Région française (French)
|Populations||279,471 (Mayotte) – 12,997,058 (Île-de-France)|
|Areas||376 km2 (145 sq mi) (Mayotte) – 84,061 km2 (32,456 sq mi) (Nouvelle-Aquitaine)|
|This article is part of a series on the|
divisions of France
|Geocodes of France|
France is divided into eighteen administrative regions (French : régions, singular région [ʁeʒjɔ̃] ), of which thirteen are located in metropolitan France (in Europe), while the other five are overseas regions (not to be confused with the overseas collectivities, which have a semi-autonomous status).
All of the thirteen metropolitan administrative regions (including Corsica as of 2019 [update] ) are further subdivided into two to thirteen administrative departments, with the prefect of each region's administrative centre's department also acting as the regional prefect. The overseas regions administratively consist of only one department each and hence also have the status of overseas departments.
Most administrative regions also have the status of regional territorial collectivities, which comes with a local government, with departmental and communal collectivities below the region level. The exceptions are Corsica, French Guiana, Mayotte and Martinique, where region and department functions are managed by single local governments having consolidated jurisdiction and which are known as single territorial collectivities.
The term région was officially created by the Law of Decentralisation (2 March 1982), which also gave regions their legal status. The first direct elections for regional representatives took place on 16 March 1986.
Between 1982 and 2015, there were 22 regions in Metropolitan France. Before 2011, there were four overseas regions (French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, and Réunion); in 2011 Mayotte became the fifth.
|Region||French name||Other local name(s)||INSEE No.||Capital||Derivation or etymology|
|Alsace||Alsace|| Alsatian: Elsàss|
German : Elsass
|42||Strasbourg||Formerly a coalition of free cities in Holy Roman Empire, attached to Kingdom of France in 1648; annexed by Germany from Franco-Prussian war to the end of World War I and briefly during World War II|
|Aquitaine||Aquitaine|| Occitan : Aquitània|
Basque : Akitania
Saintongeais : Aguiéne
|72||Bordeaux||Guyenne and Gascony|
|Auvergne||Auvergne||Occitan : Auvèrnhe / Auvèrnha||83||Clermont-Ferrand||Former province of Auvergne|
|Brittany||Bretagne|| Breton : Breizh|
|53||Rennes||Duchy of Brittany|
|Burgundy||Bourgogne|| Burgundian: Bregogne /Borgoégne|
Arpitan : Borgogne
|26||Dijon||Duchy of Burgundy|
|Centre-Val de Loire||Centre-Val de Loire||24||Orléans||Located in north-central France; straddles the middle of the Loire Valley|
|Former province of Champagne|
|Franche-Comté||Franche-Comté|| Franc-Comtois: Fràntche-Comté|
Arpitan : Franche-Comtât
|43||Besançon||Free County of Burgundy (Franche-Comté)|
|Île-de-France||Île-de-France||11||Paris||Province of Île-de-France and parts of the former province of Champagne|
|Languedoc-Roussillon||Languedoc-Roussillon|| Occitan : Lengadòc-Rosselhon|
Catalan : Llenguadoc-Rosselló
|91||Montpellier||Former provinces of Languedoc and Roussillon|
|Limousin||Limousin||Occitan : Lemosin||74||Limoges||Former province of Limousin and parts of Marche, Berry, Auvergne, Poitou and Angoumois|
|Lorraine||Lorraine|| German : Lothringen|
Lorraine Franconian: Lottringe
|41||Metz||Named for Charlemagne's son Lothair I, the kingdom of Lotharingia is etymologically the source for the name Lorraine (duchy), Lothringen (German), Lottringe (Lorraine Franconian)|
|Lower Normandy||Basse-Normandie|| Norman: Basse-Normaundie|
Breton : Normandi-Izel
|25||Caen||Western half of former province of Normandy|
|Midi-Pyrénées||Midi-Pyrénées|| Occitan : Miègjorn-Pirenèus|
Occitan : Mieidia-Pirenèus
|73||Toulouse||None; created for Toulouse|
|Nord-Pas-de-Calais||Nord-Pas-de-Calais||31||Lille||Nord and Pas-de-Calais departments|
|Pays de la Loire||Pays de la Loire||Breton : Broioù al Liger||52||Nantes||None; created for Nantes|
