Rennes

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Rennes

Roazhon  (Breton)
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Marche des Lices.jpg
Hochbahnabschnitt Pontchaillou - Anatole France der Metro Rennes.jpg
Esplanade du General de Gaulle a Rennes.jpg
L'Opera de Rennes Bretagne.JPG
Batiments de nuits -Univ Rennes 2 - Louis Arretche.jpg
Rennes cathedrale mai 2010 - panorama 1.jpg
Top to bottom, left to right: Place de la Mairie, Marché des Lices, Rennes Metro, Esplanade Charles de Gaulle, Opera of Rennes by night, University of Rennes 2, Skyline of Rennes from Cathedral
Drapeau Rennes.svg
Flag
Blason Rennes.svg
Coat of arms
Motto(s): 
Vivre en intelligence
(French for '"Live in harmony"')
Location of Rennes
Rennes
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Rennes
Bretagne region location map.svg
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Rennes
Coordinates: 48°06′53″N1°40′46″W / 48.1147°N 1.6794°W / 48.1147; -1.6794 Coordinates: 48°06′53″N1°40′46″W / 48.1147°N 1.6794°W / 48.1147; -1.6794
Country France
Region Brittany
Department Ille-et-Vilaine
Arrondissement Rennes
Canton Rennes-1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6
Intercommunality Rennes Métropole
Government
  Mayor (2014-2020) Nathalie Appéré (PS)
Area
1
50.39 km2 (19.46 sq mi)
Population
 (2017-01-01) [1]
216,815
  Density4,300/km2 (11,000/sq mi)
   Metro
727,357
Time zone UTC+01:00 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+02:00 (CEST)
INSEE/Postal code
35238 /35000, 35200, 35700
Elevation20–74 m (66–243 ft)
(avg. 30 m or 98 ft)
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

Rennes (French pronunciation:  [ʁɛn] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); Breton : Roazhon [ˈrwɑːzən] ; Gallo: Resnn; Latin : Condate Redonum) is a city in the east of Brittany in northwestern France at the confluence of the Ille and the Vilaine. Rennes is the capital of the region of Brittany, as well as the Ille-et-Vilaine department. In 2015, the city was the tenth largest in France, with a metropolitan area of about 720,000 inhabitants. [2] The inhabitants of Rennes are called Rennais(e)(es) in French

Contents

Rennes's history goes back more than 2,000 years, at a time when it was a small Gallic village named Condate. Together with Vannes and Nantes, it was one of the major cities of the ancient Duchy of Brittany. From the early sixteenth century until the French Revolution, Rennes was a parliamentary, administrative and garrison city of the historic province of Brittany of the Kingdom of France as evidenced by its 17th century Parliament's Palace. Rennes played an important role in the Stamped Paper Revolt in 1675. After the destructive fire of 1720, the medieval wooden center of the city was partially rebuilt in stone. Remaining mostly rural until the Second World War, Rennes really developed in the twentieth century.

Since the 1950s, Rennes has grown in importance through rural flight and its modern industrial development, partly automotive. The city developed extensive building plans to accommodate upwards of 200,000 inhabitants. During the 1980s, Rennes became one of the main centres in telecommunication and high technology industry. It is now a significant digital innovation centre in France. In 2002, Rennes became the smallest city in the world to have a Metro line.

Labeled a city of art and history, it has preserved an important medieval and classical heritage within its historic center with over 90 buildings  protected as historic monuments [3] . With more than 66,000 students in 2016, it is also the eighth-largest university campus of France. [4] . In 2018, L'Express named Rennes as "the most liveable city in France". [5]

History

Administration

Since 2015, Rennes is divided into 6 cantons (populations as of 2014): [6] [7]

Rennes quarters Plan quartiers Rennes.svg
Rennes quarters

Rennes is divided into 12 quarters:

