Reno, Nevada

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Reno
Reno skyline.JPG
Flag of Reno, Nevada.svg
Flag
City of Reno logo.jpg
Nickname(s): 
"The Biggest Little City in the World"
Washoe County Nevada Incorporated and Unincorporated areas Reno Highlighted.svg
Location within Washoe County
Relief map of U.S., Nevada.png
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Reno
Location within the state of Nevada
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Reno
Location within the United States
Coordinates: 39°31′38″N119°49′19″W / 39.52722°N 119.82194°W / 39.52722; -119.82194 Coordinates: 39°31′38″N119°49′19″W / 39.52722°N 119.82194°W / 39.52722; -119.82194
CountryFlag of the United States.svg  United States
State Flag of Nevada.svg  Nevada
County Washoe
FoundedMay 9, 1868;152 years ago (1868-05-09)
IncorporatedMarch 16, 1903;117 years ago (1903-03-16)
Named for Jesse L. Reno
Government
  Type Council–manager
  Mayor Hillary Schieve (I)
Area
   City 105.9 sq mi (274.2 km2)
  Land103.0 sq mi (266.8 km2)
  Water2.9 sq mi (7.4 km2)
Elevation
4,505.6 ft (1,373 m)
Population
 (2010)
   City 225,221
  Estimate 
(2019) [1]
255,601
  Rank 86th, U.S.
  Density2,100/sq mi (820/km2)
   Metro
425,417
Demonym(s) Renoites
Time zone UTC−08:00 (PST)
  Summer (DST) UTC−07:00 (PDT)
ZIP Codes
89500-89599
Area code(s) 775
FIPS code 32-60600
GNIS feature ID 0861100
Interstates I-80 (NV).svg Business Loop 80.svg I-580 (NV).svg
U.S. Routes US 395.svg
Major State Routes Nevada 341.svg Nevada 430.svg Nevada 431.svg Nevada 647.svg Nevada 659.svg
Waterways Truckee River
Airports Reno Stead Airport Reno–Tahoe International Airport
Public transit Regional Transportation Commission
Website reno.gov
Reference no.30

Reno ( /ˈrn/ REE-noh) is a city in the northwest section of the U.S. state of Nevada, approximately 22 miles (35 km) from Lake Tahoe, known as "The Biggest Little City in the World". [2] Known for its casino and tourism industry, Reno is the county seat and largest city of Washoe County and sits in a high desert river valley at the foot of the Sierra Nevada. Its downtown area (along with Sparks) occupies a valley informally known as the Truckee Meadows, which due to large-scale investments from Seattle and Bay Area companies such as Amazon, Tesla, Panasonic, Microsoft, Apple and Google has become a new major technology hub in the United States. [3] The city is named after Union Major General Jesse L. Reno, who was killed in action during the American Civil War at the Battle of South Mountain on Fox's Gap.

Contents

Reno is part of the Reno–Sparks metropolitan area, 2nd most populous in Nevada after Las Vegas-Henderson, both of which are part of the Las Vegas Valley. [4] Greater Reno, which consists of Washoe, Storey, and Lyon counties plus Carson City (the capital of Nevada), is the second largest metropolitan area in Nevada. [5]

History

Archaeological finds place the eastern border for the prehistoric Martis people in the Reno area. [6] As early as the mid 1850s a few pioneers settled in the Truckee Meadows, a relatively fertile valley through which the Truckee River made its way from Lake Tahoe to Pyramid Lake. In addition to subsistence farming, these early residents could pick up business from travelers along the California Trail, which followed the Truckee westward, before branching off towards Donner Lake, where the formidable obstacle of the Sierra Nevada began.

Gold was discovered in the vicinity of Virginia City in 1850, and a modest mining community developed, but the discovery of silver in 1859 at the Comstock Lode led to a mining rush, and thousands of emigrants left their homes, bound for the West, hoping to find a fortune.

The Overland Limited at Reno in 1913 Overland Limited at Reno 1913.JPG
The Overland Limited at Reno in 1913

To provide the necessary connection between Virginia City and the California Trail, Charles W. Fuller built a log toll bridge across the Truckee River in 1859. A small community that would service travelers soon grew near the bridge. After two years, Fuller sold the bridge to Myron C. Lake, who continued to develop the community by adding a grist mill, kiln, and livery stable to the hotel and eating house. He renamed it "Lake's Crossing". Most of what is present-day western Nevada was formed as the Nevada Territory from part of Utah Territory in 1861.

By January 1863, the Central Pacific Railroad (CPRR) had begun laying tracks east from Sacramento, California, eventually connecting with the Union Pacific Railroad at Promontory, Utah, to form the First Transcontinental Railroad. Lake deeded land to the CPRR in exchange for its promise to build a depot at Lake's Crossing. In 1864, Washoe County was consolidated with Roop County, and Lake's Crossing became the county's largest town. Lake had earned himself the title "founder of Reno". [7] Once the railroad station was established, the town of Reno officially came into being on May 9, 1868. [8] CPRR construction superintendent Charles Crocker named the community after Major General Jesse Lee Reno, a Union officer killed in the American Civil War at the Battle of South Mountain.

