Rembrandt

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Rembrandt van Rijn
Rembrandt van Rijn - Self-Portrait - Google Art Project.jpg
Born
Rembrant Harmenszoon van Rijn

July 15, 1606 [1]
DiedOctober 4, 1669 (aged 63)
Amsterdam, Dutch Republic (now the Netherlands)
NationalityDutch
Education Jacob van Swanenburg, Pieter Lastman
Known for Painting, printmaking, drawing
Notable work
Self-portraits
The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp (1632)
Belshazzar's Feast (1635)
The Night Watch (1642)
Bathsheba at Her Bath (1654)
Syndics of the Drapers' Guild (1662)
The Hundred Guilder Print (etching, c. 1647–1649)
Movement Dutch Golden Age
Baroque

Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn ( /ˈrɛmbrænt, -brɑːnt/ ; [2] Dutch:  [ˈrɛmbrɑnt ˈɦɑrmə(n)soːn vɑn ˈrɛin] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); July 15, 1606 [1]  – October 4, 1669) was a Dutch draughtsman, painter and printmaker. An innovative and prolific master in three media, [3] he is generally considered one of the greatest visual artists in the history of art and the most important in Dutch art history. [4] Unlike most Dutch masters of the 17th century, Rembrandt's works depict a wide range of style and subject matter, from portraits and self-portraits to landscapes, genre scenes, allegorical and historical scenes, biblical and mythological themes as well as animal studies. His contributions to art came in a period of great wealth and cultural achievement that historians call the Dutch Golden Age, when Dutch art (especially Dutch painting), although in many ways antithetical to the Baroque style that dominated Europe, was extremely prolific and innovative, and gave rise to important new genres. Like many artists of the Dutch Golden Age, such as Jan Vermeer of Delft, Rembrandt was also an avid art collector and dealer.

History of art history of human creation of works for aesthetic, communicative, or expressive purposes

The history of art focuses on objects made by humans in visual form for aesthetic purposes. Visual art can be classified in diverse ways, such as separating fine arts from applied arts; inclusively focusing on human creativity; or focusing on different media such as architecture, sculpture, painting, film, photography, and graphic arts. In recent years, technological advances have led to video art, computer art, Performance art, animation, television, and videogames.

Portrait painting Making images of individual people as paintings

Portrait painting is a genre in painting, where the intent is to depict a human subject. The term 'portrait painting' can also describe the actual painted portrait. Portraitists may create their work by commission, for public and private persons, or they may be inspired by admiration or affection for the subject. Portraits are often important state and family records, as well as remembrances.

Contents

Rembrandt never went abroad, but he was considerably influenced by the work of the Italian masters and Netherlandish artists who had studied in Italy, like Pieter Lastman, the Utrecht Caravaggists, and Flemish Baroque Peter Paul Rubens. Having achieved youthful success as a portrait painter, Rembrandt's later years were marked by personal tragedy and financial hardships. Yet his etchings and paintings were popular throughout his lifetime, his reputation as an artist remained high, [5] and for twenty years he taught many important Dutch painters. [6]

Pieter Lastman painter and engraver from the Northern Netherlands

Pieter Lastman (1583–1633) was a Dutch painter. Lastman is considered important because of his work as a painter of history pieces and because his pupils included Rembrandt and Jan Lievens. In his paintings Lastman paid careful attention to the faces, hands and feet.

Flemish Baroque painting

Flemish Baroque painting refers to the art produced in the Southern Netherlands during Spanish control in the 16th and 17th centuries. The period roughly begins when the Dutch Republic was split from the Habsburg Spain regions to the south with the Spanish recapturing of Antwerp in 1585 and goes until about 1700, when Habsburg authority ended with the death of King Charles II. Antwerp, home to the prominent artists Peter Paul Rubens, Anthony van Dyck, and Jacob Jordaens, was the artistic nexus, while other notable cities include Brussels and Ghent.

Peter Paul Rubens Flemish painter

Sir Peter Paul Rubens was a Flemish artist. He is considered the most influential artist of Flemish Baroque tradition. Rubens's highly charged compositions reference erudite aspects of classical and Christian history. His unique and immensely popular Baroque style emphasized movement, color, and sensuality, which followed the immediate, dramatic artistic style promoted in the Counter-Reformation. Rubens specialized in making altarpieces, portraits, landscapes, and history paintings of mythological and allegorical subjects.

Rembrandt's portraits of his contemporaries, self-portraits and illustrations of scenes from the Bible are regarded as his greatest creative triumphs. His self-portraits form a unique and intimate biography, in which the artist surveyed himself without vanity and with the utmost sincerity. [4] Rembrandt's foremost contribution in the history of printmaking was his transformation of the etching process from a relatively new reproductive technique into a true art form, along with Jacques Callot. His reputation as the greatest etcher in the history of the medium was established in his lifetime and never questioned since. Few of his paintings left the Dutch Republic whilst he lived, but his prints were circulated throughout Europe, and his wider reputation was initially based on them alone.

Self-portraits by Rembrandt Wikimedia list article

The dozens of self-portraits by Rembrandt were an important part of his oeuvre. Rembrandt created approaching one hundred self-portraits including over forty paintings, thirty-one etchings and about seven drawings; some remain uncertain as to the identity of either the subject or the artist, or the definition of a portrait.

Jacques Callot Flemish-French engraver

Jacques Callot was a baroque printmaker and draftsman from the Duchy of Lorraine. He is an important person in the development of the old master print. He made more than 1,400 etchings that chronicled the life of his period, featuring soldiers, clowns, drunkards, Gypsies, beggars, as well as court life. He also etched many religious and military images, and many prints featured extensive landscapes in their background.

Dutch Republic Republican predecessor state of the Netherlands from 1581 to 1795

The Dutch Republic, or the United Provinces, was a confederal republic that existed from the formal creation of a confederacy in 1581 by several Dutch provinces—seceded from Spanish rule—until the Batavian Revolution in 1795. It was a predecessor state of the Netherlands and the first Dutch nation state.

In his works he exhibited knowledge of classical iconography, which he molded to fit the requirements of his own experience; thus, the depiction of a biblical scene was informed by Rembrandt's knowledge of the specific text, his assimilation of classical composition, and his observations of Amsterdam's Jewish population. [7] Because of his empathy for the human condition, he has been called "one of the great prophets of civilization". [8] The French sculptor Auguste Rodin said, "Compare me with Rembrandt! What sacrilege! With Rembrandt, the colossus of Art! We should prostrate ourselves before Rembrandt and never compare anyone with him!" [9] Vincent van Gogh wrote, "Rembrandt goes so deep into the mysterious that he says things for which there are no words in any language. It is with justice that they call Rembrandt—magician—that's no easy occupation." [10]

Iconography Branch of art history

Iconography, as a branch of art history, studies the identification, description, and the interpretation of the content of images: the subjects depicted, the particular compositions and details used to do so, and other elements that are distinct from artistic style. The word iconography comes from the Greek εἰκών ("image") and γράφειν.