|Picardy||Picardie||22||Amiens||Former province of Picardy|
|Poitou-Charentes||Poitou-Charentes|| Occitan : Peitau-Charantas|
Poitevin and Saintongeais : Poetou-Chérentes
|54||Poitiers||Former provinces of Angoumois, Aunis, Poitou and Saintonge|
|Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur (PACA)||Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur (PACA)|| Provençal: Provença-Aups-Còsta d'Azur|
|93||Marseille||Former historical province of Provence and County of Nice annexed by France in 1860.|
|Rhône-Alpes||Rhône-Alpes|| Arpitan : Rôno-Arpes|
Occitan : Ròse Aups
|82||Lyon||Created for Lyon from Dauphiné and Lyonnais provinces and Savoy|
|Upper Normandy||Haute-Normandie|| Norman: Ĥâote-Normaundie|
Breton : Normandi-Uhel
|23||Rouen||Eastern half of former province of Normandy|
In 2014, the French parliament passed a law reducing the number of metropolitan regions from 22 to 13 effective 1 January 2016.
The law gave interim names for most of the new regions by combining the names of the former regions, e.g. the region composed of Aquitaine, Poitou-Charentes and Limousin was temporarily called Aquitaine-Limousin-Poitou-Charentes. However, the combined region of Upper and Lower Normandy is simply called "Normandy" (Normandie). Permanent names were proposed by the new regional councils by 1 July 2016 and new names confirmed by the Conseil d'État by 30 September 2016.The legislation defining the new regions also allowed the Centre region to officially change its name to "Centre-Val de Loire" with effect from January 2015. Two regions, Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes and Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, opted to retain their interim names.
Given below is a table of former regions and which new region they became part of.
|Former region||New region|
|Interim name||Final name|
|Centre-Val de Loire|
|Pays de la Loire|
|Type||Region||Other local name(s)||ISO||INSEE No.||Capital||Area (km2)||Population||Seats in |
|Former regions |
|President of the Regional Council||Location|
|Metropolitan|| Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes |
| Occitan : Auvèrnhe-Ròse-Aups|
Arpitan : Ôvèrgne-Rôno-Arpes
|204|| Auvergne |
|Laurent Wauquiez (LR)|
|Metropolitan|| Bourgogne-Franche-Comté |
|Arpitan : Borgogne-Franche-Comtât||FR-BFC||27||Dijon||47,784|
|100|| Burgundy |
|Marie-Guite Dufay (PS)|
|Metropolitan|| Bretagne |
| Breton : Breizh|
|83||unchanged||Loïg Chesnais-Girard (PS)|
|Metropolitan|| Centre-Val de Loire |
|77||unchanged||François Bonneau (PS)|
|Metropolitan|| Corse |
|Corsican : Corsica||FR-20R||94||Ajaccio||8,680|
|63||unchanged||Jean-Guy Talamoni (CL)|
|Metropolitan|| Grand Est |
|German : Großer Osten||FR-GES||44||Strasbourg||57,441|
|169|| Alsace |
|Jean Rottner (LR)|
|Metropolitan|| Hauts-de-France |
|170|| Nord-Pas-de-Calais |
|Xavier Bertrand (LR)|
|Metropolitan|| Île-de-France |
(Island of France)
|Breton : Enez-Frañs||FR-IDF||11||Paris||12,011|
|209||unchanged||Valérie Pécresse (LR)|
|Metropolitan|| Normandie |
| Norman: Normaundie|
Breton : Normandi
|102|| Upper Normandy |
|Hervé Morin (LC)|
|Metropolitan|| Nouvelle-Aquitaine |
| Occitan : Nòva Aquitània / Nava Aquitània / Novela Aquitània|
Basque : Akitania Berria
|183|| Aquitaine |
|Alain Rousset (PS)|
|Metropolitan|| Occitanie |
| Occitan : Occitània|
Catalan : Occitània
|158|| Languedoc-Roussillon |
|Carole Delga (PS)|
|Metropolitan|| Pays de la Loire |
|Breton : Broioù al Liger||FR-PDL||52||Nantes||32,082|
|93||unchanged||Christelle Morançais (LR)|
|Metropolitan|| Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur |
| Provençal: Provença-Aups-Còsta d'Azur|
|123||unchanged||Renaud Muselier (LR)|
|Overseas||Guadeloupe||Antillean Creole: Gwadloup||GP||01||Basse-Terre||1,628|
|41||unchanged||Ary Chalus (GUSR)|
|Overseas|| Guyane |
|51||unchanged||Rodolphe Alexandre (PSG)|
|Overseas|| La Réunion |
|Reunion Creole: La Rényon||RE||04||Saint-Denis||2,504|
|45||unchanged||Didier Robert (LR)|
