Regional councils (plural: Hebrew : מוֹעָצוֹת אֵזוֹרִיּוֹת, Mo'atzot Ezoriyot / singular: Hebrew : מוֹעָצָה אֵזוֹרִית, Mo'atza Ezorit ) are one of the three types of Israel's local government entities, with the other two being cities and local councils. As of 2019, there were 54 regional councils, usually responsible for governing a number of settlements spread across rural areas. Regional councils include representation of anywhere between 3 and 54 communities, usually spread over a relatively large area within geographical vicinity of each other.
Each community within a regional council usually does not exceed 2,000 in population and is managed by a local committee. This committee sends representatives to the administering regional council proportionate to their size of membership and according to an index which is fixed before each election.Those settlements without an administrative council do not send any representatives to the regional council, instead being dealt by it directly. Representatives from those settlements which are represented directly are either chosen directly or through an election. The predominant form of communities represented on regional councils are kibbutzim and moshavim.
The following sortable table lists all 53 regional councils by name, and the district or area according to the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics.
The list includes the regional councils in the Golan Heights and the West Bank, areas considered occupied territories under international law,although the Israeli government disputes this.
|al-Batuf Regional Council||North|
|al-Kasom Regional Council||South|
|Alona Regional Council||Haifa|
|Be'er Tuvia Regional Council||South|
|Bnei Shimon Regional Council||South|
|Brenner Regional Council||Center|
|Bustan al-Marj Regional Council||North|
|Central Arava Regional Council||South|
|Drom HaSharon Regional Council||Center|
|Eshkol Regional Council||South|
|Lower Galilee Regional Council||North|
|Upper Galilee Regional Council||North|
|Gan Raveh Regional Council||Center|
|Gederot Regional Council||Center|
|Gezer Regional Council||Center|
|Gilboa Regional Council||North|
|Golan Regional Council||North|
|Gush Etzion Regional Council||Judea and Samaria|
|Har Hebron Regional Council||Judea and Samaria|
|Hefer Valley Regional Council (Emek Hefer)||Center|
|Hevel Eilot Regional Council||South|
|Hevel Modi'in Regional Council||Center|
|Hevel Yavne Regional Council||Center|
|Hof Ashkelon Regional Council||South|
|Hof HaCarmel Regional Council||Haifa|
|Hof HaSharon Regional Council||Center|
|Jezreel Valley Regional Council (Emek Yizreel)||North|
|Northern Jordan Valley (Emek HaYarden)||North|
|Southern Jordan Valley (Bik'at HaYarden)||Judea and Samaria|
|Lakhish Regional Council||South|
|Lev HaSharon Regional Council||Center|
|Ma'ale Yosef Regional Council||North|
|Mateh Asher Regional Council||North|
|Mateh Binyamin Regional Council||Judea and Samaria|
|Mateh Yehuda Regional Council||Jerusalem|
|Megiddo Regional Council||North|
|Megilot Regional Council||Judea and Samaria|
|Menashe Regional Council||Haifa|
|Merhavim Regional Council||South|
|Merom HaGalil Regional Council||North|
|Mevo'ot HaHermon Regional Council||North|
|Misgav Regional Council||North|
|Nahal Sorek Regional Council||Center|
|Neve Midbar Regional Council||South|
|Ramat HaNegev Regional Council||South|
|Sdot Dan Regional Council||Center|
|Sdot Negev Regional Council (Azata)||South|
|Sha'ar HaNegev Regional Council||South|
|Shafir Regional Council||South|
|Shomron Regional Council||Judea and Samaria|
|Tamar Regional Council||South|
|Valley of Springs Regional Council||North|
|Yoav Regional Council||South|
|Zevulun Regional Council||Haifa|
|Abu Basma Regional Council||South|
|Central Sharon Regional Council|
|Ef'al Regional Council||Tel Aviv|
|Ga'aton Regional Council||North|
|Hadar HaSharon Regional Council||Center|
|Hof Aza Regional Council||South|
|Kiryat Ono Regional Council|
|Mif'alot Afek Regional Council|
|Na'aman Regional Council||North|
|Northern Sharon Regional Council||Center|
|Sulam Tzur Regional Council||North|
|Tel Mond Regional Council|
|Yarkon Regional Council|
Israeli settlements are civilian communities inhabited by Israeli citizens, almost exclusively of Jewish ethnicity, built in violation of international law on lands occupied by Israel in the 1967 Six-Day War. Israeli settlements currently exist in the Palestinian territory of the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, and in the Syrian territory of the Golan Heights. East Jerusalem and the Golan Heights have been annexed by Israel, so residents are treated equivalently to the rest of Israel under Israeli law. Although the West Bank settlements are on land administered under Israeli military rule rather than civil law, Israeli civil law is "pipelined" into the settlements, such that Israeli citizens living there are treated similarly to those living in Israel.
The term "Palestinian territories" has been used for many years to describe the territories occupied by Israel since 1967, namely the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. More recently, the official United Nations (UN) terminology has been used, occupied Palestinian territory increasingly replacing other terms since 1999. The European Union (EU) also has adopted this usage. The term Occupied Palestinian Territory was used by the UN and other international organizations between October 1999 and December 2012 to refer to areas controlled by the Palestinian National Authority. The EU had utilized a parallel term Palestinian Authority territories occasionally during the same period. The International Court of Justice (ICJ) referred to the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, as "the Occupied Palestinian Territory" and this term was used as the legal definition by the ICJ in the ruling in July 2004.
United Nations Security Council resolution 446, adopted on 22 March 1979, concerned the issue of Israeli settlements in the "Arab territories occupied by Israel since 1967, including Jerusalem". This refers to the Palestinian territories of the West Bank, East Jerusalem and the Gaza Strip as well as the Syrian Golan Heights.