Amsterdam Capital of the Netherlands

Amsterdam is the capital city and most populous municipality of the Netherlands. Its status as the capital is mandated by the Constitution of the Netherlands, although it is not the seat of the government, which is The Hague. Amsterdam has a population of 854,047 within the city proper, 1,357,675 in the urban area and 2,410,960 in the metropolitan area. The city is located in the province of North Holland in the west of the country but is not its capital, which is Haarlem. The Amsterdam metropolitan area comprises much of the northern part of the Randstad, one of the larger conurbations in Europe, which has a population of approximately 8.1 million.

Auguste Rodin French sculptor

François Auguste René Rodin, known as Auguste Rodin, was a French sculptor. Although Rodin is generally considered the progenitor of modern sculpture, he did not set out to rebel against the past. He was schooled traditionally, took a craftsman-like approach to his work, and desired academic recognition, although he was never accepted into Paris's foremost school of art.

Life

The Prodigal Son in the Tavern, a self-portrait with Saskia, c. 1635 Rembrandt - Rembrandt and Saskia in the Scene of the Prodigal Son - Google Art Project.jpg
The Prodigal Son in the Tavern , a self-portrait with Saskia, c. 1635

Rembrandt [11] Harmenszoon van Rijn was born on 15 July 1606 in Leiden, [1] in the Dutch Republic, now the Netherlands. He was the ninth child born to Harmen Gerritszoon van Rijn and Neeltgen Willemsdochter van Zuijtbrouck. [12] His family was quite well-to-do; his father was a miller and his mother was a baker's daughter. Religion is a central theme in Rembrandt's paintings and the religiously fraught period in which he lived makes his faith a matter of interest. His mother was Roman Catholic, and his father belonged to the Dutch Reformed Church. While his work reveals deep Christian faith, there is no evidence that Rembrandt formally belonged to any church, although he had five of his children christened in Dutch Reformed churches in Amsterdam: four in the Oude Kerk (Old Church) and one, Titus, in the Zuiderkerk (Southern Church). [13]

Leiden City and municipality in South Holland, Netherlands

Leiden is a city and municipality in the province of South Holland, Netherlands. The municipality of Leiden had a population of 123,856 in August 2017, but the city forms one densely connected agglomeration with its suburbs Oegstgeest, Leiderdorp, Voorschoten and Zoeterwoude with 206,647 inhabitants. The Netherlands Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) further includes Katwijk in the agglomeration which makes the total population of the Leiden urban agglomeration 270,879, and in the larger Leiden urban area also Teylingen, Noordwijk, and Noordwijkerhout are included with in total 348,868 inhabitants. Leiden is located on the Oude Rijn, at a distance of some 20 kilometres from The Hague to its south and some 40 km (25 mi) from Amsterdam to its north. The recreational area of the Kaag Lakes (Kagerplassen) lies just to the northeast of Leiden.

Netherlands Constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in Europe

The Netherlands is a country located mainly in Northwestern Europe. The European portion of the Netherlands consists of twelve separate provinces that border Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, and the North Sea to the northwest, with maritime borders in the North Sea with Belgium, Germany and the United Kingdom. Including three island territories in the Caribbean Sea—Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba— it forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The official language is Dutch, but a secondary official language in the province of Friesland is West Frisian.

Miller person who produces flour or other products by operating a mill

A miller is a person who operates a mill, a machine to grind a grain to make flour. Milling is among the oldest of human occupations. "Miller", "Milne", and other variants are common surnames, as are their equivalents in other languages around the world. Milling existed in hunter-gatherer communities, and later millers were important to the development of agriculture.

As a boy he attended Latin school. At the age of 14, he was enrolled at the University of Leiden, although according to a contemporary he had a greater inclination towards painting; he was soon apprenticed to a Leiden history painter, Jacob van Swanenburgh, with whom he spent three years. [14] After a brief but important apprenticeship of six months with the painter Pieter Lastman in Amsterdam, Rembrandt stayed a few months with Jacob Pynas and then started his own workshop, though Simon van Leeuwen claimed that Joris van Schooten taught Rembrandt in Leiden. [14] [15] Unlike many of his contemporaries who traveled to Italy as part of their artistic training, Rembrandt never left the Dutch Republic during his lifetime. [16] [17]

Latin Indo-European language of the Italic family

Latin is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet.

Jacob Pynas painter from the Northern Netherlands

Jacob Symonsz. Pynas, was a Dutch Golden Age painter.

Joris van Schooten Dutch Golden Age painter

Joris van Schooten (1587–1651) was a Dutch Golden Age painter and the uncle of the Leiden mathematician Frans van Schooten.

He opened a studio in Leiden in 1624 or 1625, which he shared with friend and colleague Jan Lievens. In 1627, Rembrandt began to accept students, among them Gerrit Dou in 1628. [18]

In 1629, Rembrandt was discovered by the statesman Constantijn Huygens (father of the Dutch mathematician and physicist Christiaan Huygens), who procured for Rembrandt important commissions from the court of The Hague. As a result of this connection, Prince Frederik Hendrik continued to purchase paintings from Rembrandt until 1646. [19]

Portrait of Saskia van Uylenburgh, c. 1635 Rembrandt van Rijn - Saskia van Uylenburgh, the Wife of the Artist - Google Art Project.jpg
Portrait of Saskia van Uylenburgh, c. 1635

At the end of 1631 Rembrandt moved to Amsterdam, then rapidly expanding as the new business capital of the Netherlands, and began to practice as a professional portraitist for the first time, with great success. He initially stayed with an art dealer, Hendrick van Uylenburgh, and in 1634, married Hendrick's cousin, Saskia van Uylenburgh. [20] [21] Saskia came from a good family: her father had been a lawyer and the burgemeester (mayor) of Leeuwarden. When Saskia, as the youngest daughter, became an orphan, she lived with an older sister in Het Bildt. Rembrandt and Saskia were married in the local church of St. Annaparochie without the presence of Rembrandt's relatives. [22] In the same year, Rembrandt became a burgess of Amsterdam and a member of the local guild of painters. He also acquired a number of students, among them Ferdinand Bol and Govert Flinck. [23]

