Xuěqín ; was a Chinese writer during the Qing dynasty. He is best known as the author of Dream of the Red Chamber, one of the Four Great Classical Novels of Chinese literature. His given name was Cáo Zhān (曹霑) and his courtesy name was Mèngruǎn.
Liu Xinwu is a Chinese author, and one of the earliest proponents of the post-Maoist wave of Chinese literature.
Hu Deping is a Chinese politician and former vice chairman of All-China General Chamber of Industry & Commerce, Secretary of National Association of Industry and Commerce, former chairman of China-Africa Business Council. He is the eldest son of Hu Yaobang.
David Hawkes was a British sinologist and translator. After being introduced to Japanese through codebreaking during the Second World War, Hawkes studied Chinese and Japanese at Oxford University between 1945 and 1947 before studying at Peking University from 1948 to 1951. He then returned to Oxford, where he completed his D.Phil. and later became Shaw Professor of Chinese. In 1971, Hawkes resigned his position to focus entirely on his translation of the famous Chinese novel The Story of the Stone, which was published in three volumes between 1973 and 1980. He retired in 1984 to rural Wales before returning to Oxford in his final years.
Yu Pingbo, original name Yu Mingheng (俞銘衡) and courtesy name Pingbo (平伯), was a Chinese essayist, poet, historian, redologist, and literary critic.
Dream of the Red Chamber, first released in 1987, is a television series produced by CCTV adapted from the classic 18th century Chinese novel Dream of the Red Chamber. It gained enormous popularity for its music, cast, and plot adaptation. It was first filmed in Beijing in Mandarin, then the series was dubbed in Cantonese and Shanghainese. The series is 36 episodes long.
Gao E was a Qing dynasty Chinese scholar, writer, and editor. He attained the degree of juren in 1788 and jinshi in 1795. A Han Chinese who belonged to the Bordered Yellow Banner, he became a Fellow of the Hanlin Academy in 1801. His courtesy name was Yunfu (雲甫) and art name Lanshu.
Martin Woesler is a German sinologist, cultural scientist and translator of Chinese literature.
Dream of the Red Chamber is a 1944 Chinese film directed by Bu Wancang. It is an adaptation of the classic 18th century Qing-era novel by Cao Xueqin.
Zhiyanzhai was the pseudonym of an early and mysterious commentator of the 18th-century Chinese novel Dream of the Red Chamber. This person was a contemporary of the author Cao Xueqin who knew the author intimately enough to be regarded as the chief commentator of his work while it was still unpublished. Most early hand-copied manuscripts of the novel contain red or black-inked commentaries by a few unknown commentators, considered authoritative enough to be transcribed by scribes into subsequent generations of copies. Zhiyanzhai was the most prominent of these commentators. Early copies of Dream were known as 脂硯齋重評石頭記. These versions are known as 脂本, or "Rouge Versions", in Chinese. They are the manuscripts with the highest textual reliability.
In the study of the classic Chinese novel Dream of the Red Chamber, the Cheng-Gao versions or Cheng-Gao editions (程高本) refer to two illustrated, woodblock print editions of the book, published in 1791 and 1792, both entitled The Illustrated Dream of the Red Chamber (绣像红楼梦). The 1791 version, produced at the year's end, was the novel's earliest print edition. A revised edition, differing in minor details, was published less than eighty days after the first print edition in early 1792. Both editions were edited by Cheng Weiyuan (程
Zhou Ruchang, was a Chinese writer noted for his study of the novel Dream of the Red Chamber by Cao Xueqin. He is regarded as among the most renowned and influential redologists of the 20th century. In addition, Zhou was also an accomplished calligrapher and expert on traditional Chinese poetry and fiction.
Andrew Henry Plaks is an American sinologist who specializes in the study of the vernacular fiction of the Ming and Qing dynasties. From 1973 to 2007 he taught at Princeton University, becoming full professor in 1980. He moved to the Hebrew University of Jerusalem in 2007, where he is currently Professor of East Asian Studies.
Dream of the Red Chamber is a Taiwanese TV series based on Cao Xueqin's acclaimed 18th-century novel of the same name. Filmed mostly in Shanghai, the TV series was first broadcast on Chinese Television System from November 1996 to October 1997.
Fan Wencheng was a Qing dynasty Scholar-Official, Prime Minister and Grand Secretary (Daxue Shi). His official career went through four generation of Qing dynasty emperors through Nurhaci, Hong Taiji, Shunzhi, and Kangxi. Many rules and regulations in the early days of the Qing Dynasty were drafted by him.
Oldřich Král, also known by his Chinese name Wang Heda, was a Czech sinologist, translator and writer.
Li Xifan was a Chinese Marxist literary scholar and redologist. He became nationally famous in 1954, when his critique of the revered redologist Yu Pingbo was praised by Mao Zedong, who seized the opportunity to launch a nationwide campaign to criticize the idealism of Yu Pingbo and Hu Shih. Li later served as a long-time editor of the People's Daily and Vice President of the Chinese National Academy of Arts.