Reggaeton

Last updated

The scene in the summer of 1995; unknown duo from Residencial Luis Llorens Torres in San Juan, rapping at a club on the beach in Puerto Nuevo, Vega Baja

Reggaeton ( UK: /ˈrɛɡtn,ˌrɛɡˈtɒn/ , [5] [6] US: /ˌrɛɡˈtn,ˌrɡ-/ ), [7] [8] also known as reggaetón and reguetón [9] (Spanish:  [reɣeˈton] ), is a music style that originated in Panama during the late 1980s. [10] [11] [12] It was later popularized in Puerto Rico. [3]

Contents

It has evolved from dancehall and has been influenced by American hip hop, Latin American, and Caribbean music. Vocals include rapping and singing, typically in Spanish.

Reggaeton is regarded as one of the most popular music genres in the Spanish-speaking Caribbean, including Puerto Rico, Panama, Dominican Republic, Cuba, Colombia, and Venezuela. [13] Over the 2010s, the genre has seen increased popularity across Latin America, as well as acceptance within mainstream Western music. [14]

Etymology

The word reggaeton (formed from the word reggae plus the augmentative suffix -tón) was first used in 1988 when El General's representative Michael Ellis gave it that name to describe it as "reggae grande" (big reggae). [1] The spellings reggaeton and reggaetón are common, although prescriptivist sources such as the Fundéu BBVA and the Academia Puertorriqueña de la Lengua Española recommend the spelling reguetón, as it conforms more closely with traditional Spanish spelling rules. [9] [15]

History

Daddy Yankee is known as the "King of Reggaeton". DaddyYankee.jpg
Daddy Yankee is known as the "King of Reggaetón".

Often mistaken for reggae or reggae en Español, reggaeton is a younger genre that originated in the late-1980s in Panama and since then hasfrom become popularized by Puerto Rican artists. [10] [11] [1] It had its origins in what was known as Rap y reggae "underground" music, due to its circulation through informal networks and performances at unofficial venues. DJ Playero and DJ Nelson were inspired by hip hop and Dancehall to produce "riddims", the first reggaeton tracks. As Caribbean and African-American music gained momentum in Puerto Rico, reggae rap in Spanish marked the beginning of the Boricua underground and was a creative outlet for many young people. This created an inconspicuous-yet-prominent underground youth culture which sought to express itself. As a youth culture existing on the fringes of society and the law, it has often been criticized. The Puerto Rican police launched a campaign against underground music by confiscating cassette tapes from music stores under penal obscenity codes, levying fines and demonizing rappers in the media. [17] Bootleg recordings and word of mouth became the primary means of distribution for this music until 1998, when it coalesced into modern reggaeton. The genre's popularity increased when it was discovered by international audiences during the early 2000s. [18]

Cassettes were made in carports (marquesinas) and then sold on the street, out of the trunk of a car. Casa con dos marquesinas en San Sebastian, Puerto Rico.jpg
Cassettes were made in carports (marquesinas) and then sold on the street, out of the trunk of a car.

The new genre, simply called "underground" and later "perreo", had explicit lyrics about drugs, violence, poverty, friendship, love and sex. These themes, depicting the troubles of inner-city life, can still be found in reggaeton. "Underground" music was recorded in marquesinas (or carports) by creators using second-hand recording equipment, mostly. [19] The cassettes were then sold or distributed on the streets from the trunk of a car. [19] [17] Many of the recordings were made in small marquesinas [19] and at public "housing complexes such as Villa Kennedy, and Jurutungo". [20] [17] Despite that, the quality of the cassettes was good enough to help increase their popularity among Puerto Rican youth. The availability and quality of the cassettes led to reggaeton's popularity, which crossed socioeconomic barriers in the Puerto Rican music scene. The most popular cassettes in the early 1990s were DJ Negro's The Noise I and II and DJ Playero's 37 and 38. Gerardo Cruet, who created the recordings, spread the genre from the marginalized residential areas into other sectors of society, particularly private schools.

By the mid-1990s, "underground" cassettes were being sold in music stores. The genre caught on with middle-class youth, then found its way into the media. By this time, Puerto Rico had several clubs dedicated to the underground scene; Club Rappers in Carolina and PlayMakers in Puerto Nuevo were the most notable. Bobby "Digital" Dixon's "Dem Bow" production was played in clubs. Underground music was not originally intended to be club music. In South Florida, DJ Laz and Hugo Diaz of the Diaz Brothers were popularizing the genre from Palm Beach to Miami.

Underground music in Puerto Rico was harshly criticized. In February 1995, there was a government-sponsored campaign against underground music and its cultural influence. Puerto Rican police raided six record stores in San Juan, [21] hundreds of cassettes were confiscated and fines imposed in accordance with Laws 112 and 117 against obscenity. [17] The Department of Education banned baggy clothing and underground music from schools. [22] For months after the raids local media demonized rappers, calling them "irresponsible corrupters of the public order." [17]

In 1995, DJ Negro released The Noise 3 with a mockup label reading, "Non-explicit lyrics". The album had no cursing until the last song. It was a hit, and underground music continued to seep into the mainstream. Senator Velda González of the Popular Democratic Party and the media continued to view the movement as a social nuisance. [23]

During the mid-1990s, the Puerto Rican police and National Guard confiscated reggaeton tapes and CDs to get "obscene" lyrics out of the hands of consumers. [24] Schools banned hip hop clothing and music to quell reggaeton's influence. In 2002, Senator González led public hearings to regulate the sexual "slackness" of reggaeton lyrics. Although the effort did not seem to negatively affect public opinion about reggaeton, it reflected the unease of the government and the upper social classes with what the music represented. Because of its often sexually-charged content and its roots in poor, urban communities, many middle- and upper-class Puerto Ricans found reggaeton threatening, "immoral, as well as artistically deficient, a threat to the social order, apolitical". [22]

