Republic of Texas

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Republic of Texas
República de Tejas  (Spanish)

1836–1846
Republic of Texas labeled.svg
Map of the Republic of Texas. The disputed area is in light green, while the Republic is in dark green.
Capital
Common languages English and Spanish ( de facto ) French and German
Native languages (Caddo, Comanche) and Portuguese regionally
Government Unitary Presidential Constitutional republic
President 1 
 1836
David G. Burnet
 1836–38
Sam Houston, 1st term
 1838–41
Mirabeau B. Lamar
 1841–44
Sam Houston, 2nd term
 1844–46
Anson Jones
Vice President 1 
 1836
Lorenzo de Zavala
 1836–38
Mirabeau B. Lamar
 1838–41
David G. Burnet
 1841–44
Edward Burleson
 1844–45
Kenneth L. Anderson
Legislature Congress
 "Upper house"
Senate
 "Lower house"
House of Representatives
Historical era Western Expansion
March 2 1836
December 29, 1845
 Transfer of power
February 19 1846
Area
18401,007,935 km2 (389,166 sq mi)
Population
 1840
70,000
Currency Republic of Texas Dollar
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Flag of Coahuila y Tejas.svg Coahuila y Tejas
Bandera Historica de la Republica Mexicana (1824-1918).svg First Mexican Republic
Louisiana Pelican Flag 1861.svg Louisiana
Texas Flag of Texas.svg
New Mexico Territory New Mexico territory coat of arms (illustrated, 1876).jpg
Utah Territory Utah territory coat of arms (illustrated, 1876).jpg
Indian Territory Flag of the United States (1877-1890).svg
Second Federal Republic of Mexico Bandera Historica de la Republica Mexicana (1824-1918).svg
Cimarron Territory US 33 Star GreatStar Flag.svg
Kansas Territory Flag of Kansas (1927-1961).svg
Today part ofFlag of the United States.svg  United States
1Interim period (March 16 – October 22, 1836): President: David G. Burnet, Vice President Lorenzo de Zavala
The Burnet Flag used from December 1836 to January 1839 as the national flag until it was replaced by the Lone Star Flag, and as the war flag from January 25, 1839 to December 29, 1845 Flag of Republic of Texas (1836-1839).svg
The Burnet Flag used from December 1836 to January 1839 as the national flag until it was replaced by the Lone Star Flag, and as the war flag from January 25, 1839 to December 29, 1845
Naval ensign of the Texas Navy from 1836-1839 until it was replaced by the Lone Star Flag Flag of the Republic of Texas (1835-1839).svg
Naval ensign of the Texas Navy from 1836–1839 until it was replaced by the Lone Star Flag
The Lone Star Flag became the national flag on January 25, 1839 (identical to modern state flag) Flag of Texas.svg
The Lone Star Flag became the national flag on January 25, 1839 (identical to modern state flag)

The Republic of Texas (Spanish : República de Tejas) was a sovereign state in North America that existed from March 2, 1836, to February 19, 1846. It was bordered by Mexico to the west and southwest, the Gulf of Mexico to the southeast, the two U.S. states of Louisiana and Arkansas to the east and northeast, and United States territories encompassing parts of the current U.S. states of Oklahoma, Kansas, Colorado, Wyoming, and New Mexico to the north and west. The citizens of the republic were known as Texians.

Spanish language Romance language

Spanish or Castilian is a Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in the Americas and Spain. It is a global language and the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese.

Sovereign state Political organization with a centralized independent government

In international law, a sovereign state, sovereign country, or simply state, is a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area. International law defines sovereign states as having a permanent population, defined territory, one government, and the capacity to enter into relations with other sovereign states. It is also normally understood that a sovereign state is neither dependent on nor subjected to any other power or state.

North America Continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere

North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, and to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea.

Contents

The region of the Mexican state of Coahuila y Tejas commonly referred to as Mexican Texas declared its independence from Mexico during the Texas Revolution in 1836. The Texas war of independence ended on April 21, 1836, but Mexico refused to recognize the independence of the Republic of Texas, and intermittent conflicts between the two states continued into the 1840s. The United States recognized the Republic of Texas in March 1837 but declined to annex the territory. [2]

Coahuila y Tejas former Mexican state

Coahuila y Tejas was one of the constituent states of the newly established United Mexican States under its 1824 Constitution.

Mexican Texas

Mexican Texas is the historiographical name used to refer to the era of Texan history between 1821 and 1836, when it was part of Mexico. Mexico gained independence from Spain in 1821 after winning its war. Initially, Mexican Texas operated similarly to Spanish Texas. Ratification of the 1824 Constitution of Mexico created a federal structure, and the province of Tejas was joined with the province of Coahuila to form the state of Coahuila y Tejas.