In 1635, Rembrandt and Saskia moved into their own house, renting in fashionable Nieuwe Doelenstraat. In 1639 they moved to a prominent newly built house (now the Rembrandt House Museum) in the upscale 'Breestraat' (eng.: 'Broadway'), today known as Jodenbreestraat (Jodenbreestraat 4,1011 NK Amsterdam-now) in what was becoming the Jewish quarter; then a young upcoming neighborhood. The mortgage to finance the 13,000 guilder purchase would be a primary cause for later financial difficulties. [23] Rembrandt should easily have been able to pay the house off with his large income, but it appears his spending always kept pace with his income, and he may have made some unsuccessful investments. [24] It was there that Rembrandt frequently sought his Jewish neighbors to model for his Old Testament scenes. [25] Although they were by now affluent, the couple suffered several personal setbacks; their son Rumbartus died two months after his birth in 1635 and their daughter Cornelia died at just three weeks of age in 1638. In 1640, they had a second daughter, also named Cornelia, who died after living barely over a month. Only their fourth child, Titus, who was born in 1641, survived into adulthood. Saskia died in 1642 soon after Titus's birth, probably from tuberculosis. Rembrandt's drawings of her on her sick and death bed are among his most moving works. [26]

Rembrandt's son Titus, as a monk, 1660 Rembrandt van Rijn - Rembrandts zoon Titus in monniksdracht (Rijksmuseum Amsterdam).jpg
Rembrandt's son Titus, as a monk, 1660

During Saskia's illness, Geertje Dircx was hired as Titus' caretaker and nurse and also became Rembrandt's lover. She would later charge Rembrandt with breach of promise (a euphemism for seduction under [breached] promise to marry) and was awarded alimony of 200 guilders a year. [23] Rembrandt worked to have her committed for twelve years to an asylum or poorhouse (called a "bridewell") at Gouda, after learning she had pawned jewelry he had given her that once belonged to Saskia. [27]

In the late 1640s Rembrandt began a relationship with the much younger Hendrickje Stoffels, who had initially been his maid. In 1654 they had a daughter, Cornelia, bringing Hendrickje a summons from the Reformed Church to answer the charge "that she had committed the acts of a whore with Rembrandt the painter". She admitted this and was banned from receiving communion. Rembrandt was not summoned to appear for the Church council because he was not a member of the Reformed Church. [28] The two were considered legally wed under common law, but Rembrandt had not married Hendrickje. Had he remarried he would have lost access to a trust set up for Titus in Saskia's will. [26]

Rembrandt lived beyond his means, buying art (including bidding up his own work), prints (often used in his paintings) and rarities, which probably caused a court arrangement to avoid his bankruptcy in 1656, by selling most of his paintings and large collection of antiquities. The sale list survives and gives us a good insight into Rembrandt's collections, which, apart from Old Master paintings and drawings, included busts of the Roman Emperors, suits of Japanese armor among many objects from Asia, and collections of natural history and minerals. But the prices realized in the sales in 1657 and 1658 were disappointing. [29] Rembrandt was forced to sell his house and his printing-press and move to more modest accommodation on the Rozengracht in 1660. [30] The authorities and his creditors were generally accommodating to him, except for the Amsterdam painters' guild, which introduced a new rule that no one in Rembrandt's circumstances could trade as a painter. To get around this, Hendrickje and Titus set up a business as art dealers in 1660, with Rembrandt as an employee. [31]

Rembrandt Memorial Marker Westerkerk Amsterdam Rembrandt Memorial Marker Westerkerk Amsterdam.jpg
Rembrandt Memorial Marker Westerkerk Amsterdam

In 1661 Rembrandt (or rather the new business) was contracted to complete work for the newly built city hall, but only after Govert Flinck, the artist previously commissioned, died without beginning to paint. The resulting work, The Conspiracy of Claudius Civilis , was rejected and returned to the painter; the surviving fragment is only a fraction of the whole work. [32] It was around this time that Rembrandt took on his last apprentice, Aert de Gelder. In 1662 he was still fulfilling major commissions for portraits and other works. [33] When Cosimo III de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany came to Amsterdam in 1667, he visited Rembrandt at his house. [34]

Rembrandt outlived both Hendrickje, who died in 1663, and Titus, who died in 1668, leaving a baby daughter. He died within a year of his son, on 4 October 1669 in Amsterdam, and was buried as a poor man [35] [36] in an unknown grave in the Westerkerk . It was in a numbered 'kerkgraf' (grave owned by the church) somewhere under a tombstone in the church. After twenty years, his remains were taken away and destroyed, as was customary with the remains of poor people at the time.

Works

In a letter to Huygens, Rembrandt offered the only surviving explanation of what he sought to achieve through his art: the greatest and most natural movement, translated from de meeste en de natuurlijkste beweegelijkheid. The word "beweegelijkheid" is also argued to mean "emotion" or "motive". Whether this refers to objectives, material or otherwise, is open to interpretation; either way, critics have drawn particular attention to the way Rembrandt seamlessly melded the earthly and spiritual. [37]

The Storm on the Sea of Galilee, 1633. The painting is still missing after the robbery from the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum in 1990. Rembrandt Christ in the Storm on the Lake of Galilee.jpg
The Storm on the Sea of Galilee , 1633. The painting is still missing after the robbery from the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum in 1990.

Earlier-20th-century connoisseurs claimed Rembrandt had produced well over 600 paintings, [38] nearly 400 etchings and 2,000 drawings. [39] More recent scholarship, from the 1960s to the present day (led by the Rembrandt Research Project), often controversially, has winnowed his oeuvre to nearer 300 paintings. [40] His prints, traditionally all called etchings, although many are produced in whole or part by engraving and sometimes drypoint, have a much more stable total of slightly under 300. [41] It is likely Rembrandt made many more drawings in his lifetime than 2,000, but those extant are more rare than presumed. [42] Two experts claim that the number of drawings whose autograph status can be regarded as effectively "certain" is no higher than about 75, although this is disputed. The list was to be unveiled at a scholarly meeting in February 2010. [43]

At one time about ninety paintings were counted as Rembrandt self-portraits, but it is now known that he had his students copy his own self-portraits as part of their training. Modern scholarship has reduced the autograph count to over forty paintings, as well as a few drawings and thirty-one etchings, which include many of the most remarkable images of the group. [44] Some show him posing in quasi-historical fancy dress, or pulling faces at himself. His oil paintings trace the progress from an uncertain young man, through the dapper and very successful portrait-painter of the 1630s, to the troubled but massively powerful portraits of his old age. Together they give a remarkably clear picture of the man, his appearance and his psychological make-up, as revealed by his richly weathered face. [45]

A Polish Nobleman, 1637 Rembrandt van Rijn - A Polish nobleman.jpg
A Polish Nobleman , 1637

In his portraits and self-portraits, he angles the sitter's face in such a way that the ridge of the nose nearly always forms the line of demarcation between brightly illuminated and shadowy areas. A Rembrandt face is a face partially eclipsed; and the nose, bright and obvious, thrusting into the riddle of halftones, serves to focus the viewer's attention upon, and to dramatize, the division between a flood of light—an overwhelming clarity—and a brooding duskiness. [46]

In a number of biblical works, including The Raising of the Cross, Joseph Telling His Dreams and The Stoning of Saint Stephen , Rembrandt painted himself as a character in the crowd. Durham suggests that this was because the Bible was for Rembrandt "a kind of diary, an account of moments in his own life". [47]

Among the more prominent characteristics of Rembrandt's work are his use of chiaroscuro, the theatrical employment of light and shadow derived from Caravaggio, or, more likely, from the Dutch Caravaggisti, but adapted for very personal means. [48] Also notable are his dramatic and lively presentation of subjects, devoid of the rigid formality that his contemporaries often displayed, and a deeply felt compassion for mankind, irrespective of wealth and age. His immediate family—his wife Saskia, his son Titus and his common-law wife Hendrickje—often figured prominently in his paintings, many of which had mythical, biblical or historical themes.