In 1871, Reno became the county seat of the newly expanded Washoe County, replacing the county seat in Washoe City. However, political power in Nevada remained with the mining communities, first Virginia City and later Tonopah and Goldfield. [9]

The extension of the Virginia and Truckee Railroad to Reno in 1872 provided a boost to the new city's economy. In the following decades, Reno continued to grow and prosper as a business and agricultural center and became the principal settlement on the transcontinental railroad between Sacramento and Salt Lake City. [10] As the mining boom waned early in the 20th century, Nevada's centers of political and business activity shifted to the non-mining communities, especially Reno and Las Vegas, and today the former mining metropolises stand as little more than ghost towns. Despite this, Nevada is still the third-largest gold producer in the world, after South Africa and Australia; the state yielded 6.9 percent of the world's supply in 2005 world gold production. [11]

The "Reno Arch" was erected on Virginia Street in 1926 to promote the upcoming Transcontinental Highways Exposition of 1927. The arch included the words "Nevada's Transcontinental Highways Exposition" and the dates of the exposition. After the exposition, the Reno City Council decided to keep the arch as a permanent downtown gateway, and Mayor E.E. Roberts asked the citizens of Reno to suggest a slogan for the arch. No acceptable slogan was received until a $100 prize was offered, and G.A. Burns of Sacramento was declared the winner on March 14, 1929, with "Reno, The Biggest Little City in the World". [12]

Reno took a leap when the state of Nevada legalized open-gambling on March 19, 1931, along with the passage of even more liberal divorce laws than places like Hot Springs, Arkansas, offered. No other state offered what Nevada had in the 1930s, and casinos like the Bank Club and Palace were popular.[ citation needed ] The new Nevada divorce laws, passed circa 1927, allowed people to divorce after six weeks of residency instead of six months. People wishing to divorce stayed in hotels, houses, and/or dude ranches. Most divorcees left Nevada when their divorces were finalized, while some stayed. [13]

Within a few years, the Bank Club, owned by George Wingfield, Bill Graham, and Jim McKay, was the state's largest employer and the largest casino in the world. Wingfield owned most of the buildings in town that housed gaming and took a percentage of the profits, along with his rent. [14]

Ernie Pyle once wrote in one of his columns, "All the people you saw on the streets in Reno were obviously there to get divorces." In Ayn Rand's novel The Fountainhead , published in 1943, the New York-based female protagonist tells a friend, "I am going to Reno," which is taken as a different way of saying "I am going to divorce my husband." Among others, the Belgian-French writer Georges Simenon, at the time living in the U.S., came to Reno in 1950 in order to divorce his first wife. [15]

Downtown Reno, 1955

The divorce business eventually died after circa 1970, as the other states fell in line by passing their own laws easing the requirements for divorce, [13] but gambling continued as a major Reno industry. While gaming pioneers like "Pappy" and Harold Smith of Harold's Club and Bill Harrah of the soon-to-dominate Harrah's casino set up shop in the 1930s, the war years of the 1940s cemented Reno as the place to play for two decades. [16] Beginning in the 1950s, the need for economic diversification beyond gaming fueled a movement for more lenient business taxation. [15]

A disaster occurred on the afternoon of February 5, 1957, when an explosion ripped through the heart of downtown. At 1:03 pm, two explosions, caused by natural gas leaking into the maze of pipes and ditches under the city, and an ensuing fire destroyed five buildings in the vicinity of Sierra and First streets along the Truckee River. The disaster killed two people and injured forty-nine. The first explosion hit under the block of shops on the west side of Sierra Street (now the site of the Century Riverside), the second, across Sierra Street, now the site of the Palladio.[ citation needed ] [17]

The presence of a main east–west rail line, the emerging interstate highway system, favorable state tax climate, and relatively inexpensive land created good conditions for warehousing and distribution of goods.[ citation needed ]

In the 1980s, Indian gaming rules were relaxed, and starting in 2000, Californian Native casinos began to cut into casino revenues. [18] Major new construction projects have been completed in the Reno and Sparks areas. A few new luxury communities were recently[ when? ] built in Truckee, California, approximately 28 miles (45 km) west of Reno on Interstate 80. Reno also is an outdoor recreation destination, due to its close proximity to the Sierra Nevada, Lake Tahoe, and numerous ski resorts in the region. [19]

In 2018, the city officially changed its flag after a local contest was held. [20]

The flag that was used by Reno from 1959 up to the flag change Flag of Reno, Nevada (1959-2018).svg
The flag that was used by Reno from 1959 up to the flag change

Geography

Environmental considerations

Wetlands are an important part of the Reno/Tahoe area. They act as a natural filter for the solids that come out of the water treatment plant. Plant roots absorb nutrients from the water and naturally filter it. Wetlands are home to over 75% of the species in the Great Basin. However, the area's wetlands are at risk of being destroyed due to development around the city. While developers build on top of the wetlands they fill them with dirt, destroying the habitat they create for the plants and animals. Washoe County has devised a plan that will help protect these ecosystems: mitigation. In the future, when developers try to build over a wetland, they will be responsible for creating another wetland near Washoe Lake.