Texas Revolution military conflict

The Texas Revolution was a rebellion of colonists from the United States and Tejanos in putting up armed resistance to the centralist government of Mexico. While the uprising was part of a larger one that included other provinces opposed to the regime of President Antonio López de Santa Anna, the Mexican government believed the United States had instigated the Texas insurrection with the goal of annexation. The Mexican Congress passed the Tornel Decree, declaring that any foreigners fighting against Mexican troops "will be deemed pirates and dealt with as such, being citizens of no nation presently at war with the Republic and fighting under no recognized flag." Only the province of Texas succeeded in breaking with Mexico, establishing the Republic of Texas, and eventually being annexed by the United States.

The Republic-claimed borders were based upon the Treaties of Velasco between the newly created Texas Republic and Antonio López de Santa Anna of Mexico. The eastern boundary had been defined by the Adams–Onís Treaty of 1819 between the United States and Spain, which recognised the Sabine River as the eastern boundary of Spanish Texas and western boundary of the Missouri Territory. Under the Adams–Onís Treaty of 1819 the United States had renounced its claim to Spanish land to the east of the Rocky Mountains and to the north of the Rio Grande, which it claimed to have acquired as part of the Louisiana Purchase of 1803.

The Treaties of Velasco were two documents signed at Velasco, Texas on May 14, 1836, between Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna of Mexico and the Republic of Texas, in the aftermath of the Battle of San Jacinto on April 21, 1836. The signatories were Interim President David G. Burnet for Texas and Santa Anna for Mexico. The treaties were intended, on the part of Texas, to provide a conclusion of hostilities between the two enemies and to offer the first steps toward the official recognition of the breakaway republic's independences.

Antonio López de Santa Anna 19th-century Mexican politician general

Antonio de Padua María Severino López de Santa Anna y Pérez de Lebrón, often known as Santa Anna or López de Santa Anna, was a Mexican politician and general who fought to defend royalist New Spain and then fought for Mexican independence. He greatly influenced early Mexican politics and government, and he was an adept soldier and cunning politician who dominated Mexican history in the first half of the nineteenth century to such an extent that historians often refer to it as the "Age of Santa Anna." He was called "the Man of Destiny" who "loomed over his time like a melodramatic colossus, the uncrowned monarch." Santa Anna first opposed the movement for Mexican independence from Spain, but then fought in support of it. He was one of the earliest caudillos of modern Mexico, and he "represents the stereotypical caudillo in Mexican history". Lucas Alamán wrote that "the history of Mexico since 1822 might accurately be called the history of Santa Anna's revolutions…. His name plays the major role in all the political events of the country and its destiny has become intertwined with his."

Adams–Onís Treaty treaty between the United States and Spain, ceding Florida to the U.S.

The Adams–Onís Treaty of 1819, also known as the Transcontinental Treaty, the Florida Purchase Treaty, or the Florida Treaty, was a treaty between the United States and Spain in 1819 that ceded Florida to the U.S. and defined the boundary between the U.S. and New Spain. It settled a standing border dispute between the two countries and was considered a triumph of American diplomacy. It came in the midst of increasing tensions related to Spain's territorial boundaries in North America against the United States and Great Britain in the aftermath of the American Revolution; it also came during the Latin American wars of independence.

The republic's southern and western boundary with Mexico was disputed throughout the republic's existence. Texas claimed the Rio Grande as its southern boundary, while Mexico insisted that the Nueces River was the boundary. Texas was annexed by the United States on December 29, 1845 and was admitted to the Union as the 28th state on that day, with the transfer of power from the Republic to the new state of Texas formally taking place on February 19, 1846. [3] However, the United States again inherited the southern and western border dispute with Mexico, which became a trigger for the Mexican–American War (1846–1848).

Nueces River river in the United States of America

The Nueces River is a river in the U.S. state of Texas, about 315 miles (507 km) long. It drains a region in central and southern Texas southeastward into the Gulf of Mexico. It is the southernmost major river in Texas other than the boundary-setting Rio Grande. Nueces is Spanish for nuts; early settlers named the river after the numerous pecan trees along its banks.

Texas annexation annexation

The Texas annexation was the 1845 annexation of the Republic of Texas into the United States of America, which was admitted to the Union as the 28th state on December 29, 1845.