Drawings by Rembrandt and his pupils have been extensively studied by many artists and scholars [49] through the centuries. His original draughtsmanship has been described as an individualistic art style that was very similar to East Asian old masters, most notably Chinese masters: [50] a "combination of formal clarity and calligraphic vitality in the movement of pen or brush that is closer to Chinese painting in technique and feeling than to anything in European art before the twentieth century". [51]

Periods, themes and styles

Throughout his career Rembrandt took as his primary subjects the themes of portraiture, landscape and narrative painting. For the last, he was especially praised by his contemporaries, who extolled him as a masterly interpreter of biblical stories for his skill in representing emotions and attention to detail. [52] Stylistically, his paintings progressed from the early "smooth" manner, characterized by fine technique in the portrayal of illusionistic form, to the late "rough" treatment of richly variegated paint surfaces, which allowed for an illusionism of form suggested by the tactile quality of the paint itself. [53]

The Abduction of Europa, 1632. Oil on panel. The work has been described as "...a shining example of the 'golden age' of Baroque painting". Rembrandt Harmensz. van Rijn - The Abduction of Europa - Google Art Project.jpg
The Abduction of Europa, 1632. Oil on panel. The work has been described as "...a shining example of the 'golden age' of Baroque painting".

A parallel development may be seen in Rembrandt's skill as a printmaker. In the etchings of his maturity, particularly from the late 1640s onward, the freedom and breadth of his drawings and paintings found expression in the print medium as well. The works encompass a wide range of subject matter and technique, sometimes leaving large areas of white paper to suggest space, at other times employing complex webs of line to produce rich dark tones. [55]

It was during Rembrandt's Leiden period (1625–1631) that Lastman's influence was most prominent. It is also likely that at this time Lievens had a strong impact on his work as well. [56] Paintings were rather small, but rich in details (for example, in costumes and jewelry). Religious and allegorical themes were favored, as were tronies. [56] In 1626 Rembrandt produced his first etchings, the wide dissemination of which would largely account for his international fame. [56] In 1629 he completed Judas Repentant, Returning the Pieces of Silver and The Artist in His Studio , works that evidence his interest in the handling of light and variety of paint application, and constitute the first major progress in his development as a painter. [57]

A typical portrait from 1634, when Rembrandt was enjoying great commercial success Rembrandt, Portret van Haesje v.Cleyburg 1634.jpg
A typical portrait from 1634, when Rembrandt was enjoying great commercial success

During his early years in Amsterdam (1632–1636), Rembrandt began to paint dramatic biblical and mythological scenes in high contrast and of large format ( The Blinding of Samson , 1636, Belshazzar's Feast , c. 1635 Danaë , 1636), seeking to emulate the baroque style of Rubens. [58] With the occasional help of assistants in Uylenburgh's workshop, he painted numerous portrait commissions both small (Jacob de Gheyn III) and large (Portrait of the Shipbuilder Jan Rijcksen and his Wife, 1633, Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp , 1632). [59]

By the late 1630s Rembrandt had produced a few paintings and many etchings of landscapes. Often these landscapes highlighted natural drama, featuring uprooted trees and ominous skies (Cottages before a Stormy Sky, c. 1641; The Three Trees, 1643). From 1640 his work became less exuberant and more sober in tone, possibly reflecting personal tragedy. Biblical scenes were now derived more often from the New Testament than the Old Testament, as had been the case before. In 1642 he painted The Night Watch , the most substantial of the important group portrait commissions which he received in this period, and through which he sought to find solutions to compositional and narrative problems that had been attempted in previous works. [60]

Self Portrait, 1658, Frick Collection, a masterpiece of the final style, "the calmest and grandest of all his portraits" Rembrandt - Zelfportret - Google Art Project.jpg
Self Portrait, 1658, Frick Collection, a masterpiece of the final style, "the calmest and grandest of all his portraits"

In the decade following the Night Watch, Rembrandt's paintings varied greatly in size, subject, and style. The previous tendency to create dramatic effects primarily by strong contrasts of light and shadow gave way to the use of frontal lighting and larger and more saturated areas of color. Simultaneously, figures came to be placed parallel to the picture plane. These changes can be seen as a move toward a classical mode of composition and, considering the more expressive use of brushwork as well, may indicate a familiarity with Venetian art (Susanna and the Elders, 1637–47). [62] At the same time, there was a marked decrease in painted works in favor of etchings and drawings of landscapes. [63] In these graphic works natural drama eventually made way for quiet Dutch rural scenes.

In the 1650s, Rembrandt's style changed again. Colors became richer and brush strokes more pronounced. With these changes, Rembrandt distanced himself from earlier work and current fashion, which increasingly inclined toward fine, detailed works. His use of light becomes more jagged and harsh, and shine becomes almost nonexistent. His singular approach to paint application may have been suggested in part by familiarity with the work of Titian, and could be seen in the context of the then current discussion of 'finish' and surface quality of paintings. Contemporary accounts sometimes remark disapprovingly of the coarseness of Rembrandt's brushwork, and the artist himself was said to have dissuaded visitors from looking too closely at his paintings. [64] The tactile manipulation of paint may hearken to medieval procedures, when mimetic effects of rendering informed a painting's surface. The end result is a richly varied handling of paint, deeply layered and often apparently haphazard, which suggests form and space in both an illusory and highly individual manner. [65]

In later years biblical themes were still depicted often, but emphasis shifted from dramatic group scenes to intimate portrait-like figures (James the Apostle, 1661). In his last years, Rembrandt painted his most deeply reflective self-portraits (from 1652 to 1669 he painted fifteen), and several moving images of both men and women ( The Jewish Bride , c. 1666)—in love, in life, and before God. [66] [67]

Etchings

The Windmill, 1641, etching Rembrandt - The windmill - Google Art Project.jpg
The Windmill, 1641, etching