Despite the controversy, reggaeton slowly gained acceptance as part of Puerto Rican culture — helped, in part, by politicians including González who began to use reggaeton in election campaigns to appeal to younger voters in 2003. [22] Puerto Rican mainstream acceptance of reggaeton has grown and the genre has become part of popular culture, including a 2006 Pepsi commercial with Daddy Yankee [25] and PepsiCo's choice of Ivy Queen as musical spokesperson for Mountain Dew. [26] [ unreliable source? ] Other examples of greater acceptance in Puerto Rico are religiously- and educationally-influenced lyrics; Reggae School is a rap album produced to teach math skills to children, similar to School House Rock . [27] Reggaeton expanded when other producers, such as DJ Nelson and DJ Eric, followed DJ Playero. During the 1990s, Ivy Queen's 1996 album En Mi Imperio , DJ Playero's Playero 37 (introducing Daddy Yankee) and The Noise: Underground, The Noise 5 and The Noise 6 were popular in Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic. Don Chezina, Tempo, Eddie Dee, Baby Rasta & Gringo and Lito & Polaco were also popular.

The name "reggaeton" became prominent during the early 2000s, characterized by the dembow beat. It was coined in Puerto Rico to describe a unique fusion of Puerto Rican music. [18] Reggaeton is currently popular throughout Latin America. It increased in popularity with Latino youth in the United States when DJ Joe and DJ Blass worked with Plan B and Sir Speedy [28] on Reggaeton Sex, Sandunguero and Fatal Fantasy.

2004: Crossover

In 2004, reggaeton became popular throughout the United States and Europe. Tego Calderón was receiving airplay in the U.S., and the music was popular among youth. Daddy Yankee's El Cangri.com became popular that year in the country, as did Héctor & Tito. Luny Tunes and Noriega's Mas Flow , Yaga & Mackie's Sonando Diferente , Tego Calderón's El Abayarde , Ivy Queen's Diva , Zion & Lennox's Motivando a la Yal and the Desafío compilation were also well-received. Rapper N.O.R.E. released a hit single, "Oye Mi Canto". Daddy Yankee released Barrio Fino and a hit single, "Gasolina", opening the door for reggaeton globally. [29] Tego Calderón recorded the singles "Pa' Que Retozen" and "Guasa Guasa". Don Omar was popular, particularly in Europe, with "Pobre Diabla" and "Dale Don Dale". [30] Other popular reggaeton artists include Tony Dize, Angel & Khriz, Nina Sky, Dyland & Lenny, RKM & Ken-Y, Julio Voltio, Calle 13, Héctor Delgado, Wisin & Yandel and Tito El Bambino. In late 2004 and early 2005, inspired by the success of "Gasolina", Shakira collaborated with Alejandro Sanz to record "La Tortura" and "La Tortura – Shaketon Remix" for her album, Fijación Oral Vol. 1 , further popularizing reggaeton. [31] Four reggaeton songs were sung at the 2005 MTV Video Music Awards: by Don Omar ("Dile"), Tego Calderón, Daddy Yankee, and Shakira with Sanz – the first time any reggaeton song was performed on that stage.

Musicians began to incorporate bachata into reggaeton, [32] with Ivy Queen releasing singles ("Te He Querido, Te He Llorado" and "La Mala") featuring bachata's signature guitar sound, slower, romantic rhythms and emotive singing style. [32] Daddy Yankee's "Lo Que Paso, Paso" and Don Omar's "Dile" are also bachata-influenced. In 2005 producers began to remix existing reggaeton music with bachata, marketing it as bachaton : "bachata, Puerto Rican style". [32]

2006–2017: Topping the charts

In May 2006, Don Omar's King of Kings was the highest-ranking reggaeton LP to date on the U.S. charts, debuting atop the Top Latin Albums chart and peaking at number seven on the Billboard 200 chart. Omar's single, "Angelito", topped the Billboard Latin Rhythm Radio Chart. [33] He broke Britney Spears' in-store-appearance sales record at Downtown Disney's Virgin music store.

In June 2007, Daddy Yankee's El Cartel III: The Big Boss set a first-week sales record for a reggaeton album, with 88,000 copies sold. [34] It topped the Top Latin Albums and Top Rap Albums charts, the first reggaeton album to do so on the latter. The album peaked at number nine on the Billboard 200, the second-highest reggaeton album on the mainstream chart. [35]

Wisin & Yandel Wisin & Yandel.jpg
Wisin & Yandel

The third-highest-ranking reggaeton album was Wisin & Yandel's Wisin vs. Yandel: Los Extraterrestres , which debuted at number 14 on the Billboard 200 and number one on the Top Latin Albums chart later in 2007. [36] In 2008 Daddy Yankee soundtrack to his film, Talento de Barrio , debuted at number 13 on the Billboard 200 chart. It peaked at number one on the Top Latin Albums chart, number three on Billboard's Top Soundtracks and number six on the Top Rap Albums chart. [35] In 2009, Wisin & Yandel's La Revolución debuted at number seven on the Billboard 200, number one on the Top Latin Albums and number three on the Top Rap Albums charts.