  1. Le Centre
  2. Thabor/Saint Hélier
  3. Bourg l'Évêque-Moulin du Comte
  4. Saint-Martin
  5. Maurepas-Patton-Bellangerais
  6. Jeanne d'Arc-Longs-Champs-Beaulieu
  7. Francisco Ferrer-Landry-Poterie
  8. Sud Gare
  9. Cleunay-Arsenal-Redon
  10. Villejean-Beauregard
  11. Le Blosne
  12. Bréquigny

Mayors

Nathalie Appere, current mayor of Rennes Nathalie Appere - Fevrier 2013 - 05.JPG
Nathalie Appéré, current mayor of Rennes

The current mayor of Rennes is Nathalie Appéré. A member of the Socialist Party, she replaced retiring Socialist incumbent Daniel Delaveau, in office from 2008 to 2014.

Among previous well-known mayors are:

The mairie (city hall) is right in the centre of Rennes.

National representation

The French Prison Service operates the Centre pénitentiaire de Rennes , the largest women's prison in France. [8]

Geography

Green Belt between Rennes and L'Hermitage Rennes de hermitage 2.JPG
Green Belt between Rennes and L'Hermitage

The ancient centre of the town is built on a hill, with the north side being more elevated than the south side. It is at the confluence of two rivers: the Ille and the Vilaine.

Rennes is located on the European atlantic arc, 50 km from the English Channel (near Saint-Malo, Dinard and Mont Saint-Michel).

Rennes has the distinction of having a significant Green Belt around its ring road. This Green Belt is a protected area between the city proper (rather dense) and the rest of its urban area (rather rural).

Climate

Rennes features an oceanic climate. Precipitation in Rennes is considerably less abundant than in the western parts of Brittany, reaching only half of the levels of, e.g., the city of Quimper, which makes rainfall in Rennes comparable to the levels of larger parts of western Germany. Sunshine hours range between 1,700 and 1,850 annually, which is about the amount of sunshine received by the city of Lausanne.

Climate data for Rennes (RNS), elevation: 36 m (118 ft), 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1945–present
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)16.8
(62.2)
20.9
(69.6)
23.4
(74.1)
28.7
(83.7)
30.8
(87.4)
36.3
(97.3)
40.1
(104.2)
39.5
(103.1)
34.8
(94.6)
30.0
(86.0)
21.4
(70.5)
17.8
(64.0)
40.1
(104.2)
Average high °C (°F)8.7
(47.7)
9.6
(49.3)
12.7
(54.9)
15.2
(59.4)
18.9
(66.0)
22.2
(72.0)
24.5
(76.1)
24.3
(75.7)
21.6
(70.9)
17.0
(62.6)
12.1
(53.8)
9.1
(48.4)
16.4
(61.5)
Daily mean °C (°F)5.8
(42.4)
6.1
(43.0)
8.6
(47.5)
10.5
(50.9)
14.1
(57.4)
17.1
(62.8)
19.1
(66.4)
19.0
(66.2)
16.5
(61.7)
13.1
(55.6)
8.8
(47.8)
6.2
(43.2)
12.1
(53.8)
Average low °C (°F)3.0
(37.4)
2.6
(36.7)
4.5
(40.1)
5.9
(42.6)
9.3
(48.7)
11.9
(53.4)
13.8
(56.8)
13.7
(56.7)
11.4
(52.5)
9.1
(48.4)
5.5
(41.9)
3.3
(37.9)
7.9
(46.2)
Record low °C (°F)−14.7
(5.5)
−11.2
(11.8)
−7.3
(18.9)
−3.2
(26.2)
−1.2
(29.8)
2.2
(36.0)
5.5
(41.9)
4.0
(39.2)
1.9
(35.4)
−4.6
(23.7)
−7.5
(18.5)
−12.6
(9.3)
−14.7
(5.5)
Average precipitation mm (inches)67.6
(2.66)
49.1
(1.93)
51.6
(2.03)
50.9
(2.00)
67.2
(2.65)
46.7
(1.84)
49.1
(1.93)
37.8
(1.49)
59.0
(2.32)
74.8
(2.94)
67.5
(2.66)
72.7
(2.86)
694.0
(27.32)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1 mm)11.59.49.89.99.87.37.36.47.711.111.712.4114.4
Average snowy days2.12.61.50.60.00.00.00.00.00.00.71.79.2
Average relative humidity (%)87837976777575768085878781
Mean monthly sunshine hours 69.187.2128.4162.7191.2217.3210.7205.5177.8117.581.368.61,717.1
Source 1: Meteo France, [9] [10]
Source 2: Infoclimat.fr (relative humidity 1961–1990) [11]