The Truckee River is Reno's primary source of drinking water. It supplies Reno with 80 million U.S. gallons (300  Ml ) of water a day during the summer, and 40 million U.S. gallons (150 Ml) of water per day in the winter. Before the water goes to the homes around the Reno area, it must go to one of two water treatment plants, Chalk Bluff or Glendale Water Treatment Plant. To help save water, golf courses in Reno have been using treated effluent water rather than treated water from one of Reno's water plants.

The Reno-Sparks wastewater treatment plant discharges tertiary treated effluent to the Truckee River. In the 1990s this capacity was increased from 20 to 30 million U.S. gallons (70 to 110 million liters) per day. While treated, the effluent contains suspended solids, nitrogen, and phosphorus, aggravating water quality concerns of the river and its receiving waters of Pyramid Lake. Local agencies working with the Environmental Protection Agency have developed several watershed management strategies to accommodate this expanded discharge. To accomplish this successful outcome, the DSSAM Model was developed and calibrated for the Truckee River to analyze the most cost-effective available management strategy set. [21] The resulting management strategies included measures such as land use controls in the Lake Tahoe basin, urban runoff controls in Reno and Sparks, and best management practices for wastewater discharge.

Reno Nevada and the Truckee Meadows south west of the Reno Tahoe International Airport has a large herd of Mustang horses. These horses nurse and range around the runoff of Steamboat Creek. The Mustang is a notable iconic image of the Nevada range land which includes Reno. Steamboat Springs Nevada.jpg
Reno Nevada and the Truckee Meadows south west of the Reno Tahoe International Airport has a large herd of Mustang horses. These horses nurse and range around the runoff of Steamboat Creek. The Mustang is a notable iconic image of the Nevada range land which includes Reno.

The Reno area is often subject to wildfires that cause property damage and sometimes loss of life. In August 1960, the Donner Ridge fire resulted in a loss of electricity to the city for four days. [22] In November 2011, arcing from powerlines caused a fire in Caughlin in southwest Reno that destroyed 26 homes and killed one man. Just two months later, in January 2012, a fire in Washoe Drive sparked by fireplace ashes destroyed 29 homes and killed one woman. Around 10,000 residents were evacuated, and a state of emergency was declared. The fires came at the end of Reno's longest recorded dry spell. [23]

Geology

Dog Valley, west of Reno, an area of active faulting Dog Valley.jpg
Dog Valley, west of Reno, an area of active faulting

Reno is just east of the Sierra Nevada on the western edge of the Great Basin at an elevation of about 4,400 feet (1,300 m) above sea level. Numerous faults exist throughout the region. Most of these are normal (vertical motion) faults associated with the uplift of the various mountain ranges, including the Sierra Nevada.

In February 2008, an earthquake swarm began to occur, lasting for several months, and with the largest quake registering at 4.9 on the Richter magnitude scale, although some geologic estimates put it at 5.0. The earthquakes were centered on the Somersett community in western Reno near Mogul and Verdi. Many homes in these areas were damaged. [24]

Climate

Reno sits in the rain shadow of the Sierra Nevada mountain range. Annual rainfall averages 7.48 inches (190 mm). Reno features a semi-arid climate (Köppen: BSk) due to its low evapotranspiration. The city experiences cool to cold winters, and hot summers. Annual precipitation has ranged from 1.55 inches (39.4 mm) in 1947 to 13.23 inches (336.0 mm) in 1983. The most precipitation in one month was 5.25 inches (133.4 mm) in December 1955 and the most precipitation in 24 hours was 2.29 inches (58.2 mm) on January 21, 1943. Winter has snowfall which is usually light to moderate but can be heavy some days, averaging 21.5 inches (55 cm) annually. Snowfall varies with the lowest amounts (roughly 19–23 inches annually) at the lowest part of the valley at and east of the Reno–Tahoe International Airport at 4,404 feet (1,342 m), while the foothills of the Carson Range to the west ranging from 4,700 to 5,600 feet (1,400 to 1,700 m) in elevation just a few miles west of downtown can receive up to two to three times as much annual snowfall. The mountains of the Virginia Range to the east can receive more summer thunderstorms and precipitation, and around twice as much annual snowfall above 5,500 feet (1,700 m). However, snowfall increases in the Virginia Range are less dramatic as elevation climbs than in the Carson Range to the west, because the Virginia Range is well within the rain shadow of the Sierra Nevada and Carson Range. The most snowfall in the city in one year was 63.8 inches (162 cm) in 1971, and the most snowfall in one month was 29.0 inches (74 cm) in March 1952.

Crepuscular Rays Sunset Reno Nevada USA Crepuscular Rays Reno Nevada USA.jpg
Crepuscular Rays Sunset Reno Nevada USA

Most rainfall occurs in winter and spring. The city has 300 days of sunshine per year. Summer thunderstorms can occur between April and October. The eastern side of town and the mountains east of Reno tend to be prone to thunderstorms more often, and these storms may be severe because an afternoon downslope west wind, called a "Washoe Zephyr", can develop in the Sierra Nevada, causing air to be pulled down in the Sierra Nevada and Reno, destroying or preventing thunderstorms, but the same wind can push air upward against the Virginia Range and other mountain ranges east of Reno, creating powerful thunderstorms. [25] [26]