By 2008, Reggaeton was the "biggest-selling genre of Latin music" and one of its artists, Tego Calderon, was using it to describe and encourage black pride. [37]

2017–present: "Despacito" effect

J Balvin in 2017 J Balvin - Ay Vamos - Festival de Vina del Mar 2017 (4).jpg
J Balvin in 2017

In 2017, the music video for "Despacito" by Luis Fonsi featuring Daddy Yankee reached one billion views in less than three months. From January 2018 to November 2020, the music video was the most viewed YouTube video of all-time. With its 3.3 million certified sales plus track-equivalent streams, "Despacito" became one of the best-selling Latin singles in the United States. The success of the song and its remix version led Daddy Yankee to become the most listened-to artist worldwide on the streaming service Spotify on 9 July 2017, being the first Latin artist to do so. [38] [39] [40] He later became the fifth most listened-to male artist and the sixth overall of 2017 on Spotify. [41] In June 2017, "Despacito" was cited by Billboard's Leila Cobo as the song that renewed interest in the Latin music market from recording labels in the United States. [42] Julyssa Lopez of The Washington Post stated that the successes of "Despacito" and J Balvin's "Mi Gente" is "the beginning of a new Latin crossover era." [43] Stephanie Ho of Genius website wrote that "the successes of 'Despacito' and 'Mi Gente' could point to the beginning of a successful wave for Spanish-language music in the US." [44] Ho also stated that "as 'Despacito' proves, fans don't need to understand the language in order to enjoy the music", referring to the worldwide success of the song, including various non-Spanish-speaking countries. [44]

"Te Boté" and the minimalist dembow

In April 2018, "Te Boté" was released by Nio Garcia, Casper Magico, Darell, Ozuna, Bad Bunny and Nicky Jam. It reached number one on the Billboard Hot Latin Songs chart. It currently has over 1.8 billion views on YouTube. [45] Many artists began to mark strong commercial trends in a market dominated by mixing Latin trap and reggaeton followed by a new minimalist dembow rhythm. For example, songs such as "Adictiva" by Daddy Yankee and Anuel AA, "Asesina" by Brytiago and Darell, "Cuando Te Besé" by Becky G and Paulo Londra, "No Te Veo" by Casper Magico and many other songs have been made in this style. [46] [47]

Characteristics

Rhythm

The dembow riddim was created by Jamaican dancehall producers during the late 1980s and early 1990s. Dembow consists of a kick drum, kickdown drum, palito, snare drum, timbal, timballroll and (sometimes) a high-hat cymbal. Dembow's percussion pattern was influenced by dancehall and other West Indian music (soca, calypso and cadence); this gives dembow a pan-Caribbean flavor. Steely & Clevie, creators of the Poco Man Jam riddim, are usually credited with the creation of dembow. [48] At its heart is the 3+3+2 (tresillo) rhythm, complemented by a bass drum in 4/4 time. [49]

The riddim was first highlighted by Shabba Ranks in "Dem Bow", from his 1991 album Just Reality . To this day, elements of the song's accompaniment track are found in over 80% of all reggaeton productions. [50] During the mid-1980s, dancehall music was revolutionized by the electronic keyboard and drum machine; subsequently, many dancehall producers used them to create different dancehall riddims. Dembow's role in reggaeton is a basic building block, a skeletal sketch in percussion.

In Reggaeton 'dembow' also incorporates identical Jamaican riddims such as Bam Bam, Hot This Year, Poco Man Jam, Fever Pitch, Red Alert, Trailer Reloaded and Big Up riddims, and several samples are often used. Some reggaeton hits incorporate a lighter, electrified version of the riddim. Examples are "Pa' Que la Pases Bien" and "Quiero Bailar", which uses the Liquid riddim. [51] Since 2018 a new variation of the Dembow rhythm has emerged; Starting with Te Bote, a sharper minimalist Dembow has become a stable of Reggaeton production which has allowed for more syncopated rhythmic experiments. [52] [53]

Lyrics and themes

Reggaeton lyrical structure resembles that of hip hop. Although most reggaeton artists recite their lyrics rapping (or resembling rapping) rather than singing, many alternate rapping and singing. Reggaeton uses traditional verse-chorus-bridge hip hop structure. Like hip hop, reggaeton songs have a hook which is repeated throughout the song. Latino ethnic identity is a common musical, lyrical and visual theme.

Unlike hip-hop CDs, reggaeton discs generally do not have parental advisories. An exception is Daddy Yankee's Barrio Fino en Directo (Barrio Fino Live), whose live material (and with Snoop Dogg in "Gangsta Zone") were labeled explicit. Snoop Dogg and Daddy Yankee filmed the video for "Gangsta Zone" in Torres Sabana housing projects in Carolina, Puerto Rico on January 27, 2006. Shot in grayscale, [54] Daddy Yankee said the video depicts "the real way we live on the island". [55]

Artists such as Alexis & Fido circumvent radio and television censorship by sexual innuendo and lyrics with double meanings. Some songs have raised concerns about their depiction of women. [56] Although reggaeton began as a mostly-male genre, the number of women artists has been a slowly increasing and include the "Queen of Reggaeton", Ivy Queen, [57] Mey Vidal, K-Narias, Adassa, La Sista and Glory.

Dance

Sandungueo, or perreo, is a dance associated with reggaeton which emerged during the early 1990s in Puerto Rico. It focuses on grinding, with one partner facing the back of the other (usually male behind female). [58] Another way of describing this dance is "back-to-front", where the woman presses her rear into the pelvis of her partner to create sexual stimulation. Since traditional couple dancing is face-to-face (such as square dancing and the waltz), reggaeton dancing initially shocked observers with its sensuality but was featured in several music videos. [59] It is also known as daggering, grinding or juking in the English-speaking areas of the U.S. [60]

Popularity

Latin America

Over the past decade,[ when? ] reggaeton has received mainstream recognition in the Spanish-speaking Caribbean, where the genre originated from, including Puerto Rico, Cuba, Panama, the Dominican Republic, Colombia and Venezuela, where it is now regarded as one of the most popular music genres. Reggaeton has also seen increased popularity in the wider Latin America region, including in El Salvador, Honduras, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Mexico, Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, Ecuador and Peru.