Population

In 2018, the inner population of the city was of 221,272 inhabitants, the Rennes intercommunal structure connecting Rennes with 42 nearby suburbs (named Rennes Métropole) counted 450,593 inhabitants and the metropolitan area counted over 720,000 inhabitants.

Rennes has the second fastest-growing metropolitan area in France after Toulouse and before Montpellier, Bordeaux and Nantes.

The inhabitants of Rennes are called Rennais in French.

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
177023,143    
179025,160+0.42%
179330,160+6.23%
180025,904−2.15%
180629,225+2.03%
182129,589+0.08%
183127,340−0.79%
183635,552+5.39%
184137,895+1.28%
184639,218+0.69%
185139,505+0.15%
185645,664+2.94%
186145,483−0.08%
YearPop.±% p.a.
186648,283+1.20%
187252,044+1.26%
187657,177+2.38%
188160,974+1.29%
188666,139+1.64%
189169,232+0.92%
189669,937+0.20%
190174,676+1.32%
190675,640+0.26%
191179,372+0.97%
192182,241+0.36%
192683,418+0.28%
193188,659+1.23%
YearPop.±% p.a.
193698,538+2.14%
1946113,781+1.45%
1954124,122+1.09%
1962151,948+2.56%
1968180,943+2.95%
1975198,305+1.32%
1982194,656−0.26%
1990197,536+0.18%
1999206,229+0.48%
2007207,922+0.10%
2012209,860+0.19%
2017216,815+0.65%
Source: EHESS [12] and INSEE [13]

Sights

Rennes is classified as a city of art and history.

Historic centre

The historic centre is located on the former plan of the ramparts. There is a difference between the northern city centre and the southern city centre due to the 1720 fire, which destroyed most of the timber framed houses in the northern part of the city. The rebuilding was done in stone, on a grid plan. The southern part, the poorest at this time, was not rebuilt.

Due to the presence of the parlement de Bretagne, many "hôtels particuliers" were built in the northern part, the richest in the 18th century. Most of the monuments historiques can be found there.

Colourful traditional half-timbered houses are situated primarily along the roads of Saint-Sauveur, Saint-Georges, de Saint-Malo, Saint-Guillaume, des Dames, du Chapitre, Vasselot, Saint-Michel, de la Psallette and around the plazas of Champ-Jacquet, des Lices, Saint-Anne and Rallier-du-Baty.

The Parlement de Bretagne and city hall area

The Parlement de Bretagne (Administrative and judicial centre of Brittany, Breton : Breujoù Breizh) is the most famous 17th century building in Rennes. It was rebuilt after a terrible fire in 1994 that may have been caused by a flare fired by a protester during a demonstration. It houses the Rennes Court of Appeal. The plaza around is built on the classical architecture.

On the west, the Place de la Mairie (City Hall Plaza, Plasenn Ti Kêr):

  • City Hall
  • Opera

On the east, at the end of the Rue Saint-Georges with traditional half-timbered houses:

On the south-east:

  • Saint-Germain square
    • Saint-Germain Church
    • Saint-Germain footbridge, 20th century wood and metal construction to link the plaza with Émile Zola Quay, across the Vilaine River.

The Place des Lices and cathedral area

The Place des Lices is lined by hôtels particuliers with the place Railler-du-Baty, is the location of the weekly big market, the marché des Lices.