Mexican–American War Armed conflict between the United States of America and Mexico from 1846 to 1848

The Mexican–American War, also known in the United States as the Mexican War and in Mexico as the Intervención estadounidense en México, was an armed conflict between the United States of America and the Second Federal Republic of Mexico from 1846 to 1848. It followed in the wake of the 1845 American annexation of the Republic of Texas, not formally recognized by the Mexican government, disputing the Treaties of Velasco signed by Mexican caudillo President/General Antonio López de Santa Anna after the Texas Revolution a decade earlier. In 1845, newly elected U.S. President James K. Polk, who saw the annexation of Texas as the first step towards a further expansion of the United States, sent troops to the disputed area and a diplomatic mission to Mexico. After Mexican forces attacked American forces, Polk cited this in his request that Congress declare war.

History

Texas prior to independence

Texas had been one of the Provincias Internas of New Spain, a region known historiographically as Spanish Texas. Though claimed by Spain, it was not formally colonized by them until competing French interests at Fort St. Louis encouraged Spain to establish permanent settlements in the area. [4] Sporadic missionary incursions occurred into the area during the period from the 1690s–1710s, before the establishment of San Antonio as a permanent civilian settlement. [5] Owing to the area's high Native American populations and its remoteness from the population centers of New Spain, Texas remained largely unsettled by Europeans, although Spain maintained a small military presence to protect Christian missionaries working among Native American tribes, and to act as a buffer against the French in Louisiana and British North America. In 1762, France ceded to Spain most of its claims to the interior of North America, including its claim to Texas, as well as the vast interior that became Spanish Louisiana. [6] During the years 1799 to 1803, the height of the Napoleonic Empire, Spain returned Louisiana back to France, which promptly sold the territory to the United States. The status of Texas during these transfers was unclear and was not resolved until 1819, when the Adams–Onís Treaty ceded Spanish Florida to the United States, and established a clear boundary between Texas and Louisiana. [7]

Provincias Internas

The Provincias Internas, also known as the Comandancia y Capitanía General de las Provincias Internas, was an administrative district of the Spanish Empire created in 1776 to provide more autonomy for the frontier provinces of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, present-day northern Mexico and the Southwestern United States. The goal of its creation was to establish a unified government in political, military and fiscal affairs. Nevertheless, the Commandancy General experienced significant changes in its administration because of experimentation to find the best government for the frontier region as well as bureaucratic in-fighting. Its creation was part of the Bourbon Reforms and was part of an effort to invigorate economic and population growth in the region to stave off encroachment on the region by foreign powers. During its existence, the Commandancy General encompassed the Provinces of Sonora y Sinaloa, Nueva Vizcaya, Las Californias, Nuevo México, Nuevo Santander, Nuevo Reyno de León, Coahuila and Texas.

New Spain viceroyalty of the Spanish Empire (1535-1821)

The Viceroyalty of New Spain was an integral territorial entity of the Spanish Empire, established by Habsburg Spain during the Spanish colonization of the Americas. It covered a huge area that included territories in North America, South America, Asia and Oceania. It originated in 1521 after the fall of Mexico-Tenochtitlan, the main event of the Spanish conquest, which did not properly end until much later, as its territory continued to grow to the north. It was officially created on 8 March 1535 as a viceroyalty, the first of four viceroyalties Spain created in the Americas. Its first viceroy was Antonio de Mendoza y Pacheco, and the capital of the viceroyalty was Mexico City, established on the ancient Mexico-Tenochtitlan.

Spanish Texas

Spanish Texas was one of the interior provinces of the Spanish colonial Viceroyalty of New Spain from 1690 until 1821.

Starting in 1810, the territories of New Spain north of the Isthmus of Panama (including Texas) sought independence in the Mexican War of Independence. Many Americans fought on the side of Mexico against Spain in filibustering expeditions. One of these, the Gutiérrez–Magee Expedition (also known as the Republican Army of the North) consisted of a group of about 130 Americans under the leadership of Bernardo Gutiérrez de Lara. Gutierrez de Lara initiated Mexico's secession from Spain with efforts contributed by Augustus Magee. Bolstered by new recruits, and led by Samuel Kemper (who succeeded Magee after his death in battle in 1813), the expedition gained a series of victories against soldiers led by the Spanish governor, Manuel María de Salcedo. Their victory at the Battle of Rosillo Creek convinced Salcedo to surrender on April 1, 1813; he was executed two days later. On April 6, 1813, the victorious Republican Army of the North drafted a constitution and declared the independent Republic of Texas, with Gutiérrez as its president. [8] Soon disillusioned with the Mexican leadership, the Americans under Kemper returned to the United States. The ephemeral Republic of Texas came to an end following the August 18, 1813 Battle of Medina, where the Spanish Army crushed the Republican Army of the North. The harsh reprisals against the Texas rebels created a deep distrust of the Royal Spanish authorities, and veterans of the Battle of Medina later became leaders of the Texas Revolution and signatories of the Texas Declaration of Independence from Mexico 20 years later.