In Cuba, reggaeton came to incorporate elements of traditional Cuban music, leading to the hybrid Cubaton. Two bands credited with popularizing Cubaton are Máxima Alerta (founded in 1999) and Cubanito 20.02. The former is notable for fusing Cubaton with other genres, such as son Cubano, conga, cumbia, salsa, merengue, and Cuban rumba, as well as styles and forms such as rap and ballads, whereas the latter's music is influenced more by Jamaican music. [61] [62] The government of Cuba imposed restrictions on reggaeton in public places in 2012. In March 2019, the government went a step further; they banned the "aggressive, sexually explicit and obscene messages of reggaeton" from radio and television, as well as performances by street musicians. [63]

The first name of reggaeton in Brazil was the Señores Cafetões group, who became known in 2007 with the track "Piriguete" - which at the time was mistakenly mistaken by Brazilians for hip hop and Brazilian funk because reggaeton was still a genre almost unknown in the country. [64] In Brazil, this musical genre only reached a reasonable popularity around the middle of the decade of 2010. The first great success of the genre in the country was the song "Yes or no" by Anitta with Maluma. One of the explanations for reggaeton has not reached the same level of popularity that exists in other Latin American countries is due to the fact that Brazil is a Portuguese-speaking country, which has historically led it to become more isolationist than other Latin American countries in the musical scene. The musical rhythm only became popular in the country when it reached other markets, like the American.[ clarification needed ] The genre is now overcoming the obstacle of language. Some of the biggest names in the Brazilian music market have partnered with artists from other Latin American countries and explored the rhythm.

United States

The New York-based rapper N.O.R.E., also known as Noreaga, produced Nina Sky's 2004 hit "Oye Mi Canto", which featured Tego Calderón and Daddy Yankee, and reggaeton became popular in the U.S. [65] Daddy Yankee then caught the attention of many hip-hop artists with his song "Gasolina", [65] and that year XM Radio introduced its reggaeton channel, Fuego (XM). Although XM Radio removed the channel in December 2007 from home and car receivers, it can still be streamed from the XM Satellite Radio website. Reggaeton is the foundation of a Latin-American commercial-radio term, hurban, [65] a combination of "Hispanic" and "urban" used to evoke the musical influences of hip hop and Latin American music. Reggaeton, which evolved from dancehall and reggae, and with influences from hip hop has helped Latin-Americans contribute to urban American culture and keep many aspects of their Hispanic heritage. The music relates to American socioeconomic issues, including gender and race, in common with hip hop. [65]

Europe

Although reggaeton is less popular in Europe than it is in Latin America, it appeals to Latin American immigrants, especially in Spain. [66] A Spanish media custom, "La Canción del Verano" ("The Song of the Summer"), in which one or two songs define the season's mood, was the basis of the popularity of reggaeton songs such as "Baila Morena" by Héctor & Tito and Daddy Yankee's "Gasolina" in 2005.

Asia

In the Philippines, reggaeton artists primarily use the Filipino language instead of Spanish or English. One example of a popular local reggaeton act is Zamboangueño duo Dos Fuertes, who had a dance hit in 2007 with "Tarat Tat", and who primarily uses the Chavacano language in their songs.

In 2020, Malaysian rapper Namewee released the single and music video "China Reggaeton" featuring Anthony Wong. It is the first time reggaeton was sung in the Chinese languagea of Mandarin and Hakka and accompanied by traditional Chinese instruments like the erhu, pipa and guzheng, creating a fusion of reggaeton and traditional Chinese musical styles. [67]

Criticism

Despite the great popularity of the genre as a whole, reggaeton has also attracted criticism due to its constant references to sexual and violent themes. Mexican singer-songwriter Aleks Syntek made a public post on social media complaining that such music was played on Mexico City's airport in the morning with children present. [68] By 2019, other singers who expressed dismay over the genre included vallenato singer Carlos Vives and Heroes Del Silencio singer Enrique Bunbury. [69] That same year, some activists stated that reggaeton music gives way to misogynistic and sadistic messages. [70]

Some reggaeton singers have decided to counteract such accusations. One notable example is singer Flex, who in 2009 committed himself to singing songs with romance messages, a sub genre he dubbed “romantic style”. [71]

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Vico C</span> American rapper

Luis Armando Lozada Cruz, known by his stage name Vico C, is an American rapper and record producer. Regarded as the founding father of reggaeton, Vico C has played an influential role in the development of Latin American hip hop and urban music.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Music of Puerto Rico</span> Music and musical traditions of Puerto Rico

The music of Puerto Rico has evolved as a heterogeneous and dynamic product of diverse cultural resources. The most conspicuous musical sources have been Spain and West Africa, although many aspects of Puerto Rican music reflect origins elsewhere in Europe and the Caribbean. Puerto Rican music culture today comprises a wide and rich variety of genres, ranging from essentially indigenous genres like bomba to recent hybrids like Latin trap and reggaeton. Broadly conceived, the realm of "Puerto Rican music" should naturally comprise the music culture of the millions of people of Puerto Rican descent who have lived in the United States, and especially in New York City. Their music, from salsa to the boleros of Rafael Hernández, cannot be separated from the music culture of Puerto Rico itself.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tego Calderón</span> Puerto Rican rapper

Tegui Calderón Rosario is a Puerto Rican rapper, singer and actor. He began his musical career in 1996 and was supported by the famous Puerto Rican rapper Eddie Dee, who invited him on his second studio album, El Terrorista De La Lírica, released in 2000. Calderón reached international success in 2003 with his first album, El Abayarde, which sold 300,000 copies worldwide and was nominated for a Latin Grammy Award. His importance in reggaeton music led him to participate in Eddie Dee's 12 Discípulos album in 2004. He released three more studio albums between 2006 and 2015, varying in styles, focusing more in hip hop and African music rather than reggaeton in The Underdog (2006) and El Abayarde Contraataca (2007). His fourth studio album, El Que Sabe, Sabe, released in 2015, won a Latin Grammy Award for Best Urban Music Album. In the same year, he announced that he is planning a studio album alongside the Puerto Rican reggaeton and pop singer Yandel titled El Blanco Y El Negro.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Daddy Yankee</span> Puerto Rican rapper and singer (born 1976)