Near the Rennes Cathedral (cathédrale Saint-Pierre de Rennes) is the Rue du Chapitre:

  • Hôtel de Blossac
  • There are 16th century polychrome wooden busts on the façade of 20, Rue du Chapitre.

On this era are the former St. Yves chapel, now the tourism office and a museum about the historical development of Rennes and the Basilica Saint-Sauveur

Remains of the ramparts

Built from the 3rd to the 12th centuries, the ramparts were largely destroyed between the beginning of the 16th century and the 1860s.

Place Saint-Anne area

Place Saint-Anne (Plasenn Santez-Anna)

  • Saint-Aubin Church, built in the beginning of the 20th century
  • Location of a former 14th century hospital
  • Jacobite convent, the convention centre

South-western, La Rue Saint-Michel nicknamed Rue de La Soif (Road of Thirst) because there are bars all along this street.

South-eastern, the Champ-Jacquet square, with Renaissance buildings and a statue of mayor Jean Leperdit ripping up a conscription list.

East: Thabor park area

Area of Saint-Melaine square

Notre-Dame-en-Saint-Melaine basilica,
  • Tower and transept from the 11th century Benedictine abbey of Saint-Melaine
  • 14th century Gothic arcades
  • 17th century colonnade
  • Bell tower topped with a gilded Virgin Mary (19th century)
  • 17th century cloister

Jardin botanique du Thabor (formal French garden, orangerie, rose garden, aviary) a botanical garden on 10 hectares of land, built between 1860 and 1867.

17th century promenade "la Motte à Madame", and a monumental stairway overlooking the Rue de Paris entrance to the Thabor.

South city centre

The south city centre is a mix of old buildings and 19th and 20th centuries constructions.

South of the Vilaine

The Fine Arts Museum is situated on Quai Émile Zola, by the Vilaine River.

Les Champs Libres is a building on Esplanade Charles de Gaulle, and was designed by the architect Christian de Portzamparc. It houses the Brittany Museum (Musée de Bretagne), the regional library Bibliothèque de Rennes Métropole with six floors, and the Espace des Sciences science centre with a planetarium..

At Place Honoré Commeurec is Les Halles Centrales, a covered market from 1922, with one part converted into contemporary art gallery.

The Mercure Hotel is located in a restored building on Rue du Pré-Botté, which was the prior location of Ouest-Éclair, and then of Ouest-France, a premier daily regional newspaper.

There are large mills at Rue Duhamel, constructed on each side of the south branch of the Vilaine in 1895 and 1902.

Other sights

To the northwest of Rennes, near Rue de Saint-Malo are the locks of the Canal d'Ille-et-Rance of 1843.

There are two halls of the printer, Oberthür, built by Marthenot between 1870 and 1895 on Rue de Paris in the eastern part of the city. Oberthür Park is the second biggest garden in the city.

The 17th century manor of Haute-Chalais, a granite château, is situated to the south of the city in Blosne Quarter (Bréquigny).

Parks and gardens

Parc du Thabor contains a compact but significant botanical garden, the Jardin botanique du Thabor. The University of Rennes 1, with a campus in the city's eastern section, also contains a botanical garden and collections (the Jardin botanique de l'Université de Rennes).

Economy

Technopole Atalante Tour telecom.JPG
Technopole Atalante

Local economy include car manufacturing, telecommunications, digital sector and agrofood.

The ITC firm Orange (ex-France Telecom) is the largest private employer with 4,800 people. PSA Peugeot Citroën, is the second largest private employer in the metropolitan area of Rennes, with 3,000 people. PSA opened a manufacturing plant at La Janais in Chartres-de-Bretagne in 1961. Technicolor, one of the biggest firms in TV and cinema broadcasting in the world employs over 500 people.