The monthly daily average temperature ranges from 35.3 °F (1.8 °C) in December to 74.9 °F (23.8 °C) in July, with the diurnal temperature variation reaching 40 °F (22 °C) in summer, still lower than much of the high desert to the east. There are 3.9 days of 100 °F (38 °C)+ highs, 58 days of 90 °F (32 °C)+ highs, and 2.5 nights with sub-10 °F (−12 °C) lows annually; [27] the temperature does not rise above freezing on only 5.1 days. [28] The all-time record high temperature is 108 °F (42 °C), which occurred on July 10 and 11, 2002, and again on July 5, 2007. The all-time record low temperature is −17 °F (−27 °C), which occurred on January 21, 1916. [28] In addition, the region is windy throughout the year; observers such as Mark Twain have commented about the "Washoe Zephyr", northwestern Nevada's distinctive wind.

    Demographics

    Historical population
    CensusPop.
    1860 1,035
    1870 1,0350.0%
    1880 1,36231.6%
    1890 3,563161.6%
    1900 4,50026.3%
    1910 10,867141.5%
    1920 12,01610.6%
    1930 18,52954.2%
    1940 21,31715.0%
    1950 32,49752.4%
    1960 51,47058.4%
    1970 72,86341.6%
    1980 100,75638.3%
    1990 133,85032.8%
    2000 180,48034.8%
    2010 225,22124.8%
    Est. 2019255,601 [1] 13.5%
    source: [32]

    As of the census of 2010, there were 225,221 people, 90,924 households, and 51,112 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,186.6 per square mile (844.2/km²). There were 102,582 housing units at an average density of 995.9 per square mile (384.5/km²). The city's racial makeup was 74.2% White, 2.9% African American, 1.3% Native American, 6.3% Asian, 0.7% Pacific Islander, 10.5% some other race, and 4.2% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 24.3% of the population. [33] Non-Hispanic Whites were 62.5% of the population in 2010, [33] down from 88.5% in 1980. [34]

    Map of racial distribution in Reno, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people: White, Black, Asian, Hispanic or Other (yellow) Race and ethnicity 2010- Reno (5560425602).png
    Map of racial distribution in Reno, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people: White, Black, Asian, Hispanic or Other (yellow)

    At the 2010 census, there were 90,924 households, of which 29.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.4% were headed by married couples living together, 11.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 43.8% were non-families. 32.1% of all households were made up of individuals, and 9.7% were someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43, and the average family size was 3.10. [33]

    In the city, the 2010 population was spread out with 22.8% under the age of 18, 12.5% from 18 to 24, 28.2% from 25 to 44, 24.9% from 45 to 64, and 11.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34.6 years. For every 100 females, there were 103.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.7 males. [33]

    In 2011 the city's estimated median household income was $44,846, and the median family income was $53,896. Males had a median income of $42,120 versus $31,362 for females. The city's per capita income was $25,041. About 9.6% of families and 14.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.1% of those under age 18 and 12.8% of those age 65 or over. [35] [36] The population was 180,480 at the 2000 census; in 2010, its population had risen to 225,221, making it the third-largest city in the state after Las Vegas and Henderson, and the largest outside Clark County. Reno lies 26 miles (42 km) north of the Nevada state capital, Carson City, and 22 miles (35 km) northeast of Lake Tahoe in a shrub-steppe environment. Reno shares its eastern border with the city of Sparks and is the larger of the principal cities of the Reno–Sparks, Nevada Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA), a metropolitan area that covers Storey and Washoe counties. [37] The MSA had a combined population of 425,417 at the 2010 census. [38] The MSA is combined with the Fernley Micropolitan Statistical Area and the Carson City MSA to form the Reno-Carson City-Fernley Combined Statistical Area, which had a population of 477,397 at the 2010 census. [5]

    Economy

    Downtown Reno, including the city's famous arch over Virginia Street Reno arch.jpg
    Downtown Reno, including the city's famous arch over Virginia Street
    Silver Legacy Hotel with Downtown Reno in the background Reno with silver legacy.JPG
    Silver Legacy Hotel with Downtown Reno in the background
    A panorama of downtown Reno in 2012 Beautiful downtown Reno.jpg
    A panorama of downtown Reno in 2012

    Before the late 1950s, Reno was the gambling capital of the United States, but Las Vegas' rapid growth, American Airlines' 2000 buyout of Reno Air, and the growth of Native American gaming in California have reduced its business. Older casinos were torn down (Mapes Hotel, Fitzgerald's Nevada Club, Primadonna, Horseshoe Club, Harold's Club, Palace Club), or smaller casinos like the Comstock, Sundowner, Golden Phoenix, Kings Inn, Money Tree, Virginian, and Riverboat were either closed or were converted into condos.

    Because of its location, Reno has traditionally drawn the majority of its California tourists and gamblers from the San Francisco Bay Area and Sacramento, while Las Vegas has historically served more tourists from Southern California and the Phoenix area.

    Several local large hotel casinos have shown significant growth and have moved gaming further away from the downtown core. These larger hotel casinos are the Atlantis, the Peppermill and the Grand Sierra Resort. The Peppermill was chosen as the most outstanding Reno gaming/hotel property by Casino Player and Nevada magazines. In 2005, the Peppermill Reno began a $300 million Tuscan-themed expansion.