Isthmus of Panama narrow landstrip in Panama

The Isthmus of Panama, also historically known as the Isthmus of Darien, is the narrow strip of land that lies between the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean, linking North and South America. It contains the country of Panama and the Panama Canal. Like many isthmuses, it is a location of great strategic value.

Mexican War of Independence armed conflict which ended the rule of Spain in the territory of New Spain

The Mexican War of Independence was an armed conflict, and the culmination of a political and social process which ended the rule of Spain in 1821 in the territory of New Spain. The war had its antecedent in Napoleon's French invasion of Spain in 1808; it extended from the Cry of Dolores by Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla on September 16, 1810, to the entrance of the Army of the Three Guarantees led by Agustín de Iturbide to Mexico City on September 27, 1821. September 16 is celebrated as Mexican Independence Day.

Filibuster (military) adventurer, imperialist and/or mercenary

A filibuster or freebooter, in the context of foreign policy, is someone who engages in an unauthorized military expedition into a foreign country or territory to foment or support a revolution. The term is usually used to describe United States citizens who fomented insurrections in Latin America, particularly in the mid-19th century. Filibuster expeditions have also occasionally been used as cover for government-approved deniable operations.

Along with the rest of Mexico, Texas gained its independence from Spain in 1821 following the Treaty of Córdoba, and the new Mexican state was organized under the Plan of Iguala, which created Mexico as a constitutional monarchy under its first Emperor Agustín de Iturbide. During the transition from a Spanish territory to part of the independent country of Mexico, Stephen F. Austin led a group of American settlers known as the Old Three Hundred, who negotiated the right to settle in Texas with the Spanish Royal governor of the territory. Since Mexican independence had been ratified by Spain shortly thereafter, Austin later traveled to Mexico City to secure the support of the new country for his right to settle. [9] The establishment of Mexican Texas coincided with the Austin-led settlement, leading to animosity between Mexican authorities and ongoing American settlement of Texas. The First Mexican Empire was short lived, being replaced by a republican form of government in 1823. Following Austin's lead, additional groups of settlers, known as Empresarios, continued to colonize Mexican Texas from the United States. In 1830, Mexican President Anastasio Bustamante outlawed American immigration to Texas, following several conflicts with the Empresarios over the status of slavery in the region. [10] Angered at the interference of the Mexican government, the Empresarios held the Convention of 1832, which is considered the first formal step in what later became the Texas Revolution.

On the eve of war, the American settlers in the area outnumbered Mexicans by a considerable margin. [11] Following a series of minor skirmishes between Mexican authorities and the settlers, the Mexican government, fearing open rebellion of their Anglo subjects, began to step up military presence in Texas throughout 1834 and early 1835. Mexican President Antonio López de Santa Anna revoked the 1824 Constitution of Mexico and began to consolidate power in the central government under his own leadership. The Texian leadership under Austin began to organize its own military, and hostilities broke out on October 2, 1835 at the Battle of Gonzales, the first engagement of the Texas Revolution. [12] In November 1835, a provisional government known as the Consultation was established to oppose the Santa Anna regime (but stopped short of declaring independence from Mexico). On March 1, 1836 the Convention of 1836 came to order, and the next day declared independence from Mexico, establishing the Republic of Texas. [13]

Independent republic

Politics

Map of the Republic of Texas and the Adjacent Territories by C.F. Cheffins, 1841 Map of the Republic of Texas and the Adjacent Territories, 1841.jpg
Map of the Republic of Texas and the Adjacent Territories by C.F. Cheffins, 1841

The second Congress of the Republic of Texas convened in October 1836 at Columbia (now West Columbia). Stephen F. Austin, known as the Father of Texas , died December 27, 1836, after serving two months as Secretary of State for the new Republic.

In 1836, five sites served as temporary capitals of Texas (Washington-on-the-Brazos, Harrisburg, Galveston, Velasco and Columbia), before President Sam Houston moved the capital to Houston in 1837. The next president, Mirabeau B. Lamar, moved the capital to the new town of Austin in 1839.

The first flag of the republic was the "Burnet Flag" (a single gold star on an azure field), followed in 1839 by official adoption of the Lone Star Flag.