Rennes is the 2nd concentration of digital and ITC firms in France after Paris (with well-known companies and startups like Atos, Google, Neosoft, Orange S.A., Thales, Ericsson, Harmonic France, STmicroelectronics, Technicolor R&D, Ubisoft, Regionsjob, Capgemini, OVH, Dassault Systèmes, Delta Dore, Canon, Artefacto, Enensys Technologies, Exfo, Mitsubishi Electric R&D Europe, Digitaleo, CapGemini, Kelbillet, Klaxoon, Sopra Group, Niji, Airbus Cybersecurity,etc. ). Rennes was one of the first French cities to receive the French Tech label in November 2014. Moreover, Rennes hosts the 3rd public research potential in digital and ITC sectors in France, after Paris and Grenoble, with 3,000 people working in 10 laboratories, like well-known IRISA, IETR, IRMAR, DGA-MI (cyberdefense), SATIE, etc. It is also the third innovation potential in agrofood French industry with many firms in this field (Lactalis, Triballat Sojasun, Coralis, Panavi, Bridor, Groupe Avril, Loïc Raison, Groupe Roullier, Sanders, etc.), an agro campus (Agrocampus Ouest) and a big international and professional expo, the Space (every year in September).

Other large firms located in Rennes include the restaurant conglomerate Groupe Le Duff (owners of Brioche Dorée, Bruegger's, La Madeleine, Mimi's Cafe, Timothy's World Coffee [14] ), the first French newspaper Ouest France (800,000 daily copies) and Samsic Service (cleanliness, industrial safety, job search, etc.).

Culture

A festival by night at Thabor Park Les Tombees de la Nuit 2007 - ambiance Cafe Baraque.jpg
A festival by night at Thabor Park
Cultural plaza with cinema, Brittany museum, library, science space, planetarium, youth house, shopping centres or concert and exhibition halls Esplanade du General de Gaulle a Rennes.jpg
Cultural plaza with cinema, Brittany museum, library, science space, planetarium, youth house, shopping centres or concert and exhibition halls
Brittany FRAC (Regional Fund for Contemporary Art) Inauguration du FRAC Bretagne - Le Fonds regional d'art contemporain Bretagne - 8 Juillet 2012 - 02.jpg
Brittany FRAC (Regional Fund for Contemporary Art)

Rennes is known to be one of the most festive cities of France. It invests heavily in arts and culture and a number of its festivals (such as the music festival Les Transmusicales , Les Tombées de la Nuit, Mythos, Stunfest (fighting game competition) and Travelling (a cinematic festival)) are well known throughout France. During the 80s, Rennes was often cited as the French town of rock and new wave music. [15]

Concert halls

Rennes is well equipped with musical facilities:

Museums and exhibition places

There are also five museums in Rennes:

In addition to this list, there are art facilities such as 40mcube exhibition space or the Centre for contemporary art La Criée.

There are also miscellaneous cultural places: the dance dedicated place the Triange, two "Art et Essai" - art house cinemas - cinemas called l'Arvor and Cine TNB. Surrounding cities house many other cultural venues.

Media

Rennes was one of the first towns in France to have its own local television channel 'TV Rennes', created in 1987.

Rennes has also local radio stations (Hit West, Radio Campus, Canal B, Radio Caroline, Radio Rennes, Radio Laser) and local newspapers or magazines (Ouest-France, Le Mensuel de Rennes, Place Publique, 20 Minutes Rennes).

Local culture

Local languages

Flag of Brittany Flag of Brittany.svg
Flag of Brittany

In Brittany, two regional languages are spoken: Breton and Gallo. In and around Rennes, Gallo was traditionally spoken as a local language, but Breton has always been spoken by regional migrants coming from the western part of the region.

Nowadays, the Breton language is taught in two Diwan schools, [16] some bilingual public and Catholic schools, in evening courses, and in university. [17]

The municipality launched a linguistic plan through Ya d'ar brezhoneg on 24 January 2008.

In 2008, 2.87% of primary school children were enrolled in bilingual primary schools, and the number of pupils enrolled in these schools is steadily growing. [18]

Local food

Cider and galette with eggs, ham and cheese GaletteCidre.JPG
Cider and galette with eggs, ham and cheese

Specialties from Rennes include:

Many other Breton specialties (seafood, milk, vegetables, cheese, meat) are seen at the Marché des Lices, a weekly market held every Saturday morning (one of the most important markets in France).