|Overseas||Martinique||Antillean Creole: Matinik||MQ||02||Fort-de-France||1,128|
|51||unchanged||Claude Lise (RDM)|
|Overseas||Mayotte|| Shimaore: Maore|
|YT||06||Mamoudzou||374||26||unchanged||Soibahadine Ibrahim Ramadani (LR)|
Regions lack separate legislative authority and therefore cannot write their own statutory law. They levy their own taxes and, in return, receive a decreasing[ clarification needed ] part of their budget from the central government, which gives them a portion of the taxes it levies. They also have considerable budgets managed by a regional council (conseil régional) made up of representatives voted into office in regional elections.
A region's primary responsibility is to build and furnish high schools. In March 2004, the French central government unveiled a controversial plan to transfer regulation of certain categories of non-teaching school staff to the regional authorities. Critics of this plan contended that tax revenue was insufficient to pay for the resulting costs, and that such measures would increase regional inequalities.
In addition, regions have considerable discretionary power over infrastructural spending, e.g., education, public transit, universities and research, and assistance to business owners. This has meant that the heads of wealthy regions such as Île-de-France or Rhône-Alpes can be high-profile positions.
Proposals to give regions limited legislative autonomy have met with considerable resistance; others propose transferring certain powers from the departments to their respective regions, leaving the former with limited authority.
Number of regions controlled by each coalition since 1986.
Overseas region (French : Région d'outre-mer) is a recent designation, given to the overseas departments that have similar powers to those of the regions of metropolitan France. As integral parts of the French Republic, they are represented in the National Assembly, Senate and Economic and Social Council, elect a Member of the European Parliament (MEP) and use the euro as their currency.
Although these territories have had these political powers since 1982, when France's decentralisation policy dictated that they be given elected regional councils along with other regional powers, the designation overseas regions dates only to the 2003 constitutional change; indeed, the new wording of the constitution aims to give no precedence to either appellation overseas department or overseas region, although the second is still virtually unused by French media.
The following have overseas region status:
Réunion, is an overseas département of France.
In the administrative divisions of France, the department is one of the three levels of government under the national level, between the administrative regions and the communes. 96 departments are in metropolitan France, with an additional five constituting overseas departments, which are also classified as overseas regions. Departments are further subdivided into 333 arrondissements and 2,054 cantons. These last two levels of government have no political autonomy, instead serving as the administrative basis for the local organisation of police, fire departments as well as, in certain cases, elections.
The geography of France consists of a terrain that is mostly flat plains or gently rolling hills in the north and west and mountainous in the south and the east. Metropolitan France has a total size of 551,695 km2 (213,011 sq mi). It is the third largest country in Europe by area and the largest in Western Europe.
Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, also known as Région Sud, is one of the eighteen administrative regions of France, the far southeastern on the mainland. Its prefecture and largest city is Marseille.
ISO 3166-2:FR is the entry for France in ISO 3166-2, part of the ISO 3166 standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), which defines codes for the names of the principal subdivisions of all countries coded in ISO 3166-1.