Ramón Luis Ayala Rodríguez, known professionally as Daddy Yankee, is a Puerto Rican rapper, singer, composer, and actor. Known as the "King of Reggaetón" by music critics and fans alike, he is the artist who coined the word reggaeton in 1991 in the mixtape Playero 34 in the song "So persigueme, no te detengas" to describe the new music genre that was emerging from Puerto Rico that synthesized American hip-hop, Hispanic Caribbean music, and Jamaican reggae rhythms with Spanish rapping and singing. He is often cited as an influence by other Hispanic R&B/Hip-Hop performers.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">El General</span> Panamanian dancehall reggaeton artist

Edgardo Armando Franco, better known as El General, is a Panamanian former reggae artist considered by some to be one of the fathers of "Reggae en Español". During the early 1990s, he was one of the artists who initiated the Spanish-language dancehall variety of reggae music. Early examples of this were the international and somewhat mainstream songs, "Te Ves Buena" and "Tu Pum Pum". “Tu Pum Pum" emerged after a friend of El General invited him to collaborate with a Jamaican producer that was searching for a “different sound in Panama." Both songs, performed in Spanish deejaying style, were very successful in North America. After getting his foot in the door of the commercial market, many other Spanish-language dancehall reggae artists became famous in the mainstream as well. He has a unique, easy to listen to style of dance music and has produced many well-known songs all over Latin America. This style is called reggae en Español, because he makes dancehall reggae music with Spanish-language lyrics. El General retired in 2004 and became a Jehovah's Witness.

Dembow is a Dominican musical genre that can be traced to a riddim that originated in Jamaican dancehall. When Shabba Ranks released "Dem Bow" in 1990, it did not take long for the dembow genre to form. Riddims were built from the song and the sound became a popular part of reggaeton. From there it took off in Dominican Republic creating the sound UNDERWORLD. It hit the streets of New York and from there it made its way to all of Latin America. The Dominican Dembow sound keeps evolving and has been fusioned with Trap music since 2016 and it's also fused with Bachata and Merengue from the Dominican Republic. Dembow artists are called "Dembowseros"

<i>Playero 38</i> 1993 studio album by DJ Playero

Playero 38 is DJ Playero's 2nd album, recorded sometime between 1993. With the success of Playero 37: Underground, The Noise: Underground, The Noise Vol. 1 and The Noise Vol. 2 giving reggaeton great momentum, DJ Playero released Playero 38: Underground. It established the dembow as the official rhythm of reggaeton, while lifting the genre to mainstream status. However, as with Playero 37, many of the lyrics focus on promoting the use of marijuana, and this added to the negative perception the genre gained in its early stages. Consequently, the government of Puerto Rico confiscated thousands of reggaeton records, because of the lack of disclosure about their explicit content.

Bachatón is a fusion genre of reggaeton from Puerto Rico and bachata from the Dominican Republic. Bachaton combines bachata melodies and reggaeton style beats, lyrics, rapping, and disc jockeying. The word "bachatón" is a combination of "bachata" and "reggaeton". "Bachatón" was coined and widely accepted in 2005. It is a subgenre of reggaeton and bachata.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Héctor el Father</span> Puerto Rican rapper, singer and record producer

Héctor Luis Delgado Román is a Puerto Rican rapper, singer and record producer, formerly known by his stage names Héctor "El Father" and Héctor "El Bambino".

<i>Diva</i> (Ivy Queen album) 2003 studio album by Ivy Queen

Diva is the third studio album by Puerto Rican reggaetón recording artist Ivy Queen. It was released on August 23, 2003 and independently distributed by Real Music Group after being dropped from Sony Discos. The recording followed her two previous studio albums which were commercially unsuccessful and a hiatus from her musical career beginning in 1999. It featured collaborations with Latin hip hop artists including Mexicano 777, Bimbo and K-7 while the album's production was handled by a variety of musical producers; Luny Tunes, DJ Nelson, Noriega, and Iván Joy were enlisted, while DJ Adam produced a majority of the tracks. Lyrically, the album explored female empowerment, infidelity, heartbreak and love with "a veritable compendium of her artistic passion, femininity, and culture". The musical styles of the recording alternate between reggaetón and hip-hop while Queen experiments with R&B, dancehall, and pop balladry.

<i>Real</i> (Ivy Queen album) 2004 studio album by Ivy Queen

Real is the fourth studio album by Puerto Rican reggaetón recording artist Ivy Queen, released on November 21, 2004, by Universal Music Latino. Initially to be Queen's debut full-length English-language studio album, it featured collaborations with hip hop and fellow reggaetón artists Hector El Father, Fat Joe, Getto & Gastam, La India, Gran Omar and Mickey Perfecto. The album was primarily produced by Rafi Mercenario, and included guest production by American producer Swizz Beatz, Puerto Rican producers Ecko, Noriega, Monserrate and DJ Nelson. The executive producers were Goguito "Willy" Guadalupe, Gran Omar and Queen.