Education

Rennes 1 University Rennes - Universite Rennes 1 - cloitre faculte d'economie.JPG
Rennes 1 University
Campus of Villejean Campus Villejean - Rennes.jpg
Campus of Villejean

The Rennes agglomeration has a large student population (around 63,000).

The city has two main universities; Université de Rennes 1 , which offers courses in science, technology, medicine, philosophy, law, management, and economics, and Université Rennes 2 , which has courses in the arts, literature, languages, communication, human and social sciences, and sport. The official website of Université Rennes 2 identifies that facility as "the largest research and higher learning institution in Arts, Literature, Languages, Social Sciences and Humanities in the West of France."

There are a few École Supérieures in Rennes, like the École Normale Supérieure de Rennes on the Ker Lann campus, just outside Rennes, the Institut d'études politiques de Rennes or the ESC Rennes School of Business.

There is also branches of École Supérieure d'Électricité Supélec and Telecom Bretagne in the east of the city (Cesson-Sévigné), a campus of the École pour l'informatique et les nouvelles technologies , a campus of the École pour l'informatique et les techniques avancées , and the grande école Institut National des Sciences Appliquées, which is next to the "École Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Rennes".

The computer science and applied mathematics research institute, IRISA, is located on the campus of the Université des Sciences, near Cesson-Sévigné. The Délégation Générale pour l'Armement (defence procurement agency) operates the CELAR research centre, dedicated to electronics and computing, in Bruz, a neighbouring town.

Catholic University of Rennes (Institut Catholique de Rennes) is a Catholic university founded in 1989.

The city is also home to an American study abroad program for high school students, School Year Abroad, in which students are immersed in French culture through five classes in the language and a nine-month home stay. [19]

The École Compleméntaire Japonaise de Rennes (レンヌ補習授業校 Rennu Hoshū Jugyō Kō), a part-time Japanese supplementary school, is held in the Collège Anne de Bretagne in Rennes. [20]

Sport

Flares of the Roazhon Celtic Kop at the Roazhon Park Staderennais-routelorient.JPG
Flares of the Roazhon Celtic Kop at the Roazhon Park

Football club

Handball

Road bicycle

Rugby

Transport

An elevated light metro section Bus et metro station Poterie (5618280569).jpg
An elevated light metro section
VeloStar Station LE velo STAR Charles de Gaulle 2.jpg
VéloStar
Rennes Airport AeroportdeRennes.jpg
Rennes Airport

Rennes has well-developed national road, rail and air links.

Public transport

Local transport is based primarily on an extensive bus network (65 lines) and a light metro line that was inaugurated in March 2002 and cost €500 million to build. The driverless Rennes Metro (VAL) is 9.4 km (5.8 mi) in length and has 15 stations, including one designed by architect Norman Foster (La Poterie station). A second light metro line is being planned, it should be operational by 2020, and the construction began in 2014. [21]

Cycling

Rennes provides other modes of local transport: a bike sharing system with 900 bicycles (named vélo STAR). Rennes created the first system of modern French bike sharing (1998).

Roads

The city is an important hub of Brittany's motorway network and is surrounded by a ring road: the Rocade (national road 136). The construction of the bypass was started in 1968 and completed in 1999. It is 31 km (18.5 mi) long, it has 2 lanes each way (sometimes 3 lanes) and toll free. Many other expressways are connected to the Rennes ring road for local and regional service. By road, Saint-Malo can be reached in 45 minutes, Nantes in 1 hour, Brest in 2 hours and 30 minutes, Paris in 4 hours, Bordeaux in 5 hours and Bruxelles in 6 hours and 30 minutes.

Railway

Rennes has a major French railway station, the Gare de Rennes, opened in 1857. Since July 2, 2017, it is now one hour twenty-seven minutes by TGV high-speed train from Paris (after the extension of the High Speed Rail Line [22] ). Train service is available to other big cities in France such as Lyon, Marseille, Lille and Strasbourg.