    Reno holds several events throughout the year to draw tourists to the area. They include Hot August Nights [39] (a classic car convention), Street Vibrations (a motorcycle fan gathering and rally), The Great Reno Balloon Race, a Cinco de Mayo celebration, bowling tournaments (held in the National Bowling Stadium), and the Reno Air Races.

    Several large commercial developments were constructed during the mid-2000s boom, such as The Summit in 2007 and Legends at Sparks Marina in 2008.

    Reno is the location of the corporate headquarters for several companies, including Braeburn Capital, Hamilton, Server Technology, EE Technologies, and Port of Subs. International Game Technology, Bally Technologies and GameTech have a development and manufacturing presence.

    Since the turn of the 21st century, greater Reno saw an influx of technology companies entering the area, following major initiatives and investments by investors from Seattle & the Bay Area. After the Great Recession, the state placed an increased focus on economic development. Thousands of new jobs were created. [40] [41] [42] [43] [44]

    Tesla's Gigafactory is at the Tahoe Reno Industrial Center, and it is the largest building in the world. The Gigafactory purportedly covers 5.8 million square feet. [45] [41] [42] [43] [44]

    The arrival of several data centers at the Tahoe Reno Industrial Center is further diversifying a region that was best known for distribution and logistics outside gaming and tourism. Switch 's new SuperNAP campus at the Tahoe Reno Industrial Center is shaping up to be the largest data center in the world once completed. Apple is expanding its data center at the adjacent Reno Technology Park and recently built a warehouse on land in downtown Reno. Rackspace is also building a $422 million data center next to Apple.

    The greater Reno area also hosts distribution facilities for Amazon, Walmart, Petsmart and Zulily. [46]

    Top employers

    According to Reno's 2016 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, [47] the top employers in the city are:

    #EmployerEmployees
    1 Washoe County School District 8,750
    2 University of Nevada, Reno 4,750
    3 Washoe County 2,750
    4 Renown Regional Medical Center 2,750
    5 Peppermill Reno 2,250
    6 International Game Technology 1,750
    7 Atlantis Casino Resort 1,750
    8 Circus & Eldorado Joint Venture 1,750
    9HG Staffing LLC1,750
    10 Saint Mary's Regional Medical Center 1,250

    Culture

    Exterior of Nevada Museum of Art Exterior 5 med.jpg
    Exterior of Nevada Museum of Art

    Reno has several museums. The Nevada Museum of Art is the only American Alliance of Museums (AAM) accredited art museum in Nevada. [48] The National Automobile Museum contains 200 cars that were from the collection of William F. Harrah, including Elvis Presley's 1973 Cadillac Eldorado. [49]

    Reno also hosts a number of music venues, such as the Nevada Opera, the Pioneer Center for the Performing Arts, the Reno Philharmonic Orchestra, and the Reno Pops Orchestra. The Reno Youth Symphony Orchestra (YSO), affiliated with the Reno Philharmonic, gives talented youth the opportunity to play advanced music and perform nationwide. [50] In 2016 they had the honor of performing at Carnegie Hall.

    Reno has a public library, a branch of the Washoe County Library System. The Downtown branch of the Washoe County Library was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2013. [51]

    Sports

    Reno Events Center RenoEventsCenter.jpg
    Reno Events Center

    Reno is home to the Reno Aces, the minor league baseball Triple-A affiliate of the Arizona Diamondbacks, playing in Greater Nevada Field, a downtown ballpark opened in 2009. Reno has hosted multiple professional baseball teams in the past, most under the Reno Silver Sox name. The Reno Astros, a former professional, unaffiliated baseball team, played at Moana Stadium until 2009.

    In basketball, the Reno Bighorns of the NBA G League played at the Reno Events Center from 2008 to 2018. [52] They were primarily an affiliate of the Sacramento Kings throughout its existence. The Sacramento Kings bought the team in 2016 and moved the franchise to become the Stockton Kings in 2018.

    Reno is host to both amateur and professional combat sporting events such as mixed martial arts and boxing. The "Fight of the Century" between Jack Johnson and James J. Jeffries was held in Reno in 1910. [53] Boxer Ray Mancini fought four of his last five fights in Reno against Bobby Chacon, Livingstone Bramble, Hector Camacho, and Greg Haugen. [54]

    Reno expected to be the future home of an ECHL ice hockey team, named the Reno Raiders, but construction on a suitable arena never began. The franchise was dormant since 1998, when it was named the Reno Rage, and earlier the Reno Renegades, and played in the now-defunct West Coast Hockey League (WCHL). In 2016, Reno was removed from the ECHL's Future Markets page.

    The Reno–Tahoe Open is northern Nevada's only PGA Tour event, held at Montrêux Golf & Country Club in Reno. As part of the FedEx Cup, the tournament follows 132 PGA Tour professionals competing for a share of the event's $3 million purse. The Reno-Tahoe Open Foundation has donated more than $1.8 million to local charities.

    Reno has a college sports scene, with the Nevada Wolf Pack appearing in football bowl games and an Associated Press and Coaches Poll Top Ten ranking in basketball in 2018.