Rembrandt produced etchings for most of his career, from 1626 to 1660, when he was forced to sell his printing-press and practically abandoned etching. Only the troubled year of 1649 produced no dated work. [68] He took easily to etching and, though he also learned to use a burin and partly engraved many plates, the freedom of etching technique was fundamental to his work. He was very closely involved in the whole process of printmaking, and must have printed at least early examples of his etchings himself. At first he used a style based on drawing, but soon moved to one based on painting, using a mass of lines and numerous bitings with the acid to achieve different strengths of line. Towards the end of the 1630s, he reacted against this manner and moved to a simpler style, with fewer bitings. [69] He worked on the so-called Hundred Guilder Print in stages throughout the 1640s, and it was the "critical work in the middle of his career", from which his final etching style began to emerge. [70] Although the print only survives in two states, the first very rare, evidence of much reworking can be seen underneath the final print and many drawings survive for elements of it. [71]

The Three Trees, 1643, etching Die landschaft mit den drei baeumen.jpg
The Three Trees, 1643, etching

In the mature works of the 1650s, Rembrandt was more ready to improvise on the plate and large prints typically survive in several states, up to eleven, often radically changed. He now uses hatching to create his dark areas, which often take up much of the plate. He also experimented with the effects of printing on different kinds of paper, including Japanese paper, which he used frequently, and on vellum. He began to use "plate tone," leaving a thin film of ink on parts of the plate instead of wiping it completely clean to print each impression. He made more use of drypoint, exploiting, especially in landscapes, the rich fuzzy burr that this technique gives to the first few impressions. [72]

His prints have similar subjects to his paintings, although the twenty-seven self-portraits are relatively more common, and portraits of other people less so. There are forty-six landscapes, mostly small, which largely set the course for the graphic treatment of landscape until the end of the 19th century. One third of his etchings are of religious subjects, many treated with a homely simplicity, whilst others are his most monumental prints. A few erotic, or just obscene, compositions have no equivalent in his paintings. [73] He owned, until forced to sell it, a magnificent collection of prints by other artists, and many borrowings and influences in his work can be traced to artists as diverse as Mantegna, Raphael, Hercules Seghers, and Giovanni Benedetto Castiglione.

The Night Watch

The Night Watch or The Militia Company of Captain Frans Banning Cocq, 1642. Oil on canvas; on display at the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam The Nightwatch by Rembrandt.jpg
The Night Watch or The Militia Company of Captain Frans Banning Cocq, 1642. Oil on canvas; on display at the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam

Rembrandt painted the large painting The Militia Company of Captain Frans Banning Cocq between 1640 and 1642. This picture was called De Nachtwacht by the Dutch and The Night Watch by Sir Joshua Reynolds because by the 18th century the picture was so dimmed and defaced that it was almost indistinguishable, and it looked quite like a night scene. After it was cleaned, it was discovered to represent broad day—a party of musketeers stepping from a gloomy courtyard into the blinding sunlight.

The piece was commissioned for the new hall of the Kloveniersdoelen , the musketeer branch of the civic militia. Rembrandt departed from convention, which ordered that such genre pieces should be stately and formal, rather a line-up than an action scene. Instead he showed the militia readying themselves to embark on a mission (what kind of mission, an ordinary patrol or some special event, is a matter of debate).

Contrary to what is often said, the work was hailed as a success from the beginning. Parts of the canvas were cut off (approximately 20% from the left hand side was removed) to make the painting fit its new position when it was moved to Amsterdam town hall in 1715; the Rijksmuseum has a smaller copy of what is thought to be the full original composition; the four figures in the front are at the centre of the canvas. The painting is now in the Rijksmuseum.

Indian Miniatures

Rembrandt drawing of an Indian Mughal painting Rembrandt 208.jpg
Rembrandt drawing of an Indian Mughal painting

Rembrandt was interested in Mughal miniatures, especially around the 1650s. He drew versions of some 23 Mughal paintings, and may have owned an album of them. These miniatures include paintings of Shah Jahan, Akbar, Jahangir and Dara Shikoh. They may also have influenced the costumes and other aspects of his works. [74] [75] [76]

Expert assessments

The Polish Rider - Possibly a Lisowczyk on horseback Rembrandt - De Poolse ruiter, c.1655 (Frick Collection).jpg
The Polish Rider – Possibly a Lisowczyk on horseback

In 1968 the Rembrandt Research Project began under the sponsorship of the Netherlands Organization for the Advancement of Scientific Research; it was initially expected to last a highly optimistic ten years. Art historians teamed up with experts from other fields to reassess the authenticity of works attributed to Rembrandt, using all methods available, including state-of-the-art technical diagnostics, and to compile a complete new catalogue raisonné of his paintings. As a result of their findings, many paintings that were previously attributed to Rembrandt have been removed from their list, although others have been added back. [77] Many of those removed are now thought to be the work of his students.

One example of activity is The Polish Rider , in New York's Frick Collection. Rembrandt's authorship had been questioned by at least one scholar, Alfred von Wurzbach, at the beginning of the twentieth century, but for many decades later most scholars, including the foremost authority writing in English, Julius S. Held, agreed that it was indeed by the master. In the 1980s, however, Dr. Josua Bruyn of the Foundation Rembrandt Research Project cautiously and tentatively attributed the painting to one of Rembrandt's closest and most talented pupils, Willem Drost, about whom little is known. But Bruyn's remained a minority opinion, the suggestion of Drost's authorship is now generally rejected, and the Frick itself never changed its own attribution, the label still reading "Rembrandt" and not "attributed to" or "school of". More recent opinion has shifted even more decisively in favor of the Frick, with Simon Schama (in his 1999 book Rembrandt's Eyes) and the Rembrandt Project scholar Ernst van de Wetering (Melbourne Symposium, 1997) both arguing for attribution to the master. Those few scholars who still question Rembrandt's authorship feel that the execution is uneven, and favour different attributions for different parts of the work. [78]

The Man with the Golden Helmet, Gemaldegalerie, Berlin, once one of the most famous "Rembrandt" portraits, is no longer attributed to the master. Mann mit dem Goldhelm.jpg
The Man with the Golden Helmet , Gemäldegalerie, Berlin, once one of the most famous "Rembrandt" portraits, is no longer attributed to the master.