Internal politics of the Republic centred on two factions. The nationalist faction, led by Lamar, advocated the continued independence of Texas, the expulsion of the Native Americans (Indians), and the expansion of Texas to the Pacific Ocean. Their opponents, led by Houston, advocated the annexation of Texas to the United States and peaceful coexistence with the Indians, when possible. The Texas Congress even passed a resolution over Houston's veto claiming the Californias for Texas. [14] The 1844 presidential election split the electorate dramatically, with the newer western regions of the Republic preferring the nationalist candidate Edward Burleson, while the cotton country, particularly east of the Trinity River, went for Anson Jones. [15]

Armed conflict

The Comanche Indians furnished the main Indian opposition to the Texas Republic, manifested in multiple raids on settlements, capture and rape of female pioneers, torture killings, and trafficking in captive slaves. [16] In the late 1830s, Sam Houston negotiated a peace between Texas and the Comanches. Lamar replaced Houston as president in 1838 and reversed the Indian policies. He returned to war with the Comanches and invaded Comancheria itself. In retaliation, the Comanches attacked Texas in a series of raids. After peace talks in 1840 ended with the massacre of 34 Comanche leaders in San Antonio, the Comanches launched a major attack deep into Texas, known as the Great Raid of 1840. Under command of Potsanaquahip (Buffalo Hump), 500 to 700 Comanche cavalry warriors swept down the Guadalupe River valley, killing and plundering all the way to the shore of the Gulf of Mexico, where they sacked the towns of Victoria and Linnville. Houston became president again in 1841 and, with both Texians and Comanches exhausted by war, a new peace was established. [17]

Although Texas achieved self-government, Mexico refused to recognize its independence. [18] On March 5, 1842, a Mexican force of over 500 men, led by Ráfael Vásquez, invaded Texas for the first time since the revolution. They soon headed back to the Rio Grande after briefly occupying San Antonio. About 1,400 Mexican troops, led by the French mercenary general Adrián Woll, launched a second attack and captured San Antonio on September 11, 1842. A Texas militia retaliated at the Battle of Salado Creek while simultaneously, a mile and a half away, Mexican soldiers massacred a militia of fifty-three Texas volunteers who had surrendered after a skirmish. [19] [20] That night, the Mexican Army retreated from the city of San Antonio back to Mexico.

Mexico's attacks on Texas intensified conflicts between political factions, including an incident known as the Texas Archive War. To "protect" the Texas national archives, President Sam Houston ordered them removed from Austin. The archives were eventually returned to Austin, albeit at gunpoint. The Texas Congress admonished Houston for the incident, and this episode in Texas history solidified Austin as Texas's seat of government for the Republic and the future state. [21]

There were also domestic disturbances. The Regulator–Moderator War involved a land feud in Harrison and Shelby Counties in East Texas from 1839 to 1844. The feud eventually involved Nacogdoches, San Augustine, and other East Texas counties. Harrison County Sheriff John J. Kennedy and county judge Joseph U. Fields helped end the conflict, siding with the law-and-order party. Sam Houston ordered 500 militia to help end the feud.

Government

Sam Houston and Stephen F. Austin depicted on a 1936 US postage stamp commemorating 100th anniversary of the Texas Republic Alamo 1936 Issue-3c.jpg
Sam Houston and Stephen F. Austin depicted on a 1936 US postage stamp commemorating 100th anniversary of the Texas Republic

After gaining their independence, the Texas voters had elected a Congress of 14 senators and 29 representatives in September 1836. The Constitution allowed the first president to serve for two years and subsequent presidents for three years. To hold an office or vote, a person had to be a citizen of the Republic. [22]

However, it is important to note that citizenship was not granted to all previous inhabitants of Texas, and not all of them could even live legally within the limits of the Republic without the consent of Congress. In this regard, the Constitution of the Republic of Texas (1836) established major differences according to the ethnicity of each individual. Section 10 of the General Provisions of the constitution stated that all persons who resided in Texas on the day of the Declaration of Independence were considered citizens of the Republic, excepting "Africans, the descendants of Africans, and Indians." [23] For new white immigrants, section 6 established that, to become citizens, they needed to live in the Republic for at least six months and take an oath. While regarding the black population, section 9 established that black persons who were brought to Texas as slaves were to remain slaves, and that not even their owner could emancipate them without the consent of Congress—and the Congress was not allowed to make laws that affected the slave trade or declare emancipation. Section 9 also established that: "No free person of African descent, either in whole or in part, shall be permitted to reside permanently in the Republic, without the consent of Congress." [24]

The first Congress of the Republic of Texas convened in October 1836 at Columbia (now West Columbia). Stephen F. Austin, often referred to as the "Father of Texas," died on December 27, 1836, after serving just two months as the republic's secretary of state. Due mainly to the ongoing war for independence, five sites served as temporary capitals of Texas in 1836: (Washington-on-the-Brazos, Harrisburg, Galveston, Velasco and Columbia). The capital was moved to the new city of Houston in 1837.

In 1839, a small pioneer settlement situated on the Colorado River in central Texas was chosen as the republic's seventh and final capital. Incorporated under the name Waterloo, the town was renamed Austin shortly thereafter in honor of Stephen F. Austin.