Rennes is also an important railway station for regional transport in Brittany. The TER Bretagne provides links to Saint-Malo, Nantes, Redon, Vitré, Saint-Brieuc, Vannes, Laval, Brest and many other regional cities. It is served by Gares station on the VAL Rennes Metro.

Airport

Rennes is served by Rennes Brittany Airport (Saint-Jacques), located 7 kilometres (4.3 mi) from the centre to the south-west in the commune Saint-Jacques-de-la-Lande.

It notably operates regular or seasonal flights to Paris-Charles de Gaulle, Lyon, Marseille, Nice, Toulouse, Barcelona, Palma de Mallorca, Rome-Fiumicino, Southampton, Dublin, Exeter, Manchester, Amsterdam Schiphol, Madrid Barajas, Birmingham, London-City, London-Gatwick and daily flights to London Southend Airport with Flybe.

Notable people

(by alphabetical order)

International relations

Twin towns – sister cities

Twinned towns inscribed on the bridge over the central canal Jumelages de Rennes.jpg
Twinned towns inscribed on the bridge over the central canal

Rennes is twinned with: [23]

Other forms of cooperation

Friendly towns within France

Pacts of cooperation

Sponsorship

Rennes also has the only Institut Franco-Américain in France.

Broadcasting facilities

Cityscape

See also

Related Research Articles

Brittany Historical province in France

Brittany is a cultural region in the west of France, covering the western part of what was known as Armorica during the period of Roman occupation. It became an independent kingdom and then a duchy before being united with the Kingdom of France in 1532 as a province governed as a separate nation under the crown.

Brittany (administrative region) Administrative region of France

Brittany is the farthest west of the regions of Metropolitan France. It is named after the historic and geographic region of Brittany, of which it constitutes 80%. The capital is Rennes. It is a peninsular region bordered by the English Channel to the north and the Bay of Biscay to the south, and its neighboring regions are Normandy to the northeast and Pays de la Loire to the southeast. Bro Gozh ma Zadoù is the anthem of Brittany. It is sung to the same tune as that of the national anthem of Wales, Hen Wlad Fy Nhadau, and has similar words. As a region of France, Brittany has a Regional Council, which was most recently elected in 2015.

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Vieux-Vy-sur-Couesnon Commune in Brittany, France

Vieux-Vy-sur-Couesnon is a commune in the Ille-et-Vilaine department in Brittany in northwestern France.

Rennes, France, is the administrative capital of the French department of Ille-et-Vilaine. Before the French Revolution, prior to the integration of the Duchy of Brittany into the Kingdom of France, Rennes was the capital of the duchy, with the other historical capitals of Brittany's Ducal period being Nantes and Vannes. It has a long history due to its location at the confluence of two rivers and its proximity to the bordering regions from which arose various challenges to the borders of Brittany.

Cesson-Sévigné Commune in Brittany, France

Cesson-Sévigné is a commune in the Ille-et-Vilaine department in Brittany in northwestern France.

Saint-Méen-le-Grand Commune in Brittany, France

Saint-Méen-le-Grand is a commune in the Ille-et-Vilaine department in Brittany in northwestern France.

Arrondissement of Rennes Arrondissement in Brittany, France

The arrondissement of Rennes is an arrondissement of France in the Ille-et-Vilaine department in the Brittany region. It has 109 communes. Its population is 599,717 (2016), and its area is 2,228.4 km2 (860.4 sq mi).

Rennes Métropole Métropole in Brittany, France

Rennes Métropole is the métropole, an intercommunal structure, centred on the city of Rennes. It is located in the Ille-et-Vilaine department, in the Brittany region, western France. It was created in January 2015, replacing the previous Communauté d'agglomération de Rennes, which had itself succeeded in 2000 to the previous district created in 1970 with less powers than the current métropole. Its population was 444,723 in 2014, of which 219,370 in Rennes proper.