The overseas departments and regions of France are departments of the French Republic which are outside the continental Europe situated portion of France, known as "metropolitan France". The distant parts have exactly the same status as mainland France's regions and departments. The French Constitution provides that, in general, French laws and regulations apply to French overseas regions the same as in metropolitan France, but can be adapted as needed to suit the region's particular needs. Hence, the local administrations of French overseas regions cannot themselves pass new laws. On occasion referendums are undertaken to re-assess the sentiment in local status.
The administrative divisions of France are concerned with the institutional and territorial organization of French territory. These territories are located in many parts of the world. There are many administrative divisions, which may have political, electoral (districts), or administrative objectives. All the inhabited territories are represented in the National Assembly, Senate and Economic and Social Council and their citizens have French citizenship and elect the President of France.
A territorial collectivity, or territorial authority, is a chartered administrative division of France with recognized governing authority. It is the generic name for any territory with an elective form of local government and local regulatory authority. The nature of a French territorial collectivity is set forth in Article 72 of the Constitution of France (1958), which provides for local autonomy within limits prescribed by law.
The following are ranked lists of French regions.
A regional council is the elected assembly of a region of France.
The following outline is provided as an overview and topical guide of France:
In the NUTS codes of France (FR), the three levels are:
Overseas France consists of 13 French-administered territories outside Europe, mostly the remains of the French colonial empire that remained a part of the French state under various statuses after decolonization. Some, but not all, are part of the European Union. "Overseas France" is a collective name; while used in everyday life in France, it is not an administrative designation in its own right. Instead, the five overseas regions have exactly the same administrative status as the metropolitan regions; the five overseas collectivities are semi-autonomous; and New Caledonia is an autonomous territory. Overseas France includes island territories in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans, French Guiana on the South American continent, and several peri-Antarctic islands as well as a claim in Antarctica. Excluding the district of Adélie Land, where French sovereignty is effective de jure by French law, but where the French exclusive claim on this part of Antarctica is frozen by the Antarctic Treaty, overseas France covers a land area of 120,396 km2 (46,485 sq mi) and accounts for 18.0% of the French Republic's land territory. Its exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of 9,825,538 km2 (3,793,661 sq mi) accounts for 96.7% of the EEZ of the French Republic.
Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes is a region in southeast-central France created by the 2014 territorial reform of French regions; it resulted from the merger of Auvergne and Rhône-Alpes. The new region came into effect on 1 January 2016, after the regional elections in December 2015.
Bourgogne-Franche-Comté is a region in eastern France created by the 2014 territorial reform of French regions, from a merger of Burgundy and Franche-Comté. The new region came into existence on 1 January 2016, after the regional elections of December 2015, electing 100 members to the Regional Council of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté.
Regional elections were held in France on 6 and 13 December 2015. At stake were the regional councils in metropolitan and overseas France including the Corsican Assembly and inaugural seats in the Assembly of French Guiana and Assembly of Martinique, all for a six-year term. The Departmental Council of Mayotte, which also exercises the powers of a region, was the only region not participating in this election, having already been renewed on 2 April 2015. There were 18 regional presidencies at stake, with 13 in mainland France and Corsica, as well as 5 overseas. Though they do not have legislative autonomy, these territorial collectivities manage sizable budgets. Moreover, regional elections are often taken as a mid-term opinion poll.
Regional elections were held in France on 20 June and 27 June 2021. At stake were the regional councils in metropolitan and overseas France including the Corsican Assembly, Assembly of French Guiana and Assembly of Martinique, all for a six-year term. The Departmental Council of Mayotte, which also exercises the powers of a region, also participated in this election, because the departmental elections were held at the same time. Eighteen regional presidencies were at stake, with thirteen in mainland France and Corsica, as well as five overseas. Though they do not have legislative autonomy, these territorial collectivities manage sizable budgets. Moreover, regional elections are often perceived as a mid-term opinion poll. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the regional and departmental elections were postponed, first to 13 and 20 June 2021 and then to 20 and 27 June 2021.