White Lion Records is a reggaeton, Latin Music, Latín reggae and urbano record label established by Elías de León with the release of the album No Mercy by Daddy Yankee in 1995. The label would temporarily change its name to 'Boricua Guerrero' from 1996-2001 until reestablishing as White Lion Records with the releases of Maicol y Manuel's "Como En Los Tiempos De Antes" and the compilation "Planet Reggae" in 2002. As an independent label in 2003, it was selling over 100,000 copies of Tego Calderon's most recent album at the time; it soon after signed a distribution deal with Sony BMG.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Pegaito a la Pared</span>

"Pegaito a la Pared" is the first single by Puerto Rican reggaeton performer Tego Calderón from his upcoming fifth album El Que Sabe, Sabe. It was released on iTunes on November 1, 2008 through Jiggiri Records. The single is produced by Nely "El Arma Secreta". An official remix with Plan B was released on February 3, 2009. The remix is also available on iTunes. "No Se Ve" was the first version to reach the charts, debuting at # 20, and peaking at # 18. During Summer 2009, the original version of Pegaito a la Pared reached the Latin Rhythm Airplay charts debuting at # 23. An instrumental version of the song was released on iTunes.

Alternative reggaeton is a subgenre of reggaeton that emerged from the hip hop movement as a reaction to its repetitive and monotone dembow rhythm, and the predominant stereotypical gangsta content that became predictable. The result was a complex sound derived from world sounds, mainly rooted in Latin American folk music such as Puerto Rican bomba y plena, salsa and tango and also other foreign influenced music such as rock en español. Mixed with thoughtful lyricism guided by an anti-colonialism discourse, Latin American sociopolitical content and racial pride, it gave listeners a smooth blend of danceable rhythms and intellectual dialogue.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Iván Joy</span> Puerto Rican music producer

Iván Manuel García de la Noceda Joy, known artistically as Ivan Joy, is the musical producer in the Latin American urban genre. In 2000 he established his label "Diamond Music", which is already 16 years in the process of distribution and creation of music products.

Eddie Alexander Ávila Ortiz, originally known by his stage name Eddie Dee, is a Puerto Rican hip hop recording artist, lyricist and dancer. He began his career in 1990 and launched his debut studio album three years later. He became one of the more popular Urban artists from Puerto Rico after appearing on DJ Adam's Mad Jam vol. 2 in 1997.It featured the hit single "Señor Official". His following releases El Terrorista de la Lírica (2000) and Biografía (2001), too enjoyed underground success. The 2004 album 12 Discípulos is regarded as "the greatest reggaetón various artist album of all time". The album features songs by some of the most successful reggaetón artist, including the intro of the album, where they all come together as one to show that "unity is needed for the genre reggaetón to survive and evolve". It was a collaboration between eleven other artist including Daddy Yankee, Tego Calderon, Ivy Queen, and Vico C among others, who were among the most requested at the time. The track, known as "Los 12 Discípulos" or "Quítate Tu Pa' Ponerme Yo" reached number eight on the Billboard Tropical Songs chart, and was nominated for a 2005 Billboard Latin Music Award for "Tropical Airplay Track of the Year, New Artist". The album itself reached number one on the Billboard Tropical Albums chart for three nonconsecutive weeks. Though retired since 2015, Eddie Dee is generally regarded within the worldwide Reggaeton and Spanish Hip Hop Communities as one of its most important and influential figures alongside the likes of Daddy Yankee, Vico C, Tego Calderon and Ivy Queen. Tagwut is actually an album by DJ Black, not Eddie Dee but he appears in it performing one of his hits 'Directamente Del Ghetto'.

"Dem Bow" is a song performed by Jamaican reggae artist Shabba Ranks, produced by Bobby Digital. This song uses the "Ku-Klung-Klung"/"Poco Man Jam" riddim created by Jamaican producers Steely & Clevie in the late 1980s. The lyrics are anti-imperialist and also anti-homosexual, as Ranks compares those who perform sodomy to those who submit to colonialism.

Pedro Gerardo Torruellas Brito, better known as Playero DJ, DJ Playero, Playe, Play, was a key figure in the dissemination of reggaeton during its formative period in the 1990s in San Juan, Puerto Rico.

Urbano music or Latin urban is a transnational umbrella category including many different genres and styles. As an umbrella term it includes reggaeton, dancehall, dembow, urban champeta, funk carioca and Latin hip hop. The commercial breakthrough of this music took place in 2017. Artists in the style collaborate transnationally, and may originate from the United States including Puerto Rico in particular, Colombia, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Panama, Venezuela or other Spanish-speaking nations, as well as Portuguese-speaking Brazil.