The court system inaugurated by Congress included a Supreme Court consisting of a chief justice appointed by the president and four associate justices, elected by a joint ballot of both houses of Congress for four-year terms and eligible for re-election. The associates also presided over four judicial districts. Houston nominated James Collinsworth to be the first chief justice. The county-court system consisted of a chief justice and two associates, chosen by a majority of the justices of the peace in the county. Each county was also to have a sheriff, a coroner, justices of the peace, and constables to serve two-year terms. Congress formed 23 counties, whose boundaries generally coincided with the existing municipalities. In 1839, Texas became the first nation in the world to enact a homestead exemption, under which creditors cannot seize a person's primary residence.

Education

Lithograph done in 1892 Baylor University 1892 front.png
Lithograph done in 1892

President Anson Jones signed the charter for Baylor University in the fall of 1845. [25] Henry Lee Graves was elected Baylor's first president. It is believed to be the oldest university in Texas, however, Rutersville College was chartered in 1840 with land and the town of Rutersville. [26] Chauncey Richardson [27] was elected Rutersville's first president. The college later became Southwestern University in Georgetown, Fayette county. [28] University of Mary Hardin-Baylor was also chartered by the republic of Texas in 1845, and received lands in Belton, Texas. [29] Wesleyan College, chartered in 1844 and signed by president Sam Houston, another predecessor to Southwestern did not survive long due to competition from other colleges. [30] Mirabeau Lamar signed a charter in 1844 for the Herman University for medicine but classes never started due to lack of funds. [31] The University of San Augustine was chartered June 5th, 1837, but did not open until 1842 when Marcus A. Montrose became president. There were as many as 150 students enrolled, however attendance declined to 50 in 1845, and further situations including animosity and embittered factions in the community closed the university in 1847. [32] Later it became the University of East Texas, and soon after that became the Masonic Institute of San Augustine in 1851. Guadalupe College at Gonzales was approved January 30th, 1841, however there were no construction efforts ensued for the next eleven years. [33]

Boundaries

Mexico between 1835-1935 faced many independence movements, including Texas.
Territory which declared its independence from Mexico, 1835-1936
Territory claimed by multiple independence movements
Territory claimed by the Republic of the Rio Grande
Other Rebellions Political divisions of Mexico 1836-1845 (location map scheme).svg
Mexico between 1835-1935 faced many independence movements, including Texas.
  Territory which declared its independence from Mexico, 1835-1936
  Territory claimed by multiple independence movements
  Territory claimed by the Republic of the Rio Grande
  Other Rebellions

The Texian leaders at first intended to extend their national boundaries to the Pacific Ocean, but ultimately decided to claim the Rio Grande as boundary, including much of New Mexico, which the Republic never controlled. They also hoped, after peace was made with Mexico, to run a railroad to the Gulf of California to give "access to the East Indian, Peruvian and Chilean trade." [34] When negotiating for the possibility of annexation to the US in late 1836, the Texian government instructed its minister Wharton in Washington that if the boundary were an issue, Texas was willing to settle for a boundary at the watershed between the Nueces River and Rio Grande, and leave out New Mexico. [35] In 1840 the first and only census of the Republic of Texas was taken, recording a population of about 70,000 people. San Antonio and Houston were recorded as the largest and second largest cities respectively.[ citation needed ]

Diplomatic relations

The Hotel Bataille de Frances (now Hotel de Vendome), place Vendome in Paris, housed the Embassy of the Republic of Texas Hotel Bataille de Frances.jpg
The Hôtel Bataille de Francès (now Hôtel de Vendôme), place Vendôme in Paris, housed the Embassy of the Republic of Texas

On March 3, 1837, US President Andrew Jackson appointed Alcée La Branche American chargé d'affaires to the Republic of Texas, thus officially recognizing Texas as an independent republic. [36] France granted official recognition of Texas on September 25, 1839, appointing Alphonse Dubois de Saligny to serve as chargé d'affaires. The French Legation was built in 1841, and still stands in Austin as the oldest frame structure in the city. [37] Conversely, the Republic of Texas embassy in Paris was located in what is now the Hôtel de Vendôme, adjacent to the Place Vendôme in Paris's 2e arrondissement. [38]

The Republic also received diplomatic recognition from Belgium, the Netherlands, and the Republic of Yucatán. The United Kingdom never granted official recognition of Texas due to its own friendly relations with Mexico, but admitted Texian goods into British ports on their own terms. In London, immediately opposite the gates to St. James's Palace, Sam Houston's original Embassy of the Republic of Texas to the Court of St. James's is now a hat shop, but is clearly marked with a large plaque and a nearby restaurant is called Texas Embassy. [39] A plaque on the exterior of 3 St. James's Street in London notes the upper floors of the building (which have housed the noted wine merchant Berry Brothers and Rudd since 1698) housed the Texas Legation.