    Reno Whitewater Festival at the whitewater park in Reno Reno River Festival at Reno Whitewater Park.jpg
    Reno Whitewater Festival at the whitewater park in Reno

    In 2004, the city completed a $1.5 million whitewater park on the Truckee River in downtown Reno which hosts whitewater events throughout the year. The course runs Class 2 and 3 rapids with year-round public access. The 1,400-foot (430 m) north channel features more aggressive rapids, drop pools and "holes" for rodeo kayak-type maneuvers. The milder 1,200 ft (370 m) south channel is set up as a kayak slalom course and a beginner area.

    Reno is home to two roller derby teams, the Battle Born Derby Demons and the Reno Roller Girls. [55] The Battle Born Derby Demons compete on flat tracks locally and nationally. They are the only derby team locally to compete in a national Derby league.

    Reno is the home of the National Bowling Stadium, which hosts the United States Bowling Congress (USBC) Open Championships every three years.

    List of teams

    Minor professional teams

    TeamSportLeagueVenue (capacity)EstablishedTitles
    Reno Aces Baseball MiLB (AAA-PCL) Greater Nevada Field (9,013)20092
    Reno 1868 FC Soccer USLC 20150
    Nevada StormWomen's football WFA Damonte Ranch High School (N/A)
    Fernley High School (N/A)
    Galena High School (N/A)
    20080
    Reno Express Indoor football AWFC Reno Events Center (7,000)20190

    Amateur teams

    TeamSportLeagueVenue (capacity)EstablishedTitles
    Nevada Coyotes FCSoccer UPSL Rio Vista Sports Complex (N/A)20160

    College teams

    SchoolTeamLeagueDivisionPrimary Conference
    University of Nevada, Reno (UNR) Nevada Wolf Pack NCAA NCAA Division I Mountain West
    Western Nevada College (WNC)WNC Wildcats NJCAA NJCAA Division I Scenic West

    Recreation

    Virginia Lake is a popular place for people to walk their dog in Reno Nevada Virginia Lake Reno Nevada USA walking dog.jpg
    Virginia Lake is a popular place for people to walk their dog in Reno Nevada
    River rafting on the 4th of July 2018 on the Truckee River in Reno Nevada Truckee River Reno Nevada 4th of July 2018.jpg
    River rafting on the 4th of July 2018 on the Truckee River in Reno Nevada

    Reno is home to a variety of recreation activities including both seasonal and year-round. In the summer, Reno locals can be found near three major bodies of water: Lake Tahoe, the Truckee River, and Pyramid Lake. The Truckee River originates at Lake Tahoe and flows west to east through the center of downtown Reno before terminating at Pyramid Lake to the north. The river is a major part of Artown, held in the summer at Wingfield Park. Washoe Lake is a popular kite and windsurfing location because of its high wind speeds during the summer.

    Skiing and snowboarding are among the most popular winter sports and draw many tourists. There are 18 ski resorts [56] (8 major resorts) as close as 11 miles (18 km) and as far as 98 miles (158 km) from the Reno–Tahoe International Airport, including Northstar California, Sierra-at-Tahoe, Alpine Meadows, Squaw Valley, Sugar Bowl, Diamond Peak, Heavenly Mountain, and Mount Rose. Other popular Reno winter activities include snowshoeing, ice skating, and snowmobiling. There are many bike paths to ride in the summer time. Lake Tahoe hosts international bike competitions each summer.

    Air races

    T6s line up for the 2014 Reno Air Races T 6 lineup 2014 Reno Air Races photo D Ramey Logan.jpg
    T6s line up for the 2014 Reno Air Races

    The Reno Air Races, also known as the National Championship Air Races, are held each September at the Reno Stead Airport. [57] [58]

    Government

    Reno has a democratic municipal government. The city council is the core of the government, with seven members. Five of these council people represent districts of Reno, and are vetted in the primary by the citizens of each district. In general, the top two vote earners in each ward make the ballot for the citywide election. The other two council members are the at-large member, who represents the entire city, and the mayor, who is elected by the people of the city. The council has several duties, including setting priorities for the city, promoting communication with the public, planning development, and redevelopment.

    There is an elected city attorney who is responsible for civil and criminal cases. The City Attorney represents the city government in court, and prosecutes misdemeanors.

    The city's charter calls for a council-manager form of government, meaning the council appoints only two positions, the city manager, who implements and enforces the policies and programs the council approves, and the city clerk. The city manager is in charge of the budget and workforce for all city programs. The city clerk, who records the proceedings of the council, makes appointments for the council, and makes sure efficient copying and printing services are available.

    In 2010, there was a ballot question asking whether the Reno city government and the Washoe County government should explore the idea of becoming one combined governmental body. [59] Fifty-four percent of voters approved of the ballot measure to make an inquiry into consolidating the governments. [60]

    Fire department

    The city of Reno is protected by the Reno Fire Department (RFD) manning 14 fire stations. [61] [62]

    The Reno Fire Department (RFD) provides all-risk emergency service to the City of Reno residents. All-risk emergency service is the national model of municipal fire departments, providing the services needed in the most efficient way possible. [63]

    The department provides paramedic-level service to the citizens and visitors of Reno. This is the highest level of emergency medical care available in the field.