Efrat, or previously officially Efrata, is an Israeli settlement established in 1983 and a local council in the Judean Mountains of the West Bank. Efrat is located 12 kilometers (7.5 mi) south of Jerusalem, between Bethlehem and Hebron, 6.5 km (4 mi) east of the Green Line, inside of the Security Barrier. The settlement stands at an altitude of up to 960 metres above sea level and covers about 6,000 dunam. The international community considers Israeli settlements in the West Bank illegal under international law, but the Israeli government disputes this.
The International law bearing on issues of Arab–Israeli conflict, which became a major arena of regional and international tension since the birth of Israel in 1948, resulting in several disputes between a number of Arab countries and Israel.
The Israeli-occupied territories refers to the territories occupied by Israel during the Six-Day War of 1967. It also sometimes refers to areas of Southern Lebanon where Israeli military was present to support local Lebanese militias during the civil war and after it. Originally, the sole governance of the territories were as the Jordanian-annexed West Bank, the Egyptian-occupied Gaza Strip, the Egyptian Sinai Peninsula, and the Syrian Golan Heights. The first use of the term 'territories occupied' was in United Nations Security Council Resolution 242 following the Six-Day War in 1967, which called for "the establishment of a just and lasting peace in the Middle East" to be achieved by "the application of both the following principles: ... Withdrawal of Israeli armed forces from territories occupied in the recent conflict ... Termination of all claims or states of belligerency" and respect for the right of every state in the area to live in peace within secure and recognized boundaries. In addition to the territories occupied following the Six-Day War, Israel also occupied portions of Southern Lebanon following the 1982 Lebanon War, and maintained a military presence there until withdrawing in 2000.
The status of territories captured by Israel is the status of the Gaza Strip, the West Bank, the Golan Heights, and the Sinai Peninsula; all of which were captured by Israel over the course of the 1967 Six-Day War.
Immanuel, also spelled Emmanuel or Emanuel, is an Israeli settlement organized as a local council located in the West Bank. Immanuel was established in 1983. In 2019 it had a population of 3,906; its jurisdiction is spread out over 2,750 dunams (2.75 km²).
Tekoa is an Israeli settlement organized as a community settlement in the West Bank, located 20 km northeast of Hebron, 16 km south of Jerusalem and in the immediate vicinity of the Palestinian village of Tuqu'. It falls under the jurisdiction of Gush Etzion Regional Council. In 2019 it had a population of 4,076.
Otniel is an Orthodox Israeli settlement in the West Bank. Located in the southern Judaean Mountains, south of Hebron, it falls under the jurisdiction of Har Hevron Regional Council. In 2019, it had a population of 1,044.
Kalya is an Israeli settlement organized as a kibbutz in the West Bank. It was originally established in 1929 but was occupied and destroyed by the Jordanians in 1948; it was later rebuilt in 1968 after the Six-Day War. Located on the northern shore of the Dead Sea, 360 meters below sea level, it falls under the jurisdiction of Megilot Regional Council. In 2019 it had a population of 438.
Hashmonaim is an Israeli settlement located in the western section of the West Bank, off Route 443. Hashmonaim is located two kilometers east of Modi'in-Maccabim-Re'ut, midway between Jerusalem and Tel Aviv and is under the jurisdiction of the Mateh Binyamin Regional Council of Israel. In 2019 it had a population of 2,771.
Almon, also known as Anatot, is an Israeli settlement organized as a community settlement in the West Bank. Located near Jerusalem, it falls under the jurisdiction of the Mateh Binyamin Regional Council. In 2019 it had a population of 1,420.
Halamish, also known as Neveh Tzuf, is an Israeli settlement in the West Bank, located in the southwestern Samarian hills to the north of Ramallah, 10.7 kilometers east of the Green line. The Orthodox Jewish community was established in 1977. It is organised as a community settlement and falls under the jurisdiction of Mateh Binyamin Regional Council. In 2019 it had a population of 1,485.
Nofei Prat is an Israeli settlement organized as a community settlement in the West Bank. Located near Ma'ale Adumim, it falls under the jurisdiction of Mateh Binyamin Regional Council. In 2006 there were around 90 families living in the settlement. In 2009 about 140 families lived there. Both religious and secular families live in Nofei Prat.
Psagot is an Israeli settlement in the West Bank located north of Jerusalem on Tawil hill adjacent to Ramallah, al-Bireh, and Kokhav Ya'akov. Established in 1981, it is organised as a community settlement and falls under the jurisdiction of Binyamin Regional Council, with the council's headquarters located there. In 2019 it had a population of 1,881.
The international community considers the establishment of Israeli settlements in the Israeli-occupied territories illegal on one of two bases: that they are in violation of Article 49 of the Fourth Geneva Convention, or that they are in breach of international declarations. The United Nations Security Council, the United Nations General Assembly, the International Committee of the Red Cross, the International Court of Justice and the High Contracting Parties to the Convention have all affirmed that the Fourth Geneva Convention applies to Israeli settlements.
Area C is an Oslo II administrative division of the West Bank, defined as "areas of the West Bank outside Areas A and B". Area C constitutes about 61 percent of the West Bank territory; the area was committed in 1995 under Oslo II to be "gradually transferred to Palestinian jurisdiction", but such transfer did not happen.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 2334 was adopted on 23 December 2016. It concerns the Israeli settlements in "Palestinian territories occupied since 1967, including East Jerusalem". The resolution passed in a 14–0 vote by members of the U.N. Security Council (UNSC). Four members with United Nations Security Council veto power, China, France, Russia, and the United Kingdom, voted for the resolution, but the United States abstained.