Langon, Ille-et-Vilaine Commune in Brittany, France

Langon is a commune in the Ille-et-Vilaine department in Brittany in northwestern France.

Jean Boucher (artist) French sculptor

Jean Boucher was a French sculptor based in Brittany. He is best known for his public memorial sculptures which communicated his liberal politics and patriotic dedication to France and Brittany.

Amanlis Commune in Brittany, France

Amanlis is a commune in the department of Ille-et-Vilaine in the region of Brittany in western France. The inhabitants of Amanlis are known as Amanlisiens.

Breteil Commune in Brittany, France

Breteil is a commune in the department of Ille-et-Vilaine in Brittany. It is located in northwestern France.

Bédée Commune in Brittany, France

Bédée is a commune in the department of Ille-et-Vilaine in Brittany.
It is located in the North West of France and is labeled as a village étape since 2009.

Sains, Ille-et-Vilaine Commune in Brittany, France

Sains is a commune in the Ille-et-Vilaine department in Brittany in northwestern France.

Pleumeleuc Commune in Brittany, France

Pleumeleuc is a commune in the department of Ille-et-Vilaine in Brittany in the northwest of France.

Arthur Le Moyne de La Borderie

Arthur Le Moyne de La Borderie, was a Breton historian, regarded as a father of Brittany's historiography.

Jardin botanique du Thabor

The Jardin botanique du Thabor, also known as the Jardin botanique de la Ville de Rennes, is a compact but significant botanical garden located at the eastern side of the Parc du Thabor, Place Saint-Mélaine, Rennes, Ille-et-Vilaine, in the region of Brittany, France. It is open daily without charge.

Henri Bourde de La Rogerie was a French archivist and historian of Brittany.

References

  1. "Populations légales 2017". INSEE . Retrieved 6 January 2020.
  2. INSEE.fr
  3. "Ministère de la Culture - Maintenance". www2.culture.gouv.fr. Retrieved 31 October 2020.
  4. Décret n° 2014-177 du 18 février 2014 portant délimitation des cantons dans le département d'Ille-et-Vilaine
  5. INSEE 2014 legal populations of the Ille-et-Vilaine department
  6. "French pedophilia trial casts unsettling light on women sex offenders." Agence France Presse at The Island . 14 March 2005. Retrieved 19 March 2011.
  7. "Climatological Information for Rennes-St Jacques, France". Meteo France. 14 February 2019.
  8. "Rennes-St Jacques (35)" (PDF). Fiche Climatologique: Statistiques 1981–2010 et records (in French). Meteo France. Retrieved 14 February 2019.
  9. "Normes et records 1961–1990: Rennes-St Jacques (35) – altitude 36m" (in French). Infoclimat. Retrieved 14 February 2019.
  10. Données Cassini, EHESS
  11. Population en historique depuis 1968, INSEE
  12. http://www.dmagalerie.com/rennes-1981-08-avr-08-mai-2011
  13. http://www.diwan-bro-roazhon.org/presentation-de-l-ecole
  14. (in French) L'état de la langue bretonne dans l'enseignement en Ille-et-Vilaine (State of the Breton language in education in Ille-et-Vilaine) from Ofis ar Brezhoneg
  15. (in French)Ofis ar Brezhoneg: Enseignement bilingue
  16. http://ayearinrennes.weebly.com/
  17. "欧州の補習授業校一覧(平成25年4月15日現在)" (Archive). Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT). Retrieved on May 10, 2014. "College Anne de Bretagne 15, rue de Martenot, 35000 RENNES"
  18. (in French) Rennes.maville.com Le projet de nouvelle ligne du métro sur les rails
  19. "Rennes à 1h30 de Paris en 2014 – France – Toute l'actualité en France". France Info. Retrieved 6 April 2011.
  20. "Rennes et ses villes jumelées". mir-rennes.fr (in French). Maison Internationale de Rennes. Retrieved 15 November 2019.