    In addition to responding to fires, whether they occur in structures, vegetation/brush or vehicles, the fire department also provides rescue capabilities for almost any type of emergency situation.

    This includes quick and efficient emergency medical care for the citizens; a hazardous materials team capable of identifying unknown materials and controlling a release disaster; and preparedness and management of large-scale incidents.

    Maintaining this level of service requires nearly constant training of personnel. This training maintains both the skills needed to operate safely in emergency environments and the physical fitness necessary to reduce the likelihood and severity of injuries.

    The minimum annual-training requirement to maintain firefighting and medical skills is 240 hours per year. Special teams and company-level drills add significantly to that number of hours. [64]

    Education

    Universities and colleges

    An older picture showing part of the University of Nevada, Reno campus in the foreground Reno with mountains.png
    An older picture showing part of the University of Nevada, Reno campus in the foreground

    Public schools

    Public education is provided by the Washoe County School District.

    Public charter schools

    Reno has many charter schools, which include Academy for Career Education, serving grades 10–12, opened 2002; [68] Alpine Academy Charter High School, serving grades 9–12, opened 2009; [69] Bailey Charter Elementary School, serving grades K-6, opened 2001; [70] Coral Academy of Science, serving grades K-12; [71] Davidson Academy, serving grades 6–12, opened 2006; [72] High Desert Montessori School, serving grades PreK-7, opened 2002; I Can Do Anything Charter School, serving grades 9–12, opened 2000; Rainshadow Community Charter High School, serving grades 9–12, opened 2003; [73] Sierra Nevada Academy Charter School, serving grades PreK-8, opened 1999; and TEAM A (Together Everyone Achieves More Academy), serving grades 9–12, opened 2004. [74]

    Private schools

    Reno has a few private elementary schools such as Legacy Christian School, Excel Christian School, St. Nicholas Orthodox Academy, [75] Lamplight Christian School, [76] and Nevada Sage Waldorf School [77] as well as private high schools, the largest of which are Bishop Manogue High School [78] and Sage Ridge School. [79]

    Infrastructure

    Transportation

    Reno Skyline in June 2006 Renoskyline.jpg
    Reno Skyline in June 2006
    I-80 in Downtown Reno I80downtownreno.jpg
    I-80 in Downtown Reno
    Reno Skyline in September 2014 Reno, Nevada photo D Ramey Logan.jpg
    Reno Skyline in September 2014

    Roads

    Reno was historically served by the Victory Highway and a branch of the Lincoln Highway. After the formation of the U.S. Numbered Highways system, U.S. Route 40 was routed along 4th Street through downtown Reno, before being replaced by Interstate 80. The primary north–south highway through Reno is U.S. Route 395/Interstate 580.

    Bus

    The Regional Transportation Commission of Washoe County (RTC) has a bus system that provides intracity buses, intercity buses to Carson City, and an on-demand shuttle service for disabled persons. [80] The system has its main terminal on 4th Street in downtown Reno and secondary terminals in Sparks and at Meadowood Mall in south Reno.

    Numerous shuttle and excursion services are offered connecting the Reno–Tahoe International Airport to various destinations:

    Greyhound stops at a downtown terminal. Megabus stopped at the Silver Legacy Reno, but has since discontinued service to Reno. [81]

    Rail

    Reno was historically a stopover along the First Transcontinental Railroad; the modern Overland Route continues to run through Reno. Reno was additionally the southern terminus of the Nevada–California–Oregon Railway (NCO) and the northern terminus of the Virginia and Truckee Railroad. Using the NCO depot and right of way, the Western Pacific Railroad also provided rail service to Reno. In the early 20th century, Reno also had a modest streetcar system. Downtown Reno has two historic train depots, the inactive Nevada-California-Oregon Railroad Depot and the still active Amtrak depot, originally built by the Southern Pacific Railroad. [82]

    Amtrak provides daily passenger service to Reno via the California Zephyr and multiple Amtrak Thruway Motorcoaches connecting to trains departing from Sacramento.

    Air

    The city is served by Reno–Tahoe International Airport, with general aviation traffic handled by Reno Stead Airport. Reno–Tahoe International Airport is the second busiest commercial airport in the state of Nevada after McCarran International Airport in Las Vegas. Reno was the hub and headquarters of the defunct airline Reno Air.

    Utilities

    The Truckee Meadows Water Authority provides potable water for the city. The Truckee River is the primary water source, with purification occurring at two plants, Chalk Bluff and Glendale. The Chalk Bluff plant's main intakes are west of Reno in Verdi, with the water flowing through a series of flumes and ditches to the plant. Alternative intakes are below the plant along the banks of the Truckee River itself. The Glendale plant is alongside the river, and is fed by a rock and concrete rubble diversion dam a short distance upstream. [83]

    Sewage treatment for most of the Truckee Meadows region takes place at the Truckee Meadows Water Reclamation Facility at the eastern edge of the valley. Treated effluent returns to the Truckee River by way of Steamboat Creek. [84]

    NV Energy, formerly Sierra Pacific, provides electric power and natural gas. Power comes from multiple sources, including Tracy-Clark Station to the east, and the Steamboat Springs binary cycle power plants at the southern end of town.