A similar issue was raised by Simon Schama in his book Rembrandt's Eyes concerning the verification of titles associated with the subject matter depicted in Rembrandt's works. For example, the exact subject being portrayed in Aristotle with a Bust of Homer (recently retitled by curators at the Metropolitan Museum) has been directly challenged by Schama applying the scholarship of Paul Crenshaw. [80] Schama presents a substantial argument that it was the famous ancient Greek painter Apelles who is depicted in contemplation by Rembrandt and not Aristotle. [81]

Another painting, Pilate Washing His Hands, is also of questionable attribution. Critical opinion of this picture has varied since 1905, when Wilhelm von Bode described it as "a somewhat abnormal work" by Rembrandt. Scholars have since dated the painting to the 1660s and assigned it to an anonymous pupil, possibly Aert de Gelder. The composition bears superficial resemblance to mature works by Rembrandt but lacks the master's command of illumination and modeling. [82]

The attribution and re-attribution work is ongoing. In 2005 four oil paintings previously attributed to Rembrandt's students were reclassified as the work of Rembrandt himself: Study of an Old Man in Profile and Study of an Old Man with a Beard from a US private collection, Study of a Weeping Woman, owned by the Detroit Institute of Arts, and Portrait of an Elderly Woman in a White Bonnet, painted in 1640. [83] The Old Man Sitting in a Chair is a further example: in 2014, Professor Ernst van de Wetering offered his view to The Guardian [84] that the demotion of the 1652 painting Old Man Sitting in a Chair "was a vast mistake...it is a most important painting. The painting needs to be seen in terms of Rembrandt's experimentation". This was highlighted much earlier by Nigel Konstam who studied Rembrandt throughout his career.

Rembrandt's own studio practice is a major factor in the difficulty of attribution, since, like many masters before him, he encouraged his students to copy his paintings, sometimes finishing or retouching them to be sold as originals, and sometimes selling them as authorized copies. Additionally, his style proved easy enough for his most talented students to emulate. Further complicating matters is the uneven quality of some of Rembrandt's own work, and his frequent stylistic evolutions and experiments. [85] As well, there were later imitations of his work, and restorations which so seriously damaged the original works that they are no longer recognizable. [86] It is highly likely that there will never be universal agreement as to what does and what does not constitute a genuine Rembrandt.

Painting materials

Saskia as Flora, 1635 Rembrandt - Saskia van Uylenburgh in Arcadian Costume - WGA19164.jpg
Saskia as Flora, 1635

Technical investigation of Rembrandt's paintings in the possession of the Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister [87] and in the Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister (Kassel) [88] has been conducted by Hermann Kühn in 1977. The pigment analyses of some thirty paintings have shown that Rembrandt's palette consisted of the following pigments: lead white, various ochres, Vandyke brown, bone black, charcoal black, lamp black, vermilion, madder lake, azurite, ultramarine, yellow lake and lead-tin-yellow. One painting (Saskia van Uylenburgh as Flora) [89] reportedly contains gamboge. Rembrandt very rarely used pure blue or green colors, the most pronounced exception being Belshazzar's Feast [90] [91] in the National Gallery in London. The book by Bomford [90] describes more recent technical investigations and pigment analyses of Rembrandt's paintings predominantly in the National Gallery in London. The entire array of pigments employed by Rembrandt can be found at ColourLex. [92] The best source for technical information on Rembrandt's paintings on the web is the Rembrandt Database containing all works of Rembrandt with detailed investigative reports, infrared and radiography images and other scientific details. [93]

Name and signature

Slaughtered Ox, (1655), Musee du Louvre, Paris Rembrandt, bue squartato, 1655, 02.JPG
Slaughtered Ox , (1655), Musée du Louvre, Paris

"Rembrandt" is a modification of the spelling of the artist's first name that he introduced in 1633. "Harmenszoon" indicates that his father's name is Harmen. "van Rijn" indicates that his family lived near the Rhine. [94]

Roughly speaking, his earliest signatures (c. 1625) consisted of an initial "R", or the monogram "RH" (for Rembrant Harmenszoon), and starting in 1629, "RHL" (the "L" stood, presumably, for Leiden). In 1632, he used this monogram early in the year, then added his family name to it, "RHL-van Rijn", but replaced this form in that same year and began using his first name alone with its original spelling, "Rembrant". In 1633 he added a "d", and maintained this form consistently from then on, proving that this minor change had a meaning for him (whatever it might have been). This change is purely visual; it does not change the way his name is pronounced. Curiously enough, despite the large number of paintings and etchings signed with this modified first name, most of their documents that mentioned him during his lifetime retained the original "Rembrant" spelling. (Note: the rough chronology of signature forms above applies to the paintings, and to a lesser degree to the etchings; from 1632, presumably, there is only one etching signed "RHL-v. Rijn," the large-format "Raising of Lazarus," B 73). [95] His practice of signing his work with his first name, later followed by Vincent van Gogh, was probably inspired by Raphael, Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo who, then as now, were referred to by their first names alone. [96]

Workshop

Rembrandt ran a large workshop and had many pupils. The list of Rembrandt pupils from his period in Leiden as well as his time in Amsterdam is quite long, mostly because his influence on painters around him was so great that it is difficult to tell whether someone worked for him in his studio or just copied his style for patrons eager to acquire a Rembrandt. A partial list should include [97] Ferdinand Bol, Adriaen Brouwer, Gerrit Dou, Willem Drost, Heiman Dullaart, Gerbrand van den Eeckhout, Carel Fabritius, Govert Flinck, Hendrick Fromantiou, Aert de Gelder, Samuel Dirksz van Hoogstraten, Abraham Janssens, Godfrey Kneller, Philip de Koninck, Jacob Levecq, Nicolaes Maes, Jürgen Ovens, Christopher Paudiß, Willem de Poorter, Jan Victors, and Willem van der Vliet.

Museum collections

Rembrandt House Museum Rembrandts house, Amsterdam.jpg
Rembrandt House Museum

The most notable collections of Rembrandt's work are at Amsterdam's Rijksmuseum, including The Night Watch and The Jewish Bride , the Mauritshuis in The Hague, the Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg, the National Gallery in London, Gemäldegalerie in Berlin, Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister in Dresden, The Louvre, Nationalmuseum, Stockholm, and Schloss Wilhelmshöhe in Kassel. The Royal Castle in Warsaw displays two paintings by Rembrandt. [98]

Notable collections of Rembrandt's paintings in the United States are housed in the Metropolitan Museum of Art and Frick Collection in New York City, the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C., Museum of Fine Arts in Boston, and J. Paul Getty Museum in Los Angeles. [99]

The Rembrandt House Museum in central Amsterdam in the house he bought at the height of his success, has furnishings that are mostly not original, but period pieces comparable to those Rembrandt might have had, and paintings reflecting Rembrandt's use of the house for art dealing. His printmaking studio has been set up with a printing press, where replica prints are printed. The museum has a few Rembrandt paintings, many loaned, but an important collection of his prints, a good selection of which are on rotating display. All major print rooms have large collections of Rembrandt prints, although as some exist in only a single impression, no collection is complete. The degree to which these collections are displayed to the public, or can easily be viewed by them in the print room, varies greatly.