References

  1. 1 2 3 El reggaetón: cuatro décadas de historia con fusiones latinas
  2. "Reggaeton's true origins have long been overlooked. An important new podcast sets the record straight". Washington Post. Retrieved 18 May 2022.
  3. 1 2 "You Love Reggaeton, But Do You Know Where it Came From?". Shondaland. 12 June 2019. Retrieved 18 May 2022.
  4. "Vibra Urbana Festival Spotlighted Reggaeton Around the World: Get to Know 15 Artists". Latina.com. 9 May 2022. Retrieved 18 May 2022.
  5. "Reggaeton". Collins English Dictionary . HarperCollins. Archived from the original on 3 July 2019. Retrieved 3 July 2019.
  6. "reggaeton". Lexico UK English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 22 March 2020.
  7. "reggaeton". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). HarperCollins. Retrieved 3 July 2019.
  8. "reggaeton". Merriam-Webster Dictionary . Retrieved 3 July 2019.
  9. 1 2 "Reguetón" Archived 3 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine . Fundéu BBVA. Retrieved 20 January 2012. "The adaptation 'reguetón' is appropriate and already has a certain use. Therefore it is the recommended form. If the original form is used, it would be written in italics, although since it is a mix of an English word and a Spanish one, there are reasons to write it with tilde and without it (problem solved by the completely adapted form)."
  10. 1 2 "El Reggaetón nació en Panamá". Diariovasco.com. 15 July 2008. Retrieved 4 March 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  11. 1 2 Reggaetón nació en Panamá y no en Puerto Rico
  12. "Reggaeton's History Is Complex. A New Podcast Helps Us Listen That Way". New York Times . Retrieved 21 June 2022.
  13. "The rise of reggaeton". The Stanford Daily . 27 April 2018. Archived from the original on 18 November 2018. Retrieved 17 November 2018.
  14. "The reggaeton revolution is here, and Nicky Jam saw it coming". NBC News . Archived from the original on 17 November 2018. Retrieved 17 November 2018.
  15. "Ya No Sería 'Reggaetón' Sino 'Reguetón'" Archived 17 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine . El Mundo. Retrieved 20 January 2012. "The music genre Puerto Ricans Daddy Yankee, Don Omar and Calle 13 are spreading through the world has a name; it is pronounced 'reguetón', but there is no consensus of how to write it in Spanish; the Puerto Rican Academy of the Spanish Language will propose that it be written how it is said."
  16. Corbett, Sara (5 February 2006). "The King of Reggeatón". The New York Times . Archived from the original on 12 June 2018. Retrieved 30 March 2016.
  17. 1 2 3 4 5 Mayra Santos, "Puerto Rican Underground", Centro vol. 8 1 & 2 (1996), p. 219-231.
  18. 1 2 Wayne Marshall (19 January 2006). "Rise of Reggaetón". The Phoenix. Archived from the original on 2 October 2008. Retrieved 24 July 2006.
  19. 1 2 3 "Crónica: Las guardianas del reguetón". El Nuevo Día (in Spanish). 24 July 2022. Retrieved 25 July 2022.
  20. "Portraits of Daddy Yankee in Villa Kennedy Puerto Rico". Alamy. 23 July 2022. Retrieved 23 July 2022.
  21. Sara Corbett (5 February 2006). "The King of Reggaetón". The New York Times . Archived from the original on 12 June 2011. Retrieved 30 January 2008.
  22. 1 2 3 Frances Negrón-Muntaner and Raquel Z. Rivera. "Reggaeton Nation". Archived from the original on 21 December 2007. Retrieved 17 December 2007.
  23. Hilda Garcia and Gonzalo Salvador. "Reggaeton: The Emergence of a New Rhythm". Archived from the original on 15 January 2005. Retrieved 23 June 2007.
  24. John Marino, "Police Seize Recordings, Say Content Is Obscene", San Juan Star, 3 February 1995; Raquel Z. Rivera, "Policing Morality, Mano Dura Style: The Case of Underground Rap and Reggae in Puerto Rico in the Mid-1990s", in Reading Reggaeton.
  25. Matt Caputo. "Daddy Yankee: The Voice of His People". Archived from the original on 2 March 2008. Retrieved 29 January 2008.
  26. "Amazon.com: Sentimiento: Music: Editorial Reviews". Amazon.com. Archived from the original on 8 January 2013. Retrieved 3 December 2012.
  27. Giovannetti, Jorge L. (2003). Frances R. Aparicio and Cándida F. Jáquez (ed.). "Popular Music and Culture in Puerto Rico: Jamaican and Rap Music as Cross-Cultural Symbols" Musical Migrations: Transnationalism and Cultural Hybridity in the Americas. New York: Palgrave.
  28. "Q&A with DJ Blass". Rhythmtravels.com. 3 July 2014. Archived from the original on 6 May 2015. Retrieved 10 September 2016.
  29. Corbett, Sara (5 February 2006). "The King of Reggaetón". The New York Times. Retrieved 19 October 2021.
  30. "El Reggaeton". 8 February 2007. Archived from the original on 8 February 2007. Retrieved 10 September 2016.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  31. Staff (18 July 2019). "15 Years Ago, Daddy Yankee's Barrio Fino Set The Template For Reggaeton's Big Rise". MTV . Retrieved 22 June 2021.
  32. 1 2 3 Raquel Z. Rivera, Wayne Marshall and Deborah Pacini Hernandez. "Reggaeton". Duke University Press. 2009. pg. 143-144 Archived 24 December 2016 at the Wayback Machine
  33. "Reggaeton Music News - Lyrics & Noticias de Musica Urbana". Latinrapper.com. Archived from the original on 27 August 2016. Retrieved 10 September 2016.
  34. Katie Hasty, "T-Pain Soars To No. 1 Ahead Of Rihanna, McCartney" Archived 26 June 2013 at the Wayback Machine , Billboard.com, 13 June 2007.
  35. 1 2 Artist Chart History – Daddy Yankee – Billboard.com – Accessed 10 November 2008
  36. Billboard.com – Artist Chart History – Wisin & Yandel
  37. "Tego Calderon: Reggaeton On Black Pride". NPR.org. 3 September 2008. Retrieved 9 May 2022. I started to do music from a black beat, so that blacks can feel proud being black.
  38. Ratner-Arias, Sigal (9 July 2017). "Daddy Yankee is #1 on Spotify; 1st Latin artist to do so". The Washington Post . Archived from the original on 9 July 2017. Retrieved 9 July 2017.
