Renseneb

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Renseneb Amenemhat (also known as Ranisonb) was an Egyptian pharaoh of the 13th Dynasty during the Second Intermediate Period. According to egyptologist Kim Ryholt, Renseneb was the 14th king of the dynasty, while Detlef Franke sees him as the 13th ruler and Jürgen von Beckerath as the 16th. [1] [2] [3] [4] Renseneb is poorly attested and his throne name remains unknown.

Ancient Egypt ancient civilization of Northeastern Africa

Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in the place that is now the country Egypt. Ancient Egyptian civilization followed prehistoric Egypt and coalesced around 3100 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under Menes. The history of ancient Egypt occurred as a series of stable kingdoms, separated by periods of relative instability known as Intermediate Periods: the Old Kingdom of the Early Bronze Age, the Middle Kingdom of the Middle Bronze Age and the New Kingdom of the Late Bronze Age.

Pharaoh Title of Ancient Egyptian rulers

Pharaoh is the common title of the monarchs of ancient Egypt from the First Dynasty until the annexation of Egypt by the Roman Empire in 30 BCE, although the actual term "Pharaoh" was not used contemporaneously for a ruler until Merneptah, c. 1200 BCE. In the early dynasty, ancient Egyptian kings used to have up to three titles, the Horus, the Sedge and Bee (nswt-bjtj) name, and the Two Ladies (nbtj) name. The Golden Horus and nomen and prenomen titles were later added.

Kim Steven Bardrum Ryholt is a professor of Egyptology at the University of Copenhagen and a specialist on Egyptian history and literature. He is director of the research center Canon and Identity Formation in the Earliest Literate Societies under the University of Copenhagen Programme of Excellence and director of The Papyrus Carlsberg Collection & Project.

Attestations

Renseneb is known primarily thanks to the Turin King List where he appears in Column 7, line 16 (Gardiner col. 6 line 6). He is credited a reign of four months. [1]

Turin King List ancient Egyptian manuscript

The Turin King List, also known as the Turin Royal Canon, is an ancient Egyptian hieratic papyrus thought to date from the reign of Pharaoh Ramesses II, now in the Museo Egizio in Turin. The papyrus is the most extensive list available of kings compiled by the ancient Egyptians, and is the basis for most chronology before the reign of Ramesses II.

Renseneb is otherwise known from a single contemporary object, a bead of glazed steatite, last seen by Percy Newberry in an antique dealer shop in Cairo in 1929. [5] The bead reads "Ranisonb Amenemhat, who gives life". [5] The Danish Egyptologist Kim Ryholt interprets this double name as meaning "Ranisonb [Son of] Amenemhat" thereby showing that he was a son of a king Amenemhat. [1] The closest predecessor of Renseneb whose nomen is known to have been Amenemhat was Seankhibre Ameny Antef Amenemhet VI, who ruled about 10 years earlier. However, the nomina of three intervening kings, Sehetepibre, Sewadjkare and Nedjemibre, is unknown and could have been Amenemhat and one of them could thus be Renseneb's father, [5] or (older) brothers in succession.

Percy Edward Newberry was a British Egyptologist.

Amenemhet VI Egyptian pharaoh

Seankhibre Ameny Antef Amenemhet VI was an Egyptian pharaoh of the early Thirteenth Dynasty ruling in the first half of the 18th century BC during a time referred to as the late Middle Kingdom or early Second Intermediate Period, depending on the scholar. Amenemhat VI certainly enjoyed a short reign, estimated at 3 years or shorter. He is attested by a few contemporary artefacts and is listed on two different king lists. He may belong to a larger family of pharaohs including Amenemhat V, Ameny Qemau, Hotepibre Qemau Siharnedjheritef and Iufni.

Sehetepibre Egyptian pharaoh

Sehetepibre Sewesekhtawy was an Egyptian pharaoh of the 13th Dynasty during the early Second Intermediate Period, possibly the fifth or tenth king of the Dynasty.

Other researchers such as Stephen Quirke do not follow him in this interpretation. [6]

Renseneb's successor, Hor, could have been of non-royal birth since he never reported his parentage. Consequently, Ryholt proposed that Hor usurped the throne. [1] In any case the ephemeral reigns of the rulers of the early 13th Dynasty point to the general political instability of the time.

Hor Egyptian pharaoh

Hor Awibre was an Egyptian pharaoh of the 13th Dynasty reigning from c. 1777 BC until 1775 BC or for a few months, c. 1760 BC or c. 1732 BC, during the Second Intermediate Period. Hor is known primarily thanks to his nearly intact tomb discovered in 1894 and the rare life-size wooden statue of the king's Ka it housed.

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Sonbef 13th dynasty pharaoh

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Wepwawetemsaf Egyptian pharaoh

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Snaaib Egyptian pharaoh

Menkhaure Snaaib was an Egyptian pharaoh during the Second Intermediate Period. According to egyptologists Kim Ryholt and Darrell Baker he was a king of the Abydos Dynasty, although they leave his position within the dynasty undetermined. Alternatively, Jürgen von Beckerath sees Snaaib as a king reigning near the end of the 13th Dynasty.

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Merkheperre Pharaoh of the 13th dynasty of Egypt

Merkheperre was an Egyptian pharaoh of the late 13th Dynasty of Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period reigning some time between 1663 BC and 1649 BC. As such Merkheperre would have reigned either over Upper Egypt from Thebes or over Middle and Upper Egypt from Memphis. At the time, the Eastern Nile Delta was under the domination of the 14th Dynasty.

Sebkay Egyptian pharaoh

Sebkay was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh during the Second Intermediate Period. For a long time his position created problems and he was most often placed into the 13th Dynasty. However, the discovery of the tomb of a king with the name Senebkay make it very likely that Sebkay is identical with the latter and the writing of the name Sebkay is just a misspelling of the name.

Khuiqer was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh known only for a limestone lintel bearing part of his royal titulary, found in Abydos by Flinders Petrie at the beginning of the 20th century, and now located at the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology .
His datation is extremely uncertain since he was tentatively placed in both the First and the Second Intermediate Period.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 K.S.B. Ryholt, The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period, c.1800-1550 BC, (Carsten Niebuhr Institute Publications, vol. 20. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press, 1997), 339, File 13/14.
  2. Detlef Franke: Zur Chronologie des Mittleren Reiches. Teil II: Die sogenannte Zweite Zwischenzeit Altägyptens, in Orientalia 57 (1988)
  3. Jürgen von Beckerath: Untersuchungen zur politischen Geschichte der Zweiten Zwischenzeit in Ägypten, Glückstadt, 1964
  4. Jürgen von Beckerath: Chronologie des pharaonischen Ägyptens, Münchner Ägyptologische Studien 46, Mainz am Rhein, 1997
  5. 1 2 3 Kim Ryholt: A Bead of King Ranisonb and a Note on King Qemaw, Gottinger Miszellen - Beitrage zur Agyptologischen Diskussion 156 (1997), p. 95–100.
  6. Stephen Quirke: In the Name of the King: on Late Middle Kingdom Cylinders, in Czerny (editor): Timelines, Studies in Honour of Manfred Bietak, Leuven (2006), ISBN   90-429-1730-X, p. 263–274.
Preceded by
Khaankhre Sobekhotep
Pharaoh of Egypt
Thirteenth Dynasty
Succeeded by
Hor