Influence and recognition

Rembrandt is one of the most famous [100] [101] [102] and best expertly researched visual artists in history. [103] [104] His life and art have long attracted the attention of interdisciplinary scholarship. He has been the subject of a vast amount of literature that includes both fiction and nonfiction works. Rembrandt scholarship, as an academic field in its own right with many notable Rembrandt connoisseurs and scholars, has been very dynamic and well published. [103] [104]

According to art historian Stephanie Dickey:

[Rembrandt] mentored generations of other painters and produced a body of work that has never ceased to attract admiration, critique, and interpretation. (...) Rembrandt's art is a key component in any study of the Dutch Golden Age, and his membership in the canon of artistic genius is well established, but he is also a figure whose significance transcends specialist interest. Literary critics have pondered "Rembrandt" as a "cultural text"; novelists, playwrights, and filmmakers have romanticized his life, and in popular culture, his name has become synonymous with excellence for products and services, ranging from toothpaste to self-help advice. [104]

Francisco Goya, often considered to be among the last of the Old Masters, said "I have had three masters: Nature, Velázquez, and Rembrandt." [105] The impressionist Max Liebermann said: "Whenever I see a Frans Hals, I feel like painting; whenever I see a Rembrandt, I feel like giving up" [106] .

Selected works

The Girl in a Picture Frame, 1641, Royal Castle, Warsaw Rembrandt Girl in a Picture Frame.jpg
The Girl in a Picture Frame , 1641, Royal Castle, Warsaw
The evangelist Matthew and the angel, 1661 Rembrandt Harmensz. van Rijn 049.jpg
The evangelist Matthew and the angel, 1661

Exhibitions

Paintings

Self-portraits

Other paintings

Drawings and etchings

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References

Footnotes

  1. 1 2 3 Or possibly 1607 as on 10 June 1634 he himself claimed to be 26 years old. See Is the Rembrandt Year being celebrated one year too soon? One year too late? and (in Dutch) J. de Jong, Rembrandts geboortejaar een jaar te vroeg gevierd for sources concerning Rembrandts birth year, especially supporting 1607. However, most sources continue to use 1606.
  2. "Rembrandt" Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine . Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary .
  3. See: list of drawings, prints (etchings), and paintings by Rembrandt.
  4. 1 2 Gombrich, p. 420.
  5. Gombrich, p. 427.
  6. Clark 1969 , pp. 203
  7. Clark 1969 , pp. 203–204
  8. Clark 1969 , pp. 205
  9. Rodin, Auguste: Art: Conversations with Paul Gsell. (University of California Press, 1984, ISBN   0-520-03819-3), p. 85 [Translated by Jacques de Caso and Patricia B. Sanders]. Originally published as L'Art: Entretiens réunis par Paul Gsell. (Paris: Bernard Grasset, 1911)
  10. Wessels, Anton: Van Gogh and the Art of Living: The Gospel According to Vincent van Gogh. (Wipf & Stock, 2013, ISBN   978-1-62564-109-0)
  11. This version of his first name, "Rembrandt" with a "d," first appeared in his signatures in 1633. Until then, he had signed with a combination of initials or monograms. In late 1632, he began signing solely with his first name, "Rembrant". He added the "d" in the following year and stuck to this spelling for the rest of his life. Although we can only speculate, this change must have had a meaning for Rembrandt, which is generally interpreted as his wanting to be known by his first name like the great figures of the Italian Renaissance: Leonardo, Raphael etc., (who did not sign with their first names, if at all). Rembrandt-signature-file.com Archived 9 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine
  12. Bull, et al., p. 28.
  13. "Doopregisters, Zoek" (in Dutch). Stadsarchief.amsterdam.nl. 2014-04-03. Retrieved 2014-04-07.[ permanent dead link ]
  14. 1 2 (in Dutch) Rembrandt biography in De groote schouburgh der Nederlantsche konstschilders en schilderessen (1718) by Arnold Houbraken, courtesy of the Digital library for Dutch literature
  15. Joris van Schooten as teacher of Rembrandt and Lievens Archived 26 December 2016 at the Wayback Machine in Simon van Leeuwen's Korte besgryving van het Lugdunum Batavorum nu Leyden, Leiden, 1672
  16. Rembrandt biography Archived 20 December 2016 at the Wayback Machine , nationalgallery.org.uk
  17. Erhardt, Michelle A., and Amy M. Morris. 2012. Mary Magdalene, Iconographic Studies from the Middle Ages to the Baroque. Boston : Brill. p. 252. ISBN   978-90-04-23195-5.
  18. Slive has a comprehensive biography, pp. 55ff.
  19. Slive, pp. 60, 65
  20. Slive, pp. 60–61
  21. "Netherlands, Noord-Holland Province, Church Records, 1553–1909 Image Netherlands, Noord-Holland Province, Church Records, 1553–1909; pal:/MM9.3.1/TH-1971-31164-16374-68". Familysearch.org. Retrieved 2014-04-07.
  22. Registration of the banns of Rembrandt and Saskia, kept at the Amsterdam City Archives
  23. 1 2 3 Bull, et al., p. 28
  24. Clark, 1978, pp. 26–27, 76, 102
  25. Adams, p. 660
  26. 1 2 Slive, p. 71
  27. Driessen, pp. 151–57
  28. Slive, p. 82
  29. Slive, p. 84
  30. Schwartz, p. 12. The house sale was in 1658, but was agreed with two years for Rembrandt to vacate.
  31. Clark, 1974 p. 105
  32. Clark 1974, pp. 60–61
  33. Bull, et al., p. 29.
  34. Clark 1978, p. 34
  35. Slive, p. 83
  36. Burial register of the Westerkerk with record of Rembrandt's burial, kept at the Amsterdam City Archives
  37. Hughes, p. 6
  38. Table comparing various catalogues
  39. Art of Northern Europe, Institute for the Study of Western Civilization. Archived 29 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  40. Useful totals of the figures from various different oeuvre catalogues, often divided into classes along the lines of: "very likely authentic", "possibly authentic" and "unlikely to be authentic" are given at the Online Rembrandt catalogue Archived 13 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  41. Two hundred years ago Bartsch listed 375. More recent catalogues have added three (two in unique impressions) and excluded enough to reach totals as follows: Schwartz, p. 6, 289; Münz 1952, 279; Boon 1963, 287 Print Council of America – but Schwartz's total quoted does not tally with the book.
  42. It is not possible to give a total, as a new wave of scholarship on Rembrandt drawings is still in progress – analysis of the Berlin collection for an exhibition in 2006/7 has produced a probable drop from 130 sheets there to about 60. Codart.nl Archived 27 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine The British Museum is due to publish a new catalogue after a similar exercise.
  43. "Schwartzlist 301 – Blog entry by the Rembrandt scholar Gary Schwartz". Garyschwartzarthistorian.nl. Retrieved 2012-02-17.
  44. White and Buvelot 1999, p. 10.
  45. While the popular interpretation is that these paintings represent a personal and introspective journey, it is possible that they were painted to satisfy a market for self-portraits by prominent artists. Van de Wetering, p. 290.
  46. Taylor, Michael (2007).Rembrandt's Nose: Of Flesh & Spirit in the Master's Portraits Archived 5 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine p. 21, D.A.P./Distributed Art Publishers, Inc., New York ISBN   978-1-933045-44-3'
  47. Durham, p. 60.
  48. Bull, et al., pp. 11–13.
  49. Such as Otto Benesch, David Hockney, Nigel Konstam, Jakob Rosenberg, Gary Schwartz.
  50. Mendelowitz, Daniel Marcus: Drawing. (New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, Inc., 1967), p. 305. As Mendelowitz (1967) noted: "Probably no one has combined to as great a degree as Rembrandt a disciplined exposition of what his eye saw and a love of line as a beautiful thing in itself. His "Winter Landscape" displays the virtuosity of performance of an Oriental master, yet unlike the Oriental calligraphy, it is not based on an established convention of brush performance. It is as personal as handwriting."
  51. Sullivan, Michael: The Meeting of Eastern and Western Art. (University of California Press, 1989), p. 91
  52. van der Wetering, p. 268.
  53. van de Wetering, pp. 160, 190.
  54. Clough, p. 23
  55. Ackley, p. 14.
  56. 1 2 3 van de Wetering, p. 284.
  57. van de Wetering, p. 285.
  58. van de Wetering, p. 287.
  59. van de Wetering, p. 286.
  60. van de Wetering, p. 288.
  61. Clark 1978, p. 28
  62. van de Wetering, pp. 163–65.
  63. van de Wetering, p. 289.
  64. van de Wetering, pp. 155–65.
  65. van de Wetering, pp. 157–58, 190.
  66. "In Rembrandt's (late) great portraits we feel face to face with real people, we sense their warmth, their need for sympathy and also their loneliness and suffering. Those keen and steady eyes that we know so well from Rembrandt's self-portraits must have been able to look straight into the human heart." Gombrich, p. 423.
  67. "It (The Jewish Bride) is a picture of grown-up love, a marvelous amalgam of richness, tenderness, and trust... the heads which, in their truth, have a spiritual glow that painters influenced by the classical tradition could never achieve." Clark, p. 206.
  68. Schwartz, 1994, pp. 8–12
  69. White 1969, pp. 5–6
  70. White 1969, p. 6
  71. White 1969, pp. 6, 9–10
  72. White, 1969 pp. 6–7
  73. See Schwartz, 1994, where the works are divided by subject, following Bartsch.
  74. "In Paintings: Rembrandt & his Mughal India Inspiration". 2017-09-03. Retrieved 12 May 2018.
  75. "Rembrandt and the Inspiration of India" (PDF). Retrieved 12 May 2018.
  76. Ganz, James (2013). Rembrandt's Century. San Francisco, CA: Fine Arts Museum of San Francisco. p. 45. ISBN   9783791352244.
  77. "The Rembrandt Research Project: Past, Present, Future" (PDF). Retrieved 11 August 2014.
  78. See "Further Battles for the 'Lisowczyk' (Polish Rider) by Rembrandt" Zdzislaw Zygulski, Jr., Artibus et Historiae, Vol. 21, No. 41 (2000), pp. 197–205. Also New York Times story Archived 8 January 2008 at the Wayback Machine . There is a book on the subject:Responses to Rembrandt; Who painted the Polish Rider? by Anthony Bailey (New York, 1993)
  79. John Russell (December 1, 1985). "Art View; In Search of the Real Thing". New York Times.
  80. Schama, Simon (1999). Rembrandt's Eyes. Knopf, p. 720.
  81. Schama, pp 582–591.
  82. "Rembrandt Pilate Washing His Hands Oil Painting Reproduction". Outpost Art. Retrieved 1 January 2015.
  83. "Entertainment | Lost Rembrandt works discovered". BBC News. 23 September 2005. Retrieved 7 October 2009.
  84. Brown, Mark (23 May 2014), "Rembrandt expert urges National Gallery to rethink demoted painting", The Guardian, retrieved December 21, 2015
  85. "...Rembrandt was not always the perfectly consistent, logical Dutchman he was originally anticipated to be." Ackley, p. 13.
  86. van de Wetering, p. x.
  87. Kühn, Hermann. ‘Untersuchungen zu den Pigmenten und Malgründen Rembrandts, durchgeführt an den Gemälden der Staatlichen Kunstsammlungen Dresden’(Examination of pigments and grounds used by Rembrandt, analysis carried out on paintings in the Staatlichen Kunstsammlungen Dresden), Maltechnik/Restauro, issue 4 (1977): 223–233
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Works cited