Presidents and vice presidents

Presidents and Vice Presidents of the Republic of Texas
No.PortraitPresidentTerm of OfficePartyTermPrevious OfficeVice President
Davidgburnet2.jpg David G. Burnet
April 18, 1788December 5, 1870
(aged 82)

March 16, 1836

October 22, 1836
NonpartisanInterim
Delegate to the
Convention of 1833
Lorenzo de Zavala
1 SHouston 2.jpg Sam Houston
March 2, 1793July 26, 1863
(aged 70)

October 22, 1836

December 10, 1838
Nonpartisan1
(1836)
Commander-in-Chief
of the Texian Army

(1836)
Mirabeau B. Lamar
2 Mirabeaulamar 2.jpg Mirabeau B. Lamar
August 16, 1798December 19, 1859
(aged 61)
December 10, 1838

December 13, 1841
Nonpartisan2
(1838)
1st
Vice President of the
Republic of Texas
(1836-1838)
David G. Burnet
3 SHouston 2.jpg Sam Houston
March 2, 1793July 26, 1863
(aged 70)
December 13, 1841

December 9, 1844
Nonpartisan3
(1841)
1st
President of the
Republic of Texas
(1836-1838)
Edward Burleson
4 Anson jones.png Anson Jones
January 20, 1798January 9, 1858
(aged 59)
December 9, 1844

February 19, 1846
Nonpartisan4
(1844)
11th
Secretary of State
of the Republic of Texas

(1841-1844)
Kenneth Anderson
December 9, 1844 – July 3, 1845

Statehood

On February 28, 1845, the US Congress passed a bill that authorized the United States to annex the Republic of Texas. On March 1, US President John Tyler signed the bill. The legislation set the date for annexation for December 29 of the same year. Faced with imminent American annexation of Texas, Charles Elliot and Alphonse de Saligny, the British and French ministers to Texas, were dispatched to Mexico City by their governments. Meeting with Mexico's foreign secretary, they signed a "Diplomatic Act" in which Mexico offered to recognize an independent Texas with boundaries determined with French and British mediation. Texas President Anson Jones forwarded both offers to a specially elected convention meeting at Austin, and the American proposal was accepted with only one dissenting vote. The Mexican proposal was never put to a vote. Following the previous decree of President Jones, the proposal was then put to a vote throughout the republic.

Texas statehood
100th anniversary issue of 1945 Texas Statehood 1945 Issue-3c.jpg
Texas statehood
100th anniversary issue of 1945
Proposals for Texas's north and west boundaries in 1850 debate Texas proposed boundaries.svg
Proposals for Texas's north and west boundaries in 1850 debate

On October 13, 1845, a large majority of voters in the republic approved both the American offer and the proposed constitution that specifically endorsed slavery and emigrants bringing slaves to Texas. [40] This constitution was later accepted by the US Congress, making Texas a US state on the same day annexation took effect, December 29, 1845 (therefore bypassing a territorial phase). [41] One of the motivations for annexation was the huge debts which the Republic of Texas government had incurred. As part of the Compromise of 1850, in return for $10,000,000 in Federal bonds, Texas dropped claims to territory that included parts of present-day Colorado, Kansas, Oklahoma, New Mexico, and Wyoming.

The resolution did include two unique provisions: First, it said up to four additional states could be created from Texas' territory with the consent of the State of Texas (and that new states north of the Missouri Compromise Line would be free states). Though the resolution did not make exceptions to the constitution, [42] the U.S. Constitution does not require Congressional consent to the creation of new states to be ex post to applications, nor does the U.S. Constitution require applications to expire. To illustrate the strength of the latter caveat, the 27th Amendment was submitted to the states in 1789, yet was not ratified until 1992—thus, the expressed consent of Congress, via this resolution, to the creation of new states would not expire nor require renewal. Second, Texas did not have to surrender its public lands to the federal government. While Texas did cede all territory outside of its current area to the federal government in 1850, it did not cede any public lands within its current boundaries. Consequently, the lands in Texas that the federal government owns are those it subsequently purchased. This also means the state government controls oil reserves, which it later used to fund the state's public university system through the Permanent University Fund. [43] In addition, the state's control over offshore oil reserves in Texas runs out to 3 nautical leagues (9 nautical miles, 10.357 statute miles, 16.668 km) rather than three nautical miles (3.45 statute miles, 5.56 km) as with other states. [44] [45]