    Notable people

    The young adult author Ellen Hopkins has written a series of novels called Crank set in Reno. Also, many of the short stories included in Claire Vaye Watkins' collection Battleborn are set in the city.[ citation needed ]

    American songwriter Richard Fariña composed a song named Reno Nevada; it was first released on Richard & Mimi Fariña's debut album Celebrations For A Grey Day in 1965. The song was covered by Fairport Convention in 1968 and by Iain Matthews in 1971. Thomas Dolby composed a song named "Road to Reno" as part of his A Map of the Floating City album, released in 2011.[ citation needed ]

    The comedy TV series Reno 911! takes place in Reno.

    The videogame Fallout 2 features the fictional city of New Reno, based upon the real-world location. [87]

    Movies filmed in Reno include:

    Music videos filmed in Reno include:

    Twin towns – sister cities

    Reno has eight sister cities: [110]

    Friendship cities:

    See also

    Related Research Articles

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    Washoe County, Nevada County in the United States

    Washoe County is a county in the U.S. state of Nevada. As of the 2010 census, the population was 421,407, making it Nevada's second-most populous county. Its county seat is Reno.

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    Sparks, Nevada City in Nevada, United States

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    Lake Tahoe lake in California and Nevada, United States

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    Washoe people indigenous peoples

    The Washoe or Wašišiw are a Great Basin tribe of Native Americans, living near Lake Tahoe at the border between California and Nevada. The name "Washoe" or "Washo" is derived from the autonym Waashiw in the Washo language or from Wašišiw (waší:šiw), the plural form of wašiw.

    Truckee Meadows valley in northern Nevada

    The Truckee Meadows is a valley in Northern Nevada, named for the Truckee River, which collects and drains all water in the valley. Truckee Meadows is also colloquially used as a name for the Reno metropolitan area, even though the metro area includes areas outside this valley.

    Washoe Lake lake of the United States of America

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    Washoe Lake State Park

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    The Nevada Gaming Control Board, also known as the State Gaming Control Board, is a Nevada state governmental agency involved in the regulation of gaming and law enforcement of Nevada gaming laws throughout the state, along with the Nevada Gaming Commission. The Nevada Gaming Control Board's Enforcement Division is the law enforcement arm of the Nevada Gaming Commission. It was founded in 1955 by the Nevada Legislature.

    The Northern Nevada 4A Region is a part of the Nevada Interscholastic Activities Association, governing the northern half of Nevada for high school athletics. The Northern 4A league is the large-school level, which has schools with enrollments of 1,200 and higher. The region is split into two leagues. The High Desert League and the Sierra League. Both leagues are divided by proximity with the High Desert encompassing the schools north of Mill Street in Reno, while the schools in the Sierra League are south of Mill Street.

    Mount Rose (Nevada) Mountain in the United States

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    Washoe Valley (Nevada)

    The Washoe Valley is a geographical region in the United States covering 66 square miles (170 km2) in southern Washoe County in the state of Nevada. Located between Reno and Carson City, it is named for the Washoe people, Native Americans who lived there before the arrival of Europeans. Slide Mountain and Mount Rose overlook the valley from the west.

    Western Nevada Place in Nevada, United States

    Western Nevada (WNV) is a region and the northwestern portion of the U.S. state of Nevada that includes Reno, Carson City, Carson Valley and Virginia City. Lyon County and Churchill County are sometimes also referred to as part of Western Nevada.

    Reno, NV Metropolitan Statistical Area

    The Reno–Sparks Metropolitan Statistical Area, as defined by the United States Census Bureau, is an area consisting of two counties in Western Nevada, anchored by the cities of Reno and Sparks, part of Greater Reno-Tahoe-Fernley CSA. As of the 2010 census, the MSA had a population of 425,417.

    Regional Transportation Commission of Washoe County

    The Regional Transportation Commission of Washoe County (RTC) is the public body responsible for the transportation needs throughout Reno, Sparks and Washoe County, Nevada. The RTC, founded by the Nevada Legislature in 1979, is an amalgamation of the Regional Street and Highway Commission, the Regional Transit Commission and the Washoe County Area Transportation Study Policy Committee. They provide public transportation services, street and highway construction, and transportation planning.

    The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Reno, Nevada, United States.

    Truckee Meadows Fire Protection District

    The Truckee Meadows Fire Protection District of Washoe County Nevada covers the eastern slopes of the Sierra Nevada Mountains in Western Nevada. The county spans an area of nearly 6,600 square miles in the northwest section of the state bordering California and Oregon. TMFPD was originally founded in 1972 and operated independently until 2001. Washoe County contracted the City of Reno Fire Dept. to operate TMFPD engines until 2012. Early in 2012 the agreement with the City of Reno was terminated and TMFPD was stood back up and operated independently again. The Truckee Meadows Fire Protection District operates a fire apparatus fleet of 10 engines, 1 ladder company, 11 brush trucks, 1 rescue squad, 1 ambulance, 1 hazardous material unit, various support units, 2 technical rescue support units, 9 water tenders, and 2 water rescue entry vehicles The District's primary areas of responsibility include rural and suburban communities outside the City of Reno. Truckee Meadows Fire Protection District responded to 10,581 calls for service with a 2017/2018 budget of $27,932,275.

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