  • Ackley, Clifford, et al., Rembrandt's Journey, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 2004. ISBN   0-87846-677-0
  • Adams, Laurie Schneider (1999). Art Across Time. Volume II. New York: McGraw-Hill College.
  • Bomford, D. et al., Art in the making: Rembrandt, New edition, Yale University Press, 2006
  • Bull, Duncan, et al., Rembrandt-Caravaggio, Rijksmuseum, 2006.
  • Buvelot, Quentin, White, Christopher (eds), Rembrandt by himself, 1999, National Gallery
  • Clark, Kenneth (1969). Civilisation: a personal view. New York: Harper & Row. ISBN   978-0-06-010801-4.
  • Clark, Kenneth, An Introduction to Rembrandt, 1978, London, John Murray/Readers Union, 1978
  • Clough, Shepard B. (1975). European History in a World Perspective. D.C. Heath and Company, Los Lexington, MA. ISBN   978-0-669-85555-5.
  • Driessen, Christoph, Rembrandts vrouwen, Bert Bakker, Amsterdam, 2012. ISBN   978-90-351-3690-8
  • Durham, John I. (2004). Biblical Rembrandt: Human Painter In A Landscape Of Faith. Mercer University Press. ISBN   978-0-86554-886-2.
  • Gombrich, E.H., The Story of Art, Phaidon, 1995. ISBN   0-7148-3355-X
  • Hughes, Robert (2006), "The God of Realism", The New York Review of Books, 53 (6)
  • The Complete Etchings of Rembrandt Reproduced in Original Size, Gary Schwartz (editor). New York: Dover, 1988. ISBN   0-486-28181-7
  • Slive, Seymour, Dutch Painting, 1600–1800, Yale UP, 1995, ISBN   0-300-07451-4
  • van de Wetering, Ernst in Rembrandt by himself, 1999 National Gallery, London/Mauritshuis, The Hague, ISBN   1-85709-270-8
  • van de Wetering, Ernst, Rembrandt: The Painter at Work, Amsterdam University Press, 2000. ISBN   0-520-22668-2
  • White, Christopher, The Late Etchings of Rembrandt, 1999, British Museum/Lund Humphries, London ISBN   978-90-400-9315-9

Further reading