  39. Calle, Tommy (9 July 2017). "Hace historia Daddy Yankee y es ahora oficialmente el primer latino número uno del mundo en Spotify" (in Spanish). hoylosangeles.com. Archived from the original on 13 July 2017. Retrieved 10 July 2017.
  40. Pickens, Ashley (10 July 2017). "Daddy Yankee Breaks Barriers Becoming Top Streamed Artist On Spotify". Vibe . Archived from the original on 11 July 2017. Retrieved 10 July 2017.
  41. Wang, Evelyn (5 December 2017). "Rihanna and Ed Sheeran Were the Most-Streamed Artists on Spotify in 2017". W . Archived from the original on 5 December 2017. Retrieved 7 December 2017.
  42. Cobo, Leila (15 June 2017). "The Success of 'Despacito' Has Labels Looking to Latin". Billboard. Archived from the original on 19 June 2017. Retrieved 21 June 2017.
  43. Lopez, Julyssa (24 August 2017). "What's next for Latin music after the summer of 'Despacito'?". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 26 August 2017. Retrieved 24 August 2017.
  44. 1 2 Ho, Stephanie (12 September 2017). "No Translation Necessary: Beyond "Despacito," The Latin Music Scene Is Booming". Genius. Archived from the original on 20 September 2017. Retrieved 19 September 2017.
  45. Leight, Elias (26 January 2019). "'Te Boté' Was a Massive Hit — Now It's Spawned Imitators". Rolling Stone . Retrieved 8 April 2019.
  46. Leight, Elias (8 January 2019). "Las 4 mejores canciones influenciadas por "Te Boté"". Heabbi .
  47. "The Evolution of Reggaeton From Despacito to Te Bote". Mitu .
  48. "Marshall, "Dem Bow, Dembow, Dembo: Translation and Transnation in Reggaeton." Lied und populäre Kultur / Song and Popular Culture: Jahrbuch des Deutschen Volksliedarchivs 53 (2008): 131-51" (PDF). Wayneandwax.com. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 August 2018. Retrieved 13 February 2019.
  49. Reggaeton. Rivera, Raquel Z., Wayne Marshall, and Deborah Pacini Hernandez, eds. Durham NC: Duke University Press, 2009 and Marshall, Dem Bow, Dembow, Dembo: Translation and Transnation in Reggaeton Archived 29 November 2010 at the Wayback Machine
  50. Marshall, Wayne (2008). "Dem Bow, Dembow, Dembo: Translation and Transnation in Reggaeton". Lied und Populäre Kultur / Song and Popular Culture. 53: 131–151. JSTOR   20685604.
  51. Marshall, Wayne. "The Rise and Fall of Reggaeton: From Daddy Yankee to Tego Calderón and Beyond" in Jiménez Román, Miriam, and Juan Flores, eds. The Afro-Latin@ reader: history and culture in the United States. Durham NC: Duke University Press, 2010, p. 401.
  52. "'20 Best Latin Singles of 2018'". Rolling Stone . 28 December 2018.
  53. "'Puerto Rican Environment, Reggaeton and Boricuaness'". University of Tennessee .
  54. Watkins, Grouchy Greg (28 January 2006). "Snoop Shoots Video With Daddy Yankee In Puerto Rico". AllHipHop. Archived from the original on 23 July 2022. Retrieved 23 July 2022.
  55. Tecson, Brandee J. "Daddy Yankee Sticks To His Roots, Won't Lean On Snoop". mtv. Archived from the original on 23 July 2022. Retrieved 23 July 2022.
  56. "ICM: Instituto Canario de la Mujer". 17 January 2007. Archived from the original on 17 January 2007. Retrieved 10 September 2016.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  57. Ben-Yehuda, Ayala (31 March 2007). "Reggaetón Royalty – Ivy Queen Earns Her Crown As A Very Male Subgenre's Only Female Star". Billboard . Vol. 119, no. 13. ISSN   0006-2510 . Retrieved 29 November 2012.
  58. "Reggaeton Nation". Upsidedownworld.com. 19 December 2007. Archived from the original on 21 February 2016. Retrieved 10 September 2016.
  59. Fairley, Jan (2009). "How To Make Love With Your Clothes On: Dancing Regeton, Gender, and Sexuality in Cuba". In Rivera, Raquel Z.; Marshall, Wayne; Hernandez, Deborah Pacini (eds.). Reggaeton. Duke University Press. doi:10.1215/9780822392323-014. S2CID   192110981.
  60. Hidalgo, Andrea (2 June 2005). "Perreo causes Controversy for Reggaeton". Reggaetonline.net. Archived from the original on 19 December 2013. Retrieved 30 March 2014.
  61. Sullivan, Al (16 October 2016). "Trash truck worker competes for a Latin Grammy: Local Cuban exile fulfills dream as musician" Archived 22 March 2018 at the Wayback Machine . The Hudson Reporter .
  62. van Boeckel, Rik (19 September 2006). "Reggaeton a lo Cubano: From Cuba to the Rest of the World" Archived 22 March 2018 at the Wayback Machine . 'LA'Ritmo.com: Latin American Rhythm Magazine. Retrieved 21 March 2018.
  63. Bellaco, Daniel (11 March 2019). "Cuba prohíbe el reggaeton por sexista, machista y violento" Archived 30 March 2019 at the Wayback Machine . Digital Sevilla.
  64. "Reggaeton: como a batida certa e a mistura com funk e sertanejo fizeram do gênero um fenômeno". G1.globo.com. Archived from the original on 27 May 2017. Retrieved 31 May 2017.
  65. 1 2 3 4 Marshall, Wayne. "The Rise of Reggaeton". [Boston Phoenix], 19 January 2006.
  66. "Home - Reggaeton.co.uk". Reggaeton.co.uk. Archived from the original on 13 February 2019. Retrieved 13 February 2019.
  67. "黃明志邀黃秋生合唱 《中國痛》 - 帶有華人色彩的《Despacito》". 香港01. 24 January 2020.
  68. Yo Informativo, Aleks Syntek enojado arremete contra el reggaeton, archived from the original on 23 May 2018, retrieved 7 February 2019
  69. Soria, César García (4 June 2018). "Estos tíos también odian el reggaetón... perdón, estos artistas". Erizos.mx (in European Spanish). Archived from the original on 9 February 2019. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
  70. "Reggaeton Is Not The Problem, Misogyny Is". The Gazelle. Archived from the original on 9 February 2019. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
  71. "Latin singer Flex leads "Romantic" evolution". Reuters.com. 10 January 2009. Archived from the original on 9 February 2019. Retrieved 7 February 2019.