See also

Notes

  1. 1 2 3 "Flags of Texas". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved June 3, 2016.
  2. Henderson (2008), p. 121.
  3. Kelly F. Himmel (1999). The Conquest of the Karankawas and the Tonkawas: 1821-1859. Texas A&M University Press. p. 93. ISBN   978-0-89096-867-3.
  4. Weber, David J. (1992), The Spanish Frontier in North America, Yale Western Americana Series, New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, p. 149, ISBN   0-300-05198-0
  5. Chipman, Donald E. (2010) [1992], Spanish Texas, 15191821 (revised ed.), Austin: University of Texas Press, p. 126, ISBN   0-292-77659-4
  6. Weber (1992), p. 198.
  7. Lewis, James E. (1998), The American Union and the Problem of Neighborhood: The United States and the Collapse of the Spanish Empire, 17831829, Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, p. 124, ISBN   0-8078-2429-1
  8. Weber (1992), p. 299.
  9. Edmondson, J.R. (2000). The Alamo Story-From History to Current Conflicts. Plano, TX: Republic of Texas Press. p. 63. ISBN   1-55622-678-0.
  10. Manchaca, Martha (2001). Recovering History, Constructing Race: The Indian, Black, and White Roots of Mexican Americans. The Joe R. and Teresa Lozano Long Series in Latin American and Latino Art and Culture. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. p. 200. ISBN   0-292-75253-9.
  11. Manchaca (2001), pp. 172, 201.
  12. Hardin, Stephen L. (1994). Texian Iliad. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. p. 12. ISBN   0-292-73086-1.
  13. Lack, Paul D. (1992). The Texas Revolutionary Experience: A Political and Social History 1835–1836. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press. pp. 86–87. ISBN   0-89096-497-1.
  14. #Fehrenbach, page 263
  15. #Fehrenbach, page 265
  16. This had also been their policy toward neighboring tribes before the arrival of the settlers. Gwinnett, S.C. Empire of the Summer Moon: Quanah Parker and the Rise and Fall of the Comanches, the Most Powerful Indian Tribe in American History. ISBN   1-4165-9106-0.
  17. Hämäläinen 2008 , pp. 215–217.
  18. Jack W. Gunn, "MEXICAN INVASIONS OF 1842," Handbook of Texas Online , accessed May 24, 2011. Published by the Texas State Historical Association.
  19. Thomas W. Cutrer, "SALADO CREEK, BATTLE OF," Handbook of Texas Online <http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/qfs01>, accessed May 24, 2011. Published by the Texas State Historical Association.
  20. "Dawson Massacre". Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved Sep.24, 2006.
  21. "The Archives War". Texas Treasures – The Republic. The Texas State Library and Archives Commission. November 2, 2005. Retrieved January 3, 2009.
  22. Davis, William C. (2006). Lone Star Rising. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press. p. 295. ISBN   978-1-58544-532-5. originally published 2004 by New York: Free Press
  23. "General Provisions - Constitution of the Republic of Texas (1836)". tarlton.law.utexas.edu. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved February 26, 2016.
  24. "General Provisions - Constitution of the Republic of Texas (1836)". tarlton.law.utexas.edu. Retrieved February 26, 2016.
  25. https://www2.baylor.edu/baylorproud/2016/02/is-baylor-the-oldest-university-in-texas/
  26. https://tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/kbr17
  27. https://tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/fri04
  28. ibid.
  29. https://go.umhb.edu/
  30. https://tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/kbw09
  31. https://tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/sfm02
  32. https://tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/kcu06
  33. https://tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/mng01
  34. George Rives, The United States and Mexico vol. 1, page 390
  35. Rives, p. 403
  36. "LA BRANCHE, ALCÉE LOUIS". Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved Apr.7, 2010.
  37. Museum Info, French Legation Museum.
  38. "PARIS 2e: The Paris Embassy of Texas". Parisdeuxieme.com. June 28, 2007. Retrieved July 10, 2013.
  39. "DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS OF THE REPUBLIC OF TEXAS".
  40. "Article VIII: Slaves - Constitution of Texas (1845) (Joining the U.S.)". Archived from the original on January 16, 2014.
  41. "The Avalon Project : Documents in Law, History and Diplomacy". Archived from the original on December 5, 2006.
  42. "Joint Resolution for Annexing Texas to the United States Approved March 1, 1845 - TSLAC".
  43. Texas Annexation : Questions and Answers, Texas State Library & Archives Commission.
  44. Overview of US Legislation and Regulations Affecting Offshore Natural Gas and Oil Activity
  45. "United States v. Louisiana :: 363 U.S. 1 (1960) :: Justia U.S. Supreme Court Center". Justia Law.

